Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. Central Europe occupies continuous territories that are otherwise sometimes considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe; the concept of Central Europe is based on a common historical and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the Central European Initiative and the Visegrád Four Group. While the region's economies shows considerable disparities of income, all the Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index as highly developed. Elements of cultural unity for Northwestern and Central Europe were Catholicism and Latin; however Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox, was the area of Graeco-Byzantine cultural influence. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in close connection with Western European development, he explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics.

The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns and parliaments. In 1335, under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland and Hungary, they agreed to cooperate in the field of politics and commerce, inspiring their post-Cold War successors to launch a successful Central European initiative. In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had started to develop in Northwestern and Central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world. In Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural, its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom.

The concept of Central Europe was known at the beginning of the 19th century, but its real life began in the 20th century and became an object of intensive interest. However, the first concept mixed science and economy – it was connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa; the German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine to Vistula, or Dnieper, from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans. An example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch's book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary as its main aim. Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political and cultural domination; the "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after World War I.

Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would include all European nations outside the Triple Entente. The concept failed after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary; the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included: Austria, Germany, Poland and Switzerland; the author uses both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, but he doesn't take into account the legal development, or the social, economic, infrastructural developments in these countries. The interwar period brought a new geopolitical system, as well as economic and political problems, the concept of Central Europe took on a different character; the centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia and Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures.

However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced German states, non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. After the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept. At that time the scientists took an interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in Brussels in 1923 was committed to Central Europe, the 1933 Congress continued the discussions. Hungarian historian Magda Ádám wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe: "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little E

Kerr Waddell

Kerr Waddell is a Scottish professional footballer who plays as a defender for Montrose. He played for Dundee and on loan for Clyde and Greenock Morton. Waddell is a product of Dundee's youth academy. Having featured for Dundee's U20 side, including playing in a Challenge Cup tie against Cove Rangers, Waddell was named among the substitutes for a handful of senior league games during the 2016–17 season, without making an appearance. On 30 March 2017, along with Dundee teammate Kyle Gourlay, signed on loan for Scottish League Two club Clyde until the end of the season. Waddell made his competitive debut for Dundee on 18 July 2017, against Raith Rovers in the Scottish League Cup, replacing Darren O'Dea after 82 minutes, he went on to start Dundee's next three League Cup group stage matches, as the club progressed to the knockout rounds as runners-up to rivals Dundee United. Waddell scored his first goals in his senior career in a 2–1 win against Hearts. Waddell moved on loan to Scottish Championship club Greenock Morton in July 2018.

On 14 November his loan spell was extended until the end of the season. Waddell scored his first goal for the club with the opener as Morton defeated Peterhead in the Scottish Cup. On 30 June 2019, Waddell left Dundee following the expiry of his contract. In July 2019 Waddell signed a two-year contract with Scottish League One side Montrose; as of 30 July 2019 Kerr Waddell at Soccerbase


Wemindji is a small Cree community on the east coast of James Bay at the mouth of the Maquatua River in Quebec, Canada. Its legal name is the Cree Nation of Wemindji. Wemindji is a part of the Abitibi-Baie-James-Nunavik-Eeyou district, presented by NDP; the community has a population of 1400 people. Around 1600 are affiliated to the Cree Nation of Wemindji and around 200 do not reside on the territory of Wemindji; the chief and council consists of five councillors. The chief and council are all elected by the beneficiaries of the Cree Nation of Wemindji; the current chief is Christina Gilpin, alongside Arden Visitor as deputy chief. The current councillors are Elmer Georgekish, Bradley A. J Georgekish, Paul John Murdoch, Stanley Shashweskum, Ernest Tomatuk; the chief and council are elected every four years, the current chief and council was elected in September 2017. Wemindji is accessible by air at Wemindji Airport and, since 1995, by car over a gravel road linking it to the James Bay Road; the nearest largest city is Montreal, about 1,400 kilometres south of Wemindji.

Although Wemindji is a small community about 3,266 hectares, it has variety of services a schools, wellness department, motels and breakfast, mini mall, police station, two daycares, after school program, tradition centres, sports facilities, fire station and more. Wemindji is a new community comprising Cree families living at the trading post in cree named "Paakumshumwashtikw", in French Vieux-Comptoir River, known as Vieux-Comptoir or its English equivalent "Old Factory"; this trading post was founded in the 17th century and was alternately under British or French control. In 1959 the community was relocated about 45 km north to its present location. Wemindji gets its name from the red pigment found in the hills surrounding it, it has been known in French as "Nouveau-Comptoir". The Cree Nation of Wemindji is one of the nine communities under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement signed on 1975 by the Cree, Quebec government and federal government; the Cree went on an injunction to make an agreement on the project of Hydro development because the Quebec government and hydro development failed to recognize the Cree's rights to their land.

In 1975, the between the Crown and the indigenous people in Canada was the first leading agreement since the numbered treaties of the 19th and early 20th centuries. From 1973 to 1975, this agreement was negotiated and on November 11, 1975, it was signed; as specified in the agreement, the Aboriginal people traded their rights and territorial interests for different rights and benefits. Special membership was insisted by the Aboriginal people to allow them to take charge in their local and regional government, The creation of their own health and school boards, measures for economic and community development, special regimes for police and justice and environmental protection; the agreement allowed them to gain a technical definition of the La Grande Project which included limitations on water levels and a remedial works corporation for social, environmental damages, relocation of the first dam. In the agreement, the land was divided into three categories; the first category of land is controlled by the residents in and around the aboriginal communities.

The second category known as crown land is used as hunting and trapping territories shared between the Cree and Inuit. Lastly, the third category of land is used for traditional hunting and harvesting, designated for Aboriginal people to use. Cree have always identified themselves as iIyiyuuch which means "the people"; the Cree have continued practising their traditions way of hunting and fishing. Parts of Wemindji's populations still lives off the land year round. There are two languages in Wemindji, which are Cree and English; the Cree School Board is a regional entity. In Wemindji, Cree School Board operates the Maquatua Eeyou School / Joy Ottereyes Rainbow Memorial School; the Maquatua Eeyou School is a high school, Joy Ottereyes Rainbow Memorial School is an elementary school. The high school and elementary school have an importance of Cree language. English is the second language within both of these institutions; the Cree Board of Health operates the clinic within the Cree Nation of Wemindji.

The clinic provides services a variety of programs such as the awash program, the uschinisuu program, chishayiuu program, Multi Service Day Centre, Psycho-education, Youth protection, Dental Services, Administration. Wemindji is one of the nine Cree First Nations Communities from The Cree Nation of Eeyou Istchee; the Cree Nation live on the land of Eeyou Istchee. The people call themselves “Eeyou”. Along with their eleven Cree Communities, there are over three hundred traditional family hunting and trapping grounds which they call “Traplines”; each of the Cree First Nations Communities has their own individual history. Every community through their local government is administered independently, while Cree Nation issues are discussed by the elected chiefs on the board of directors of the Grand Council of Cree and the Council of the Cree Nation Government. James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement Wiki Cree School Board Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay Cree Nation of Wemindji Cree Nation of Wemindji website Indigenous Northern Affairs Canada Hudson's Bay Company Grand Counci