United Nations Security Council Resolution 1182
The Security Council noted that MINURCA was fully deployed in the Central African Republic. It stressed the importance of creating a stable and secure environment in order to free and fair elections. The authorities in the country had to take steps towards implementing political, social, the resolution called upon the Government of the Central African Republic to adopt plans to restructure its army and organise elections. The support of the community was essential in this process. It was recognised that MINURCA could conduct reconnaissance missions outside the capital Bangui, the Secretary-General Kofi Annan was asked to submit a report by 25 September 1998 on the implementation of the mandate of MINURCA and on the implementation of the Bangui Agreements. History of the Central African Republic List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1101 to 1200 Text of the Resolution at undocs. org
The Wadai Empire or Sultanate was a kingdom located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad and in the Central African Republic. It emerged in the century as an offshoot of the Sultanate of Darfur to the northeast of the Kingdom of Baguirmi. In 1635, the Maba and other groups in the region rallied to the Islamic banner of Abd al-Karim. Abd al-Karim became the first Kolak or Sultan of a dynasty that lasted until the arrival of the French, during much of the 18th century, Wadai resisted reïncorporation into Darfur. After 1804, during the reign of Muhammad Sabun, the sultanate of Wadai began to expand its power as it profited considerably from its position astride the trans-Saharan trade routes. A new trade route to the north was found, via Ennedi and Jalu-Awjila to Benghazi and he began minting his own coinage and imported chain mail and military advisers from North Africa. Sabuns successors were less able than he, and Darfur took advantage of a disputed succession in 1838 to put its own candidate in power in Ouara.
This tactic backfired, when Darfurs choice, Muhammad Sharif, rejected Darfurs meddling, in doing so, he gained acceptance from Wadais various factions and went on to become Wadais ablest ruler. Sharif conducted military campaigns as far west as Bornu and eventually established Wadais hegemony over Baguirmi, Sultan Dud Murra of Wadai opposed French domination until being overcome on June 6,1909, with the occupation of the capital Abéché by French troops where a puppet sultan was installed. Resistance continued until the last independent sultan was captured in 1912 bringing the sultanate to an end and it became part of the independent Republic of Chad on that countrys independence in 1960. The Ouaddaï Region of modern Chad covers part of the area of the old kingdom, rulers of the Wadai Kingdom This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http, //lcweb2. loc. gov/frd/cs/
Chad was a part of the French colonial empire from 1900 to 1960. Colonial rule under the French began in 1900 when the Military Territory of Chad was established, from 1905, Chad was linked to the federation of French colonial possessions in Middle Africa, known from 1910 under the name of French Equatorial Africa. Chad passed in 1920 to French civilian administration, but suffered from chronic neglect, Chad distinguished itself in 1940 for being, under the governorship of Félix Éboué, the first French colony to rally by the side of Free France. It was eventually the PPT which emerged victorious and brought the country to independence in 1960 under the leadership of François Tombalbaye, European interest in Africa generally grew during the 19th century. By 1887, motivated by the search for wealth, had driven inland from its settlements on central Africas west coast to claim the territory of Oubangui-Chari. It claimed this area as a zone of French influence, after years of indecisive engagements, French forces finally defeated Rabih az-Zubayr at the Battle of Kousséri in 1900.
Two fundamental themes dominated Chads colonial experience with the French, an absence of policies designed to unify the territory, the French came to perceive Chad primarily as a source of raw cotton and untrained labour to be used in the more productive colonies to the south. Within Chad there was neither the nor the resources to do much more than maintain a semblance of law. In fact, even this function of governance was often neglected, throughout the colonial period. Chad was linked in 1905 with three French colonies to the south—Oubangui-Chari, Middle Congo, and Gabon, but Chad did not receive separate colony status or a unified administrative policy until 1920. The four colonies were administered together as French Equatorial Africa under the direction of a governor general stationed in Brazzaville, lieutenant governors, appointed by the French government, were expected to implement in each colony the orders of the governor general. The central administration in Brazzaville tightly controlled the lieutenant governors despite reformist efforts toward decentralisation between 1910 and 1946, Chads lieutenant governor had greater autonomy because of the distance from Brazzaville and because of Frances much greater interest in the other three colonies.
As for the number of deployed in the country, there were three battalions for a total of about 3.000 soldiers. The lines of control from Brazzaville, feeble as they may have been, were stronger than those from NDjamena to its hinterland. In central Chad, French rule was slightly more substantive. In Ouaddaï and Biltine prefectures, endemic resistance continued against the French and, in cases, against any authority that attempted to suppress banditry. The thinly staffed colonial administration provided only weak supervision over arid Kanem Prefecture, old-fashioned razzias continued in the 1920s, and it was reported in 1923 that a group of Senegalese Muslims on their way to Mecca had been seized and sold into slavery. Unwilling to expend the resources required for administration, the French government responded with sporadic coercion
Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority that is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies, in contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of states authority derives from and is legally bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature. Some monarchies have weak or symbolic legislatures and other bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where a monarch still maintains absolute power are Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia, the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, Swaziland, in Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well, in ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Satahavana and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs.
In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called Devaraja and Chakravartin, in Kingdom of Siam, the kings were esestablished Somburanaya-sittiraj. Throughout Chinese history, many emperors and one empress wielded absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven, in pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by a Sapa Inca, who was considered the son of Inti, the sun god and absolute ruler over the people and nation. Throughout much of European history, the right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by right. James VI of Scotland and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle, there is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, a widely held story about Louis XIV of France is that he proclaimed Létat, cest moi.
What Louis did say was, The interests of the state come first, when one gives these priority, one labors for ones own good. These advantages to the state redounds to ones glory, although often criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, and some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More recently, revisionist historians have questioned whether Louis reign should be considered absolute, the King of France concentrated in his person legislative and judicial powers. He was the judicial authority. He could condemn men to death without the right of appeal and it was both his duty to punish offenses and stop them from being committed. From his judicial authority followed his power both to make laws and to annul them and this law consequently authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm and his actions largely originated the militaristic streak of the Hohenzollern
Central African Republic
The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in Central Africa. The CAR covers a area of about 620,000 square kilometres and had an estimated population of around 4.7 million as of 2014. Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin, while the third lies in the basin of the Chari. Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. As of 2015, according to the Human Development Index, the country had the lowest level of human development and this Agricultural Revolution, combined with a Fish-stew Revolution, in which fishing began to take place, and the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were often moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the regions inhabitants, the Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the very late Neolithic Era.
Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. Bananas arrived in the region and added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet, production of copper, dried fish, and textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region. During the 16th and 17th centuries slave traders began to raid the region as part of the expansion of the Saharan, in the mid 19th century, the Bobangi people became major slave traders and sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast. During the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi River, in 1875 the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR. The European penetration of Central African territory began in the late 19th century during the Scramble for Africa, primarily the French and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885.
France created Ubangi-Shari territory in 1894, in 1911 at the Treaty of Fez, France ceded a nearly 300,000 km² portion of the Sangha and Lobaye basins to the German Empire which ceded a smaller area to France. After World War I France again annexed the territory, in 1920 French Equatorial Africa was established and Ubangi-Shari was administered from Brazzaville. The concessionary companies forced local people to harvest rubber, between 1890, a year after the French first arrived, and 1940, about half of the population died as a result. New forms of forced labor were introduced and a number of Ubangians were sent to work on the Congo-Ocean Railway. Many of these laborers died of exhaustion, illness, or the poor conditions which claimed between 20% and 25% of the 127,000 workers. In 1928, an insurrection, the Kongo-Wara rebellion or war of the hoe handle, broke out in Western Ubangi-Shari
History of the Central African Republic
The history of the Central African Republic is roughly composed of four distinct periods. The earliest period of settlement began around 10,000 years ago when people first began to settle, farm. The next period began around 1,000 to 3,000 years ago when several groups began to migrate into the region from other parts of the continent. The third period involved the colonial conquest and rule of the country by France, the final period has been the era during which Central African Republic been an independent state. Initial farming of white yam progressed into millet and sorghum, and later the domestication of African oil palm improved the groups nutrition, bananas arrived in the region and added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet, they were used in the production of alcohol. This Agricultural Revolution, combined with a Fish-stew Revolution, in fishing began to take place. Products were often moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the regions inhabitants, the Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the very late Neolithic Era.
Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. Production of copper, dried fish, and textiles dominated the trade in the Central African region. The Bobangi people became major slave traders and sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast, during the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi river. Population migration in the 18th and 19th centuries brought new migrants into the area, including the Zande, Banda, in 1875 the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR. Europeans, primarily the French and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885, the French consolidated their legal claim to the area through an 1887 convention with Congo Free State, which granted France possession of the right bank of the Oubangui River. Two years later, the French established an outpost at Bangui, the next thirty years were marked by mostly small scale revolts against French rule and the development of a plantation-style economy.
The largest of these revolts was the Kongo-Wara rebellion, when over 350,000 natives rebelled against the colonial administration, the European penetration of Central African territory began in the late 19th century during the Scramble for Africa. Count Savorgnan de Brazza established the French Congo and sent expeditions up the Ubangi River from Brazzaville in an effort to expand Frances claims to territory in Central Africa, belgium and the United Kingdom competed to establish their claims to territory in the region. In 1889, the French established a post on the Ubangi River at Bangui, in 1894, the French Congos borders with Leopold II of Belgiums Congo Free State and German Cameroon were fixed by diplomatic agreements. In 1899, the French Congos border with Sudan was fixed along the Congo-Nile divide and this situation left France without her much coveted outlet on the Nile. Once European negotiators had agreed upon the borders of the French Congo, France had to decide how to pay for the occupation, administration
Flag of the Central African Republic
The national flag of the Central African Republic was officially adopted in 1958. The design consists of four horizontal stripes and one vertical stripe, the colours chosen are intended to be symbolic of France and Africa with the red vertical stripe connecting them both in unity, and the respect that Europeans and Africans should have for each other. The yellow star is intended to be indicative of independence, the flag of the Central African Republic was adopted by the Legislative Assembly on 1 December 1958. The red stripe which crosses the four colours is the symbol of our blood, as we did it when France was in danger, we shall shed our blood for Africa and to protect the Central African Republic, member of the French Community. President Jean-Bédel Bokassa considered the replacement of the flag in 1976, the proposal was to change the flag entirely in order to feature a crescent and star prominently. However, the proposal was short lived as several months the Central African Empire was created under Bokassa, on 4 December that year, a Constitution described both the emblem for the Emperors personal use and the existing flag was re-used as that of the Empire.
Central African Republic at Flags of the World
Arab slave trade
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, Southeast Africa, the Horn of Africa and Europe. This barter occurred chiefly between the era and the early 21st century. The trade was conducted through slave markets in areas, with the slaves captured mostly from Africas interior. These traders captured Bantu peoples from the interior in present-day Kenya and Tanzania, the slaves gradually assimilated in the rural areas, particularly on the Unguja and Pemba islands. The captives were sold throughout the Middle East and this trade accelerated as superior ships led to more trade and greater demand for labour on plantations in the region. Eventually, tens of thousands of captives were being taken every year, the Indian Ocean slave trade was multi-directional and changed over time. Slave labor in East Africa was drawn from the Zanj, Bantu peoples that lived along the East African coast, the Zanj were for centuries shipped as slaves by Arab traders to all the countries bordering the Indian Ocean.
The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs recruited many Zanj slaves as soldiers and, as early as 696 and it grew to involve over 500,000 slaves and free men who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq. The Zanj who were taken as slaves to the Middle East were often used in agricultural work. As the plantation economy boomed and the Arabs became richer, the resulting labor shortage led to an increased slave market. To 5°S. to which the name was applied, wealthy proprietors had received extensive grants of tidal land on the condition that they would make it arable. Sugar cane was prominent among the products of their plantations, particularly in Khūzestān Province, Zanj worked the salt mines of Mesopotamia, especially around Basra. Their jobs were to clear away the topsoil that made the land arable. The working conditions were considered to be extremely harsh and miserable. Many other people were imported into the region, besides Zanj, historian M. A.
Shaban has argued that rebellion was not a slave revolt, but a revolt of blacks. In his opinion, although a few runaway slaves did join the revolt, if the revolt had been led by slaves, they would have lacked the necessary resources to combat the Abbasid government for as long as they did. These slaves were captured mainly from seaside villages from Italy, Spain and more distant places like France or England. They were taken from ships stopped by the pirates, the effects of these attacks were devastating, France and Spain each lost thousands of ships
Decolonisation of Africa
The Decolonisation of Africa followed World War II, when colonised people agitated for independence and colonial powers withdrew their administrators from Africa. During the Scramble for Africa in the nineteenth century, Western European powers divided Africa. By 1905, control of almost all African soil was claimed by Western European governments and France had the largest holdings, but Germany, Italy and Portugal had colonies. As a result of colonialism and imperialism, a majority of Africa lost sovereignty and control of resources such as gold. The introduction of imperial polices surfacing around local economies into cheap labor, exploitation of resources, following the concept of Rudyard Kiplings poem The White Mans Burden, some Europeans who benefited from colonisation felt that colonialism was needed to civilise Africans. On February 12,1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the result was the Atlantic Charter. It was not a treaty and was not submitted to the British Parliament or the Senate of the United States for ratification, one of the provisions, introduced by Roosevelt, was the autonomy of imperial colonies.
After World War II, the US and the African colonies put pressure on Britain to abide by the terms of the Atlantic Charter, after the war, some British considered African colonies to be childish and immature, British colonisers introduced democratic government at local levels in the colonies. By the 1930s, the powers had cultivated, sometimes inadvertently. In some cases where the road to independence was fought, settled arrangements with the powers were being placed. One of the leaders Nkrumah strived towards independence and pan Africanism, under British colonization and influence from indigenous elites Nkrumah endured innumerable amount of challenges towards full liberation. In 1947 the elites established United Gold Coast Convention with the influence of British government, through the UGCC, Nkrumah revealed his opposition towards the British by setting up newspapers and youth organizations in order to gain support from the community. After verbal and political attack from the UGCC, Nkrumah created his own movement known as the Convention Peoples Party, through his nonviolent movement and his legislative victory in 1951, the British soon realized that Nkrumah will continue to fight towards full decolonization.
Through the issues of neocolonialism, the United States suggest for Ghana, in 1972, Nkrumah died of cancer and his plot towards Ghanas full independence withered away as well during his passing. This table is the arranged by the earliest date of independence in this graph,58 countries have seceded, the end of empire in French West Africa, Frances successful decolonization. Decolonization and African society, The labor question in French and British Africa, the Story of Nigeria Faber and Faber, London,1978 Dávila, Jerry. Hotel Tropico and the challenge of African Decolonization, 1950–1980, ISBN 978-0822348559 Gordon, April A. and Donald L. Gordon, Lynne Riener. The Routledge companion to decolonization, comprehensive coverage, 365pp*Kevin Shillington History of Africa St. Martins Press, New York,1995 Khapoya