Chernozem is a black-colored soil containing a high percentage of humus and high percentages of phosphoric acids and ammonia. Chernozem is fertile and can produce high agricultural yields with its high moisture storage capacity. Chernozems are a Reference Soil Group of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources; the name comes from the Russian terms for soil, earth or land. The soil, rich in organic matter presenting a black color, was first identified by Russian geologist Vasily Dokuchaev in 1883 in the tallgrass steppe or prairie of European Russia. Chernozems cover about 230 million hectares of land. There are two "chernozem belts" in the world. One is the Eurasian steppe which extends from eastern Croatia, along the Danube to northeast Ukraine across the Central Black Earth Region of Central Russia, southern Russia into Siberia; the other stretches from the Canadian Prairies in Manitoba through the Great Plains of the US as far south as Kansas. Similar soil types occur in Hungary. Chernozem layer thickness may vary from several centimetres up to 1.5 metres in Ukraine, as well as the Red River Valley region in the Northern US and Canada.
The terrain can be found in small quantities elsewhere. It exists in Northeast China, near Harbin; the only true Chernozem in Australia is located around Nimmitabel, with some of the richest soils in the nation. There is a large black market for the soil in Ukraine; the sale of agricultural land has been illegal in Ukraine since 1992, but the soil, transported by truck, has US$900 million annually in black market sales. Chernozemic soils are a soil type in the Canadian system of soil classification and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Theories of Chernozem origin: 1761 — Johan Gottschalk Wallerius 1763 — Mikhail Lomonosov 1799 — Peter Simon Pallas 1835 — Charles Lyell 1840 — Sir Roderick Murchison 1850 — Karl Eichwald 1851 — А. Petzgold 1852 — Nikifor Borisyak 1853 — Vangengeim von Qualen 1862 — Rudolf Ludwig 1866 — Franz Josef Ruprecht 1879 — First chernozem papers translated from Russian 1883 — Vasily Dokuchaev published his book Russian Chernozem with a complete study of this soil in European Russia.
1929 — Otto Schlüter 1999 — Michael W. I Schmidt Dark earth Terra preta profile photos WRB homepage profile photos IUSS World of Soils IUSS Working Group WRB: World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, Update 2015. World Soil Resources Reports 106, FAO, Rome 2015. ISBN 978-92-5-108369-7; the dictionary definition of chernozem at Wiktionary
Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin was a Russian landscape painter associated with the Peredvizhniki movement. Shishkin was graduated from the Kazan gymnasium, he studied at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture for four years. After that, he attended the Saint Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts from 1856 to 1860 and graduated with the highest honours and a gold medal, he received the imperial scholarship for his further studies in Europe. Five years Shishkin became a member of the Imperial Academy in St. Petersburg and was professor of painting from 1873 to 1898. At the same time, Shishkin headed the landscape painting class at the Highest Art School in St. Petersburg. For some time, Shishkin lived and worked in Switzerland and Germany on scholarship from the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts. On his return to Saint Petersburg, he became a member of the Circle of the Itinerants and of the Society of Russian Watercolorists, he took part in exhibitions at the Academy of Arts, the All-Russian Exhibition in Moscow, the Nizhniy Novgorod, the World Fairs.
Shishkin's painting method was based on analytical studies of nature. He became famous for his forest landscapes and was an outstanding draftsman and a printmaker. Ivan Shishkin owned a dacha in Vyra, south from St. Petersburg. There he painted some of his finest landscapes, his works are notable for poetic depiction of seasons in the woods, wild nature and birds. In 1891, he was appointed professor-director of the landscape class in the Academy's Advanced Art School. In 1898, he completed his painting The Pine Grove and died on 20 March in St. Petersburg, while working on his new painting. A minor planet 3558 Shishkin, discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Zhuravlyova in 1978, is named after him. С. Н. Кондаков. Юбилейный справочник Императорской Академии художеств. 1764-1914. 2. P. 224. Ivan Shishkin at Tanais Gallery Ivan Shishkin. Morning in a Pine Forest. Description of the picture. Ivan Shishkin. Mast-Tree Grove. Description of the picture. Ivan Shishkin. Rye. Description of the picture. Works Ivan Shishkin Memorial House Museum, Russia
In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld; the prairie of North America is an example of a steppe, though it is not called such. A steppe may be semi-arid or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude; the term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is of chernozem type. Steppes are characterized by a semi-arid or continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C and in winter, −55 °C. Besides this huge difference between summer and winter, the differences between day and night are very great. In both the highlands of Mongolia and northern Nevada, 30 °C can be reached during the day with sub-zero °C readings at night; the mid-latitude steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 250–510 mm of precipitation per year.
Precipitation level alone is not. Two types of steppe can be recorded: Temperate steppe: the "true" steppe, found in continental areas of the world; the Eurasian Grass-Steppe of the temperate grasslands and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse, the wheel, the Indo-European languages. The Indo-European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe led to, e.g. the rise of Mycenaean Greece by amalgamation of Indo-Europeans with the autochthonous pre-Greek population and its destruction during the Dorian invasion in the Late Bronze Age collapse, followed by the demise of the Achaeans, the spread of the Sea Peoples, the rise of Archaic and Classical Greece. The world's largest steppe region referred to as "the Great Steppe", is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, neighbouring countries stretching from Ukraine in the west through Russia, China and Uzbekistan to the Altai, Koppet Dag and Tian Shan ranges; the inner parts of Anatolia in Turkey, Central Anatolia and East Anatolia in particular and some parts of Southeast Anatolia, as well as much of Armenia and Iran are dominated by cold steppe.
The Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in eastern Europe Hungary. Another large steppe area is located in the central United States, western Canada and northern part of Mexico; the shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region. The Channeled Scablands in Southern British Columbia and Washington State is an example of a steppe region in North America outside of the Great Plains. In South America, cold steppe can be found in Patagonia and much of the high elevation regions east of the southern Andes. Small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand. In Europe, some Mediterranean areas have a steppe-like vegetation, such as central Sicily in Italy, southern Portugal, parts of Greece in the southern Athens area, central-eastern Spain the southeastern coast, places cut off from adequate moisture due to rain shadow effects such as Zaragoza. In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent and the Badia of the Arabian peninsula.
In Australia, "subtropical steppe" can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges. In North America this environment is typical of transition areas between zones with a Mediterranean climate and true deserts, such as Reno, the inner part of California, much of western Texas and adjacent areas in Mexico. Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds by Manuel B. Morales, Santi Mañosa, Jordi Camprodón, Gerard Bota. International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of steppe-land birds. Lleida, Spain. December 2004. ISBN 84-87334-99-7 "The Steppes". Barramedasoft.com.ar. 1998–2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04
Kursk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Kursk. Population: 1,127,081; the oblast occupies the southern slopes of the middle-Russian plateau, its average elevation is 177–225 meters. The surface is intersected by ravines; the central part of Kursk oblast is more elevated than the Seym Valley to the west. The Timsko-Shchigrinsky ridge contains the highest point in the oblast at 288 meters above the sea level; the low relief, gentler slopes, mild winter make the area suitable for farming, much of the forest has been cleared. The chernozem soils cover around 70% of the oblast's territory. Borders Internal: Bryansk Oblast, Oryol Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Voronezh Oblast, Belgorod Oblast. International: Sumy Oblast of Ukraine. Kursk Oblast contributes to two major drainage areas: the Don River. There are 902 rivers and streams in the oblast, with their total length of 8,000 kilometers. Major rivers are the Psyol; the inland waters of Kursk oblast consist of about 550 small ponds.
Kursk Oblast is one of the nation's major producers of iron ore. The area of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly has one of the richest iron-ore deposits in the world. Rare earths and base metals occur in commercial quantities in several locations. Refractory loam, mineral sands, chalk are quarried and processed in the region. Oblast's sufficient reserves of artesian well water are proving useful for medical purposes; the oblast's location at the center of the European part of Russia gives the region a medium continental climate: warm summers and mild winters. In July, the average daytime high temperature is +19.3 °C. In January the average high is −8.6 °C. The average number of frost-free days ranges from 150 in the north to 160 in the south; the growing season in Kursk Oblast varies, from 180 days in the north to 195 days in the southwest. The average annual precipitation for the oblast is 584 millimeters, but it ranges from 634 millimeters in the northwest, to about 500 millimeters or less in the southeastern corner.
The maximum of the rain falls during July. The snow depth in Kursk Oblast differs from 300–400 mm in the north of the oblast, to 150–250 mm in the south. Annual sunshine is 1775 hours. Kursk Oblast is a part of the Eastern European forest-steppe. One-quarter of Kursk oblast was once wooded. Hardwood timbers included oak and elm. Now forests cover only 10% of the oblast. Animals native to the area are numerous. Pike and perch are abundant in local rivers. Otter and badger, as well as wild boar, red deer, roe deer remain numerous in many parts of the area. Population: 1,127,081. 2012Births: 13 318 Deaths: 18 529 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.53 | 2010 - 1.55 | 2011 - 1.61 | 2012 - 1.70 | 2013 - 1.67 | 2014 - 1.70 | 2015 - 1.72 | 2016 - 1.64 Ethnic composition: Russians - 96.5% Ukrainians - 1.3% Armenians - 0.5% Others - 1.7% 52,722 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to the 1897 census, there were 77.3% Russians and 22.3% Ukrainians in the Kursk Governorate. The 1932 forced end to Ukrainization in southern Russia led to a massive decline of reported Ukrainians in these regions in the 1937 Soviet Census compared to the 1926 First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union; the annual growth rate of the oblast's population is negative. According to a 2012 survey 68.7% of the population of Kursk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church. In addition, 24% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 4% is atheist, 3.3% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Slavic tribes of the Severians inhabited the area. From 830 the Kursk was part of Kievan Rus' states. Although territory of Kursk Oblast had been populated since the end of the last Ice Age, information about the cities was scanty until 1596 when the Kursk stronghold was built, it was part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania under the Jagiellonian dynasty. It was lost in the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars to the Muscovite Rus'.
A real growth of the area around Kursk began soon after that, with a large migration from Central Russia after famine in the beginning of the 17th century. Between 1708 and 1719, Kursk was a part of the newly created Kiev Governorate. From 1719 to 1727 it was a part of Belgorod province of Kiev Governorate. Kursk uyezd was a part of Belgorod Governorate. On May 23, 1779, Kursk Governorate was established; the latter subdivision existed until 1928, when the territory of Kursk Governorate became a part of Central Black Earth Oblast. As Central Chernozem Oblast was large its administration was difficult, on June 13, 1934 it was divided into two oblasts: Kursk Oblast and Voronezh Oblast. In the period between 1934 and 1954, oblasts' borders were adjusted. However, the area and borders of the oblast have remained stable from 1954. During World War II, the territory of Kursk Oblast was occupied by the German troops from fall of 1941 until summer of 1943; the Battle of Kursk, one of the major battles of World War II, took place in the region between Jul
A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a boundary. The term came from French in the 15th century, with the meaning "borderland"—the region of a country that fronts on another country. A frontier can be referred to as a "front". A difference has been established in academic scholarship between Frontier and Border, the latter denoting a fixed and clear-cut form of state boundary. In the European Union, the frontier is the region beyond the expanding borders of the European Union itself. EU has designated the countries surrounding it as part of the European Neighbourhood; this is a region of less-developed countries, many of which aspire to become part of the union. Current applicants include many small countries in the Balkans and South Caucasus. Romania and Bulgaria joined EU in 2007. Proposals to admit Turkey have been debated but are now stalled on the ground that Turkey is beyond Europe's historic frontier and it is yet to comply with the 35 point policy areas set out by EU.
If all or most East European states become members, the frontier may be the boundaries with Russia and Turkey. The expansion of Russia to the north and east exploited ever-changing frontier regions over several centuries and involved the development and settlement of Cossack communities; the term "frontier" was used in colonial Australia in the meaning of country that borders the unknown or uncivilised, the boundary, border country, the borders of civilisation, or as the land that forms the furthest extent of what was termed "the inside" or "settled" districts. The "outside" was another term used in colonial Australia, this term covered not only the frontier but the districts beyond. Settlers at the frontier thus referred to themselves as "the outsiders" or "outside residents" and to the area in which they lived as "the outside districts". At times one might hear the "frontier" described as "the outside borders"; however the term "frontier districts" was used predominantly in the early Australian colonial newspapers whenever dealing with skirmishes between black and white in northern New South Wales and Queensland, in newspaper reports from South Africa, whereas it was not so used when dealing with affairs in Victoria, South Australia and southern New South Wales.
The use of the word "frontier" was thus connected to descriptions of frontier violence, as in a letter printed in the Sydney Morning Herald in December 1850 which described murder and carnage at the northern frontier and calling for the protection of the settlers saying: "...nothing but a strong body of Native Police will restore and keep order in the frontier districts, as the squatters are taxed for the purpose of such protection". The word "frontier" has meant a region at the edge of a settled area in North American development, it was a transition zone where explorers and settlers were arriving. Frederick Jackson Turner said that "the significance of the frontier" was that as pioneers moved into the "frontier zone," they were changed by the encounter. For example, Turner argues in 1893 that in the United States, unlimited free land in this zone was available, thus offered the psychological sense of unlimited opportunity. This, in turn, had many consequences such as optimism, future orientation, shedding the restraints of land scarcity, the wastage of natural resources.
In the earliest days of European settlement of the Atlantic coast, the frontier was any part of the forested interior of the continent lying beyond the fringe of existing settlements along the coast and the great rivers, such as the St. Lawrence, Hudson, Susquehanna River and James. English, French and Dutch patterns of expansion and settlement were quite different. Only a few thousand French migrated to Canada; these habitants settled in villages along the St. Lawrence river, building communities that remained stable for long stretches, rather than leapfrogging west the way the English and Americans did. Although French fur traders ranged through the Great Lakes and Mississippi River watersheds, as far as the Rocky Mountains, they did not settle down. French settlement in these areas was limited to a few small villages on the lower Mississippi and in the Illinois Country; the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to patroons, who brought in tenant farmers that created compact, permanent villages.
They did not push westward. In contrast, the English colonies pursued a more systematic policy of widespread settlement of the New World, for cultivation and exploitation of the land, which required the extension of European property rights to the new continent; the typical English settlements were small -- under 3 square kilometres. Conflict with the Native Americans arose out of i.e. who would rule. Early frontier areas east of the Appalachian Mountains included the Connecticut River valley; the French and Indian Wars of the 1760s resulted in a complete victory for the British, who took over the French colonial territory west of the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. Americans began moving across the Appalachians into areas such the Ohio Country and the New River Valley. Most of the frontier movement was east to west; the frontier in New England lay to the north. Throughout American history, the expansion of settlement was from the east to the west, thus the frontier is identified with "t
Central Black Earth Nature Reserve
Central Tsernozemsky Nature Reserve is a Russian'zapovednik' that protects for scientific study a collection of selected sites of black soil prairie in the southwestern part of the Central Uplands within the middle of the forest-steppe zone. The six sites of the reserve spread out to the southeast of the city of Kursk, in the Medvensky District, Manturovsky District, Gorshechensky District of Kursk Oblast; the site is named after the biologist VV Alekhine. The reserve was created in 1935, covers an area of 5,287 ha. In 1978 it was included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; the territory of Central Black Earth Biosphere Reserve was divided on the core area, the buffer zone and the transition zone. V. V. Alekhin nature reserve was the core of new biosphere reserve, its territory was divided into five fragments, three of which were near such big cities as Kursk and Stariy Oskol; the main advantage of the usage of that nature reserve was in the long duration of its existence and making the long-term series of observations as recorded in the annals of nature.
The first was the protected areas of forest and steppe which were connected with territories controlled haymaking or grazing. Here, the existing semi-natural ecosystems kept saved and the small arrays of oak forests with black soils were the most valuable territories; the buffer zone is a conservation zone of the reserve, a strip a kilometer wide, where economic activities are allowed only under the supervision of the reserve staff. The transition zone was consisted with the demonstration Farm of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture and Soil Protection from Erosion of V. I. Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences; the mine dumps and territory of nuclear power stations near Kursk were included to the transition zone. Although CCZ is one of the smallest reserves in the federal network, it is important from a scientific point of view as a collection of preserved remains of northern grasslands in the Kursk region. Reserve management refers to its "six patches of paradise", with virgin northern steppes, black earth prairie, pre-glacial vegetation on chalk hills, relict sphagnum swamps, floodplain complexes.
The "black soil" sectors in particular serve as a reference for the study of the ecology of the fertile soils of the region. The six sectors in the reserve are: Strelets. In the Dnieper River basin, at an altitude of 178–262 meters above sea level. There are open lakes, groundwater occurs at 12–14 meters. Cossack. In the Dnieper basin. Zorinsk. Forest, with altitudes from 169–200 meters. Features individual bogs on the second terrace above the river; the bogs are 5 to 75 meters in diameter, with depressed areas formed by leaching of soils and subsidence on some underlying layers of loess. Psla Floodplain. Situated in the floodplains of the Diet and Psel Rivers, 155–167 meters.'Barkalovka. In the Don River Basin. Bukreeva Barma. In the Don River basin. 163–238 meters in altitude, in the watershed of the Oskol and Kshen rivers. The terrain in most areas is eroded soils and karst topography, with smooth raised areas, shallow depressions; the black soil, which derives its color from a high humus content is unusual for being under deciduous forest, reaches a depth of 1.5 m.
Central Tsernozemsky is located in the Forest steppe|East European forest steppe ecoregion, a transition zone between the broadleaf forests of the north and the grasslands to the south. This ecoregion is characterized by a mosaic of forests and riverine wetlands; the climate of Central Tsernozemsky is Humid cool summer. This climate is characterized by large swings in temperature, both diurnally and seasonally, with mild summers and cold, snowy winters. In the CCZ, temperatures range from an average − 7.9 °C to 18.9 °C in July. The growing season in 185 days. Precipitation is uneven across the years, with a low of 334 mm in 2010 to a high of 774 mm in 1997; the plant life is one of predominantly meadow steppes, deciduous forest. Meadow steppes change in color across the seasons; the presence of spagnum bogs is unusual in the steppe zone. Of the forested area, 81% is natural growth, 19% is forest plantation. Oak trees predominate, with some Norway maple, wild pear and apple, aspen. White birch is found in the bog areas.
The understory tends towards wild hazel. Scientists on the reserve have recorded 1,340 species of angiosperms; the animal life of the reserve is representative of European forest-steppe. Characteristics mammals include fox and hare. Larger mammals include wild boar; the steppe areas record many field mice and mole-rats. Over 226 species of birds have been recorded, with over 100 being passerine; as a strict nature reserve, the Central Tsernozemsky Reserve is closed to the general public, although scientists and those with'environmental education' purposes can make arrangements with park management for visits. There are'ecotourist' routes in the reserve, that are open to the public, but require permits to be obtained in advance. One such ecological route, called "stone woman", passes a stone monument dated to the 11th century; the main office is in
The biosphere known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. It can be termed the zone of life on Earth, a closed system, self-regulating. By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere and atmosphere; the biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning with a process of biopoiesis or biogenesis, at least some 3.5 billion years ago. In a general sense, biospheres are any self-regulating systems containing ecosystems; this includes artificial biospheres such as Biosphere 2 and BIOS-3, ones on other planets or moons. The term "biosphere" was coined by geologist Eduard Suess in 1875, which he defined as the place on Earth's surface where life dwells. While the concept has a geological origin, it is an indication of the effect of both Charles Darwin and Matthew F. Maury on the Earth sciences; the biosphere's ecological context comes from the 1920s, preceding the 1935 introduction of the term "ecosystem" by Sir Arthur Tansley.
Vernadsky defined ecology as the science of the biosphere. It is an interdisciplinary concept for integrating astronomy, meteorology, evolution, geochemistry and speaking, all life and Earth sciences. Geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms. In this sense, the biosphere is but one of four separate components of the geochemical model, the other three being geosphere and atmosphere; when these four component spheres are combined into one system, it is known as the Ecosphere. This term was coined during the 1960s and encompasses both biological and physical components of the planet; the Second International Conference on Closed Life Systems defined biospherics as the science and technology of analogs and models of Earth's biosphere. Others may include the creation of artificial non-Earth biospheres—for example, human-centered biospheres or a native Martian biosphere—as part of the topic of biospherics; the earliest evidence for life on Earth includes biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks from Western Greenland and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone from Western Australia.
More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. In 2017, putative fossilized microorganisms were announced to have been discovered in hydrothermal vent precipitates in the Nuvvuagittuq Belt of Quebec, Canada that were as old as 4.28 billion years, the oldest record of life on earth, suggesting "an instantaneous emergence of life" after ocean formation 4.4 billion years ago, not long after the formation of the Earth 4.54 billion years ago. According to biologist Stephen Blair Hedges, "If life arose quickly on Earth... it could be common in the universe." Every part of the planet, from the polar ice caps to the equator, features life of some kind. Recent advances in microbiology have demonstrated that microbes live deep beneath the Earth's terrestrial surface, that the total mass of microbial life in so-called "uninhabitable zones" may, in biomass, exceed all animal and plant life on the surface; the actual thickness of the biosphere on earth is difficult to measure.
Birds fly at altitudes as high as 1,800 m and fish live as much as 8,372 m underwater in the Puerto Rico Trench. There are more extreme examples for life on the planet: Rüppell's vulture has been found at altitudes of 11,300 m. Herbivorous animals at these elevations depend on lichens and herbs. Life forms live in every part of the Earth's biosphere, including soil, hot springs, inside rocks at least 19 km deep underground, the deepest parts of the ocean, at least 64 km high in the atmosphere. Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have been observed to survive the vacuum of outer space; the total amount of soil and subsurface bacterial carbon is estimated as 5 × 1017 g, or the "weight of the United Kingdom". The mass of prokaryote microorganisms—which includes bacteria and archaea, but not the nucleated eukaryote microorganisms—may be as much as 0.8 trillion tons of carbon. Barophilic marine microbes have been found at more than a depth of 10,000 m in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earth's oceans.
In fact, single-celled life forms have been found in the deepest part of the Mariana Trench, by the Challenger Deep, at depths of 11,034 m. Other researchers reported related studies that microorganisms thrive inside rocks up to 580 m below the sea floor under 2,590 m of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States, as well as 2,400 m beneath the seabed off Japan. Culturable thermophilic microbes have been extracted from cores drilled more than 5,000 m (1