Geography of Turkey
Turkey is situated in Anatolia and the Balkans, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. The geographic coordinates of the country lie at: 39°00′N 35°00′E The area of Turkey is 783,562 km2. Turkey extends more than 1,600 km from west to east but less than 800 km from north to south; the total area consists of about 756,816 km2 in Western Asia and about 23,764 km2 in Southeastern Europe. Anatolia is a large rectangular peninsula, situated In Asia; the Anatolian part of Turkey accounts for 95% of the country's area. It is known as Asia Minor, Asiatic Turkey or the Anatolian Plateau; the term Anatolia is most used in specific reference to the large, semiarid central plateau, rimmed by hills and mountains that in many places limit access to the fertile, densely settled coastal regions. The European portion of Turkey, known as Thrace, encompasses 3% of the total area but is home to more than 10% of the total population.
Istanbul, the largest city of Thrace and Turkey, has a population of 11,372,613. Thrace is separated from Anatolia by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles. Mount Ararat, Turkey's tallest mountain with an elevation of 5,137 m, is the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark and is located in the far eastern portion of the country. Land boundaries: 2,627 km border countries: Greece 206 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Armenia 268 km, Nakhchivan 9 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km. Coastline: 7,200 km Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: in the Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR territorial sea: 6 nmi in the Aegean Sea, its demarcated land frontiers were settled by treaty early in the twentieth century and have since remained stable. The boundary with Greece was confirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne, which resolved persistent boundary and territorial claims involving areas in Thrace and provided for a population exchange. Under the agreement, most members of the sizable Greek-speaking community of western Turkey were forced to resettle in Greece, while the majority of the Turkish-speaking residents of Thrace who were not forced out during the Balkan wars were removed to Turkey.
The boundary with Bulgaria was confirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne. Since 1991 the more than 500 km boundary with the former Soviet Union, defined in the 1921 Treaty of Moscow and Treaty of Kars, has formed Turkey's borders with the independent countries of Armenia and Georgia; the boundary with Iran was confirmed by the Treaty of Kasr-ı Şirin in 1639. The boundary with Iraq was confirmed by the Treaty of Angora in 1926. Turkey's two southern neighbors and Syria, had been part of the Ottoman Empire up to 1918. According to the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey ceded all its claims to these two countries, organized as League of Nations mandates under the governing responsibility of Britain and France, respectively. Turkey and Britain agreed the boundary in the Treaty of Angora. Turkey's boundary with Syria has not been accepted by Syria; as a result of the Treaty of Lausanne, the former Ottoman Sanjak of Alexandretta was ceded to the French which administered it on behalf of the League of Nations.
However, in June 1939 the people of Hatay had formed a new independent State and after, the parliament voted to unite with Turkey. Since achieving independence in 1946, Syria has harbored a lingering resentment and this issue has continued to be an irritant in Syrian-Turkish relations; the 1st Geography Congress, held in Ankara City between 6–21 June 1941, divided Turkey into seven regions after long discussions and work. These geographical regions were separated according to their climate, location and fauna, human habitat, agricultural diversities, topography, etc. At the end, 4 coastal regions and 3 inner regions were named according to their proximity to the four seas surrounding Turkey, their positions in Anatolia. Distinct contrasts between the interior and the coastal areas of Turkey are manifested in landform regions, climate and vegetation; the coastal areas are divided into the Black Sea region, the Marmara region, the Aegean region, the Mediterranean region. The interior areas are divided into three regions: Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Southeastern Anatolia.
The Black Sea region has a steep, rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges. A few larger rivers, those cutting back through the Pontic Mountains, have tributaries that flow in broad, elevated basins. Access inland from the coast is limited to a few narrow valleys because mountain ridges, with elevations of 1,525 to 1,800 meters in the west and 3,000 to 4,000 meters in the east in Kaçkar Mountains, form an unbroken wall separating the coast from the interio
Karaman Province is a province of south-central Turkey. It has an area of 9,163 km2, it has a population of 232,633. According to the 2000 census the population was 243,210. Population density is 27.54 people/km2. The traffic code is 70; the capital is the city of Karaman. Karaman was the location of the Karamanid emirate, which came to an end in 1486. Karaman province is divided into 6 districts: Ayrancı Başyayla Ermenek Karaman Kazımkarabekir Sarıveliler Yeşildere Sudurağı Akçaşehir Taşkale Binbirkilise, a region around Karadağ Mountain 30 km north of Karaman with Byzantine church ruins Görmeli, a village on the hillside of the Taurus Mountains near Ermenek Karadağ Mountain, an extinct volcano north of Karaman city List of populated places in Karaman Province Karaman governor's official website Political map of Karaman province Karaman municipality's official website Karaman weather forecast information Karaman Eyalet
Afyonkarahisar Province called more Afyon Province, is a province in western Turkey. Adjacent provinces are Kütahya to the northwest, Uşak to the west, Denizli to the southwest, Burdur to the south, Isparta to the southeast, Konya to the east, Eskişehir to the north; the provincial capital is Afyonkarahisar. It covers an area of 14.230 km², the population is about 706.371. Afyonkarahisar province is divided into 18 districts: Afyonkarahisar Başmakçı Bayat Bolvadin Çay Çobanlar Dazkırı Dinar Emirdağ Evciler Hocalar İhsaniye İscehisar Kızılören Sandıklı Sinanpaşa Sultandağı Şuhut Media related to Afyonkarahisar Province at Wikimedia Commons Afyonkarahisar governor's official website Afyonkarahisar municipality's official website Pictures of the capital of Afyonkarahisar province. With old Fortress of Opium, nice old centre. Https://web.archive.org/web/20060622072815/http://www.turkeyforecast.com/weather/afyon/
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions. These forests are richest and most distinctive in central China and eastern North America, with some other globally distinctive ecoregions in the Caucasus, the Himalayas, southern Europe, the Russian Far East; the typical structure of these forests includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 30 to 61 m high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory, 9 to 15 m shorter than the canopy; the top layer of the understory is the sub-canopy composed of smaller mature trees and suppressed juvenile canopy layer trees awaiting an opening in the canopy. Below the sub-canopy is the shrub layer, composed of low growing woody plants; the lowest growing layer is the ground cover or herbaceous layer. In the Northern hemisphere, characteristic dominant broadleaf trees in this biome include oaks, maples, or birches.
The term "mixed forest" comes from the inclusion of coniferous trees as a canopy component of some of these forests. Typical coniferous trees include: Pines and spruces. In some areas of this biome the conifers may be a more important canopy species than the broadleaf species. In the Southern hemisphere, endemic genera such as Nothofagus and Eucalyptus occupy this biome. Furthermore, in the southern hemisphere, most coniferous trees occur in mixtures with broadleaf species, are classed as broadleaf and mixed forests. Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests occur in areas with a distinct warm and cool season, which give it a moderate annual average temperature — 3 to 15.6 °C. These forests occur in warm and rainy climates, sometimes with a distinct dry season. A dry season occurs in the winter in East Asia and in summer on the wet fringe of the Mediterranean climate zones. Other areas, as in the central and upper eastern United States and southeastern Canada, have a even distribution of rainfall.
Temperatures are moderate except in parts of Asia such as Ussuriland where temperate forests can occur despite harsh conditions with cold winters. Kuchler plant association system Mediterranean forests and scrub Temperate deciduous forest Trees of the world World Wildlife Fund−WWF Biomes: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome Temperate forest Bioimages.vanderbilt.edu: Index of North American Temperate Broadleaf & Mixed Forests ecoregions Terraformers Canadian Forest Conservation Foundation
Kırıkkale Province is a province of Turkey. It is located on the crossroads of major highways east of Ankara leading east to the Black Sea region. With its rapid population growth it has become an industrial center; the provincial capital is Kırıkkale. Kırıkkale is a growing town in central Turkey, on the Ankara-Kayseri railway near the Kızılırmak River. A village, it owes its rapid rise in population to the establishment of steel mills in the 1950s; these works, among the largest in the country, specialize in machinery. In the 1960s chemical plants were added. Kırıkkale province is divided into 9 districts: Bahşılı Balışeyh Çelebi Delice Karakeçili Keskin Kırıkkale Sulakyurt Yahşihan List of populated places in Kırıkkale Province Kırıkkale governor's official website Kırıkkale municipality's official website Kırıkkale weather forecast information
Continental climates have a significant annual variation in temperature. They tend to occur in the middle latitudes, where prevailing winds blow overland, temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China and southeastern Europe and southeastern Canada, the central and upper eastern United States have this type of climate. In continental climates, precipitation tends to be moderate in amount, concentrated in the warmer months. Only a few areas—in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest of North America and in Iran, northern Iraq, adjacent Turkey, Afghanistan and Central Asia—show a winter maximum in precipitation. A portion of the annual precipitation falls as snowfall, snow remains on the ground for more than a month. Summers in continental climates can feature frequent hot temperatures.
The timing of intermediate spring-like or autumn-like temperatures in this zone vary depending on latitude and/or elevation. For example, spring may arrive as soon as early March in the southern parts of this zone or as late as May in the north. Annual precipitation in this zone is between 600 millimetres and 1,200 millimetres, most of it in the form of snow during winter, it has cold winters and warm summers. Most such areas fit Dwb. Dry summer continental climates exist in high altitude areas near Mediterranean climates. In some cases, the semi-arid climate classification of BSk can be considered to be continental as long as it has cold winters; the definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C. Continental climates exist where cold air masses infiltrate during the winter and warm air masses form in summer under conditions of high sun and long days.
Places with continental climates are as a rule are either far from any moderating effect of oceans or are so situated that prevailing winds tend to head offshore. Such regions get quite warm in the summer, achieving temperatures characteristic of tropical climates but are colder than any other climates of similar latitude in the winter. In the Koppen climate system, these climates grade off toward temperate climates equator-ward where winters are less severe and semi-arid climates where precipitation becomes inadequate for tall-grass prairies. In Europe these climates may grade off into oceanic climates in which the influence of cool oceanic air masses is more marked toward the west; the subarctic climate, with cold and dry winters, but with at least one month above 10 °C, might be considered a sub-type of the continental climate. Canada: throughout much of Southern Canada from the Rocky Mountains to Atlantic Canada. Major cities: Whistler. Marie. While there are no major cities in South America that fall in to the classification of a continental climate, there are some remote places that have this climate.
Due to the influence of the Ocean, including cities such as Punta Arenas and Ushuaia, have an average winter temperature above 0°C, so are classified as an oceanic climate. Argentina: Moderately high elevations in the central Andes west of Mendoza, Argentina towards the Argentine Patagonia's internal areas (e.g.
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Mediterranean forests and scrub is a biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. The biome is characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform. Summers are hot in low-lying inland locations but can be cool near colder seas. Winters are mild to cool in low-lying locations but can be cold in inland and higher locations. All these ecoregions are distinctive, collectively harboring 10% of the Earth's plant species; the Mediterranean forests and scrub biome occurs in, but not limited to, the Mediterranean climate zones, in the mid-latitudes: the Mediterranean Basin the Chilean Matorral the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of California and the Baja California Peninsula the Western Cape of South Africa the sclerophyll forests in Australia, which are predominantly found in the southwest and southeast Australia Vegetation types range from forests to woodlands, savannas and grasslands. Much of the woody vegetation in Mediterranean-climate regions is sclerophyll, which means'hard-leaved' in Greek.
Sclerophyll vegetation has small, dark leaves covered with a waxy outer layer to retain moisture in the dry summer months. Phytogeographers consider the fynbos as a separate floral kingdom because 68% of the 8,600 vascular plant species crowded into its 90,000 square kilometres are endemic and distinctive at several taxonomic levels; this is equivalent to about 40% of the plant species of the United States and Canada combined, found within an area the size of the state of Maine. The fynbos and Southwest Australia shrublands have flora that are more diverse than the other ecoregions, although any Mediterranean shrubland is still rich in species and endemics relative to other non-forest ecoregions. Major plant communities in this biome include: Forest: Mediterranean forests are composed of broadleaf trees, such as the oak and mixed sclerophyll forests of California and the Mediterranean region, the Eucalyptus forests of Southwest Australia, the Nothofagus forests of central Chile. Forests are found in riparian areas, where they receive more summer water.
Coniferous forests occur around the Mediterranean. Pine and deciduous oak forest are widespread across California. Woodland: Oak woodlands are characteristic of the Mediterranean Basin and in California. Pine woodlands are present in the Mediterranean Basin. California additionally has walnut woodlands. Savanna and grassland: The California Central Valley grasslands are the largest Mediterranean grassland eco-region, although these grasslands have been converted to agriculture; the remaining woodlands feature oak and pine. The cork oak savanna in Portugal, known as montado, is a good example of a mediterranean savanna. Shrubland: Shrublands are dense thickets of evergreen sclerophyll shrubs and small trees, they are most common near the seacoast, are adapted to wind and salt air from the ocean. They are called chaparral, matorral in Chile and southern Spain, garrigue or maquis in France, macchia or gariga in Italy, phrygana in Greece, tomillares in Spain and strandveld in South Africa, kwongan in Southwest Australia and batha in Israel.
Northern coastal scrub and coastal sage scrub known as soft chaparral, occur near the California coast. In some places shrublands are of the mature vegetation type, in other places are the result of degradation of former forest or woodland by logging or overgrazing, or disturbance by major fires. Fire, both natural and human-caused, has played a large role in shaping the ecology of Mediterranean ecoregions; the hot, dry summers make much of the region prone to fires, lightning-caused fires occur with some frequency. Many of the plants are pyrophytes, or fire-loving, adapted or depending on fire for reproduction, recycling of nutrients, the removal of dead or senescent vegetation. In both the Australian and Californian Mediterranean-climate eco-regions, native peoples used fire extensively to clear brush and trees, making way for the grasses and herbaceous vegetation that supported game animals and useful plants; the plant communities in these areas adapted to the frequent human-caused fires, pyrophyte species grew more common and more fire-loving, while plants that were poorly adapted to fire retreated.
After European colonization of these regions, fires were suppressed, which has caused some unintended consequences in these ecoregions. The European shrublands have been shaped by anthropogenic fire associated with transhumance herding of sheep and goats. Mediterranean ecoregions are some of the vulnerable on the planet; as such, many have suffered tremendous degradation and habitat loss through logging, conversion to agriculture, fire suppression, introduction of exotic and invasive species. The ecoregions around the Mediterranean basin and in California have been affected by degradation due to human activity, suffering extensive loss of forests and soil erosion, many native plants and animals have become extinct or endangered. Forest Sciences Centre of Catalonia Food and Agriculture Organization Media related to Mediterranean forests, woodlan