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Center (basketball)

The center known as the five position, or the big man, is one of the five positions in a basketball game. The center is the tallest player on the team, has a great deal of strength and body mass as well. In the NBA, the center is 6 feet 10 inches or taller and weighs 240 pounds or more, they traditionally have played close to the basket in the low post. Centers are valued for their ability to protect their own goal while scoring with high efficiency. In the 1950s and 1960s, George Mikan and Bill Russell were centerpieces of championship dynasties and defined early prototypical centers. With the addition of a three-point field goal for the 1979–80 season, however, NBA basketball became more perimeter-oriented and saw the importance of the center position diminished. A center with the ability to shoot outside from three-point range is known as stretch five; the center is considered a necessary component for a successful team in professional leagues such as the NBA. Great centers have been the foundation for most of the dynasties in both the NBA and NCAA.

Until the 1940s dominant centers such as Moose Krause were not extraordinary tall. The 6 ft 10 in George Mikan and the 7 ft 0 in Bob Kurland pioneered as exceptionally tall centers, shattering the held perception that tall players could not develop the agility and coordination to play basketball well, ushering in the role of the dominant big man. While Kurland never played professional basketball after his time at Oklahoma State, Mikan turned professional in 1946 after leading DePaul to the NIT title, he went on to win seven National Basketball League, Basketball Association of America and NBA Championships in his ten-year career, nine of them with the Minneapolis Lakers. Using his height to dominate opposing players, Mikan invented the shot block. In the 1960s, Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain further transformed basketball by combining height with a greater level of athleticism than previous centers. Following the retirement of George Mikan, the rivalry of the two big men came to dominate the NBA.

Between the two of them and Russell won nine of the eleven MVP awards in the eleven-year period between 1958 and 1969. Many of the records set by these two players have endured today. Most notably and Russell hold the top eighteen season averages for rebounds. Bill Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA championships, he joined the Boston Celtics and helped make them one of the greatest dynasties in NBA history, winning eleven championships over his thirteen-year career as well as five MVP awards. Russell revolutionized defensive strategy with his shot-blocking and physical man-to-man defense. While he was never the focal point of the Celtics offense, much of the team's scoring came when Russell grabbed defensive rebounds and initiated fast breaks with precision outlet passes to point guard Bob Cousy; as the NBA's first African-American superstar, Russell struggled throughout his career with the racism he encountered from fans in Boston after the 1966–67 season, when he became the first African-American in any major sport to be named player-coach.

His principal rival, Wilt Chamberlain, listed at 7'1", 275 pounds, lacked Russell's supporting cast. Chamberlain played college ball for the Kansas Jayhawks, leading them to the 1957 title game against the North Carolina Tar Heels. Although the Jayhawks lost by one point in triple overtime, Chamberlain was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player. A member of the Harlem Globetrotters before joining the Philadelphia Warriors of the NBA in 1959, Chamberlain won two Championships, in 1967 with the Philadelphia 76ers and 1972 with the Los Angeles Lakers, although his teams were defeated by the Celtics in the Eastern Conference and NBA Finals, he won seven scoring titles, eleven rebounding titles, four regular season Most Valuable Player awards, including the distinction, in 1960, of being the first rookie to receive the award. Stronger than any player of his era, he was capable of scoring and rebounding at will. Although he was the target of constant double- and triple-teaming, as well as fouling tactics designed to take advantage of his poor free-throw shooting, he set a number of records that have never been broken.

Most notably, Chamberlain is the only player in NBA history to average more than 50 points in a season and score 100 points in a single game. He holds the NBA's all-time records for rebounding average, rebounds in a single game, career rebounds. A lesser-known center of the era was Nate Thurmond, who played the forward position opposite Wilt Chamberlain for the San Francisco Warriors but moved to center after Chamberlain was traded to the new Philadelphia franchise. Although he never won a Championship, Thurmond was known as the best screen setter in the league, his averages of 21.3 and 22.0 rebounds per game in 1966–67 and 1967–68, are exceeded only by Chamberlain and Russell. In contrast to the Celtics dynasty of the 1960s, the 1970s were a decade of parity in the NBA, with eight different champions and no back-to-back winners. At the college level, the UCLA Bruins, under Coach John Wooden, built the greatest dynasty in NCAA basketball history, winning seven consecutive titles between 1967 and 1973.

UCLA had alre

Crossing Bridges (film)

Crossing Bridges is a 2013 Indian film directed by Sange Dorjee Thongdok. It is the first feature film to be made in the language of Shertukpen, an indigenous dialect native to the state Arunachal Pradesh in India; the film premiered on 27 September at the Mumbai International Film Festival in 2013. It received the National Film Award for Best Film in Shertukpen in 2013. A middle-aged man named Tashi returns to his native village in Arunachal Pradesh after losing his job; as he waits for word of any new openings in the city, the culture and history of his people begins to have a profound effect on him and force him to reconsider his life and career choices. Director Sange Dorjee's idea for the film started when he was considering the social and economic displacement of tribal peoples of India, he mentioned that "My generation has had to leave home to get better higher-education and employment outside as the north eastern region doesn’t have the required infrastructure. The huge cultural difference we faced outside was always a shock to many.

Coming back home has always been a difficult proposition, as after years of adjusting to the life outside we feel like an outsider in our own culture."Due to the film's microbudget, wholly funded by the director's father who "believed it was important for the community of Arunachal Pradesh", Dorjee decided to shoot the movie with a Canon 5D camera. He was surprised by the quality of such a standard personal use camera that he and cinematographer Pooja Gupte went ahead with it. Crossing Bridges opened to positive acclaim amongst critics. Pooja Gupte's cinematography and the theme of're-discovering home' were praised, while the films limited appeal to mass audiences but large appeal to film enthusiasts and cinephiles were noted. Suprateek Chatterjee of FirstPost praised the film's simplicity in its production and compared the film to Swades stating, "At a time when movies are pulling every trick in the book in an attempt to lure in audiences, Crossing Bridges relies on getting the basics right and transporting its audience to another world" Subhash K. Jha of Odisha Sun Times gave the film a 3/5 saying, "It’s that supreme serenity, the splendid synthesis of ambiance and mood that qualifies and absorbs our interest.

These dull lives are unique in their absolute lack of affectations." Johnson Thomas of The Free Press Journal gave a positive review and praised the cinematography stating "The cinematography by Pooja Gupte, who shot the film in Cannon 5D is breathtaking, allowing for a gradual cultural immurement in the land and its spiritual enchantment. The narrative is kept spare and economical by editor Sanglap Bhowmick, while the story-telling limits itself to being drawn on realism rather than melodrama. Needless to say, this film is a enveloping experience."Pronoti Datta of Mumbai Boss e-magazine gave the film 3/5 and stated, "The state is shown in all its picturesque glory: rolling green valleys, Buddhist monasteries, tribal dancers, phlegmatic villagers with faces weathered by the elements, fast-flowing brooks, snow-dusted trees and so on. But it’s not just pretty images. Thongdok’s quiet film in Shertukpen, a dialect spoken in the western part of Arunachal Pradesh, is about a man seduced by his own homeland, which circumstances compel him to revisit."

E-magazine India News Hub summarized the film as "an honest, return-to-roots story set against a captivating backdrop." In a positive review. BollywoodTrade an online trade magazine was much more critical of the film, giving it a 1.5/5 mentioning how the film has a little appeal to India's mass audience saying, "many of the short, interesting and visually appealing occasional glimpses are not well integrated into the main narrative. That’s why the film looks disjointed and incoherent." Anup Pandey of e-magazine W14 gave the film 3.5/5 saying, "For many such metaphors that the film is built on, Crossing Bridges is quite a revealing journey of a search for identity and to find answers to where does one belong."Siraj Syed of FilmFestival.com gave the film a 3/5 saying, "If you are to be moved to deep emotions and tears by the idea of a Mumbai-based IT professional rediscovering his remote countryside roots in North-East India, making the life-defining move of permanent homecoming, you will most feel you have a seen a minor classic."

Crossing Bridges on IMDb

Joseph Schechtman

Joseph Boris Schechtman was a writer and Revisionist political activist. He was the author of numerous books of history and works on Zionism. Schechtman was born in Odessa in the Russian Empire. While participating in the Zionist youth movement, he met Ze'ev Jabotinsky. Schechtman studied at Novorossia Imperial University in Odessa. There he established contacts with members of the Ukrainian national movement. In 1910 he published an article in the journal "Еврейский мир" in St. Petersburg, calling for Ukrainian-Jewish dialogue. In 1917, back in Odessa, he published pamphlets «Евреи и украинцы» and «Национальные движения в свободной России». In May 1917, Schechtman was elected a delegate to the Seventh All-Russian Conference of Zionists that took place in Petrograd and to the All-Russian Jewish Congress that took place in Moscow during June–July 1918. In 1918 he was elected a member of the Jewish National Council of Ukraine. In 1918-1919 he worked in Jewish National Secretariat. In 1920 Schechtman emigrated from Bolshevik Russia.

He entered Berlin University, participated in the Federation of Russian-Ukrainian Zionists. From September 1922 he co-edited weekly Russian-language "Рассвет" with Jabotinsky. Schechtman was one of the founders of the World Union of Zionists-revisionists. In 1929-1931 he was the editor of Yiddish weekly "Der Noyer Veg" in Paris. From 1931 to 1935 Schechtman was a member of the executive committee of the Zionist Organization, when both he and Jabotinsky left the ZO to co-found the New Zionist Organization. Schechtman emigrated to the United States in the summer of 1941, soon became part of the'inner circle' of the New Zionist Organization of America. In 1941-1943 he worked at YIVO. In 1943-1944 he was the director of Bureau for Study of Population Migration which he co-founded earlier. In 1944-1945 he worked as a consultant on questions of the migration of the Office of Strategic Services. Schechtman was the chairman of the Association of American Zionists-Revisionists. In 1946, New Zionist Organization self-liquidated to rejoin the WZO.

Schechtman served as a member of the executive committee of the WZO until 1970. In 1963-1965 and 1966-1968 he was a member of the executive committee of the Jewish Agency for Israel. Joseph Schechtman became a close associate and secretary to Ze'ev Jabotinsky, would write the two-volume biography of his life. Schectman wrote numerous books and articles dedicated to Jewish and world history, human migrations, population transfer and refugee issues. In years he wrote a biography of the late Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini. In his 1961 book Star in Eclipse: Russian Jewry Revisited, he provided an account of the Babi Yar tragedy. Schechtman early established his reputation as a pioneer and authority on changing population movements in the world and population transfers. Schechtman was the "first to establish basic guidelines for successful transfers and to argue persuasively that transfers should be treated as preventative measures not punitive." His work on the Palestinian refugee problem was criticised by Erskine Childers and Steven Glazer for misquoting selecting words, taking statements out of context to fit his narrative.

Walid Khalidi attributes to Schechtman the position, which Khalidi regards as groundless, that the Palestinian people fled their towns and villages in 1948 in response to Arab broadcasts advising them to do so. Schechtman was the anonymous author of two smaller works published in 1949 for which he takes credit in the introduction to his 1952 book, The Arab Refugee Problem and where, according to Khalidi, the reference to the evacuation order first appeared.. Jews in German-occupied Soviet territory. New York: Union of Russian Jews.. European population transfers, 1939-1945. New York, Oxford University Press, 1891-1970. OCLC=229926 The Elimination of German Minorities in Southeastern Europe. N.p, 1946. Print. Population Transfers in Asia. New York: Hallsby Press, Print. OCLC Number: 502265 The Arab refugee problem. New York, Philosophical Library. Minorities in the Arab world. Washington; the Vladimir Jabotinsky story. New York, T. Yoseloff. OCLC Number: 2661192 2 volumes On Wings of Eagles: The Plight and Homecoming of Oriental Jewry.

New York: T. Yoseloff, 1961. Print. OCLC Number: 1549405 ISBN 0935437185. Fighter and prophet: The Vladimir Jabotinsky story: the last years. New York: Yoseloff.. Star in eclipse: Russian Jewry revisited. New York: T. Yoseloff. Postwar Population Transfers in Europe: 1945 - 1955. Philadelphia, Pa: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1962. Print. OCLC Number: 248807362 Postwar population transfers in Europe 1945-1955 Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. OCLC Number: 16738401 The refugees in the world. New York, Barnes. OCLC Number: 487032 Fact sheet on Arab refugees. New York: Information Dept. the Jewish Agency - American Section Inc. The Mufti and the Fuehrer. New York, T. Yoseloff. OCLC Number: 721185 Zionism and Zionists in Soviet Russia: greatness and drama. Zionist Organization of America. OCLC Number: 894684 The United States and the Jewish State movement: the crucial decade, 1939-1949. New York, Herzl Press. OCLC Number: 905103 Jordan: A State That Never Was. New York: Cultural Pub. Co, 1968. Print.

Arab Terror: Blueprint for Political Murder. New York: Zionist Organization of America, 1969. Print. OCLC Number: 296914