Gwalior was an Indian kingdom and princely state during the British Raj. It was focused in modern-day Madhya Pradesh, arising due to fragmentation in the Mughal Empire and lack of central authority from Delhi, it was ruled in subsidiary alliance with the British by the Scindia dynasty of the Marathas and was entitled to a 21-gun salute. The state took its name from the old town of Gwalior, although never the actual capital, was an important place because of its strategic location and the strength of its fort; the state was founded in the early 18th century by Ranoji Sindhia, as part of the Maratha Confederacy. Under Mahadji Sindhia Gwalior State became a leading power in Central India, dominated the affairs of the confederacy; the Anglo-Maratha Wars brought Gwalior State under British suzerainty, so that it became a princely state of the British Indian Empire. Gwalior was the largest state in the Central India Agency, under the political supervision of a Resident at Gwalior. In 1936, the Gwalior residency was separated from the Central India Agency, made answerable directly to the Governor-General of India.
After Indian Independence in 1947, the Sindhia rulers acceded to the new Union of India, Gwalior state was absorbed into the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat. The state had a total area of 64,856 km2, was composed of several detached portions, but was divided into two, the Gwalior or Northern section, the Malwa section; the northern section consisted of a compact block of territory with an area of 44,082 km2, lying between 24º10' and 26º52' N. and 74º38' and 79º8' E. It was bounded on the north and northwest by the Chambal River, which separated it from the native states of Dholpur and Jaipur in the Rajputana Agency; the Malwa section, which included the city of Ujjain, had an area of 20,774 km2. It was made up of several detached districts, between which portions of other states were interposed, which were themselves intermingled in bewildering intricacy. In 1940 Gwalior State had 4,006,159 inhabitants; the predecessor state of Gwalior was founded in the 10th century. It was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate and was a part of it till 1398.
It again became a part of the Mughal empire from 1528 to 1731. The founder of the Gwalior house was Ranoji Sindhia, who belonged to an impoverished branch of the Shinde or Sindhia house which traced its descent from a family of which one branch held the hereditary post of patil in Kannerkhera, a village 16 miles east of Satara; the head of the family received a patent of rank from the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, while a daughter of the house was married to the Maratha king Chattrapati Shahu Maharaj. In 1726, Ranoji along with Malhar Rao Holkar, the founder of the house of Indore, the Ponwar, were authorized by the Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi in the Malwa districts, retaining for his own remuneration half the mokassa. Ranoji fixed his headquarters in the ancient city of Ujjain, which became the capital of the Sindhia dominion, on 19 July 1745 he died near Shujalpur, where his centotaph stands, he left three legitimate sons, Jayappa and Jotiba, two illegitimate and Mahadji.
Jayappa succeeded to the territories of Ranoji, but was killed at Nagaur in 1759. He was followed by his son Jankoji, taken prisoner at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 and put to death, Mahadji succeeded. Madhavrao I, popularly known as Mahadji, his successor Daulatrao took a leading part in shaping the history of India during their rule. Mahadji returned from the Deccan to Malwa in 1764, by 1769 reestablished his power there. In 1772 Madhavrao Peshwa died, in the struggles which ensued Mahadji took an important part, seized every chance of increasing his power and augmenting his possessions. In 1775 Raghoba Dada Peshwa threw himself on the protection of the British; the reverses which Sindhia's forces met with at the hands of Colonel Goddard after his famous march from Bengal to Gujarat the fall of Gwalior to Major Popham, the night attack by Major Camac, opened his eyes to the strength of the new power which had entered the arena of Indian politics. In 1782 the Treaty of Salbai was made with Sindhia, the chief stipulations being that he should withdraw to Ujjain, the British north of the Yamuna, that he should negotiate treaties with the other belligerents.
The importance of the treaty can scarcely be exaggerated. It made the British arbiters of peace in India and acknowledged their supremacy, while at the same time Sindhia was recognized as an independent chief and not as a vassal of the Peshwa. A resident, Mr. Anderson was at the same time appointed to Sindhia's court. Between 1782 and December 1805 Dholpur State was annexed by Gwalior. Sindhia took full advantage of the system of neutrality pursued by the British to establish his supremacy over Northern India. In this he was assisted by the genius of Benoît de Boigne, whose influence in consolidating the power of Mahadji Sindhia is estimated at its true value, he was from the Duchy of Savoy, a native of Chambéry, who had served under Lord Clare in the famous Irish Brigade and Fontenoy and elsewhere and who after many vicissitudes, including imprisonment by the Turks, reached India and for a time held a commission in the 6th Madras Infantry. Af
Chanderi, is a town of historical importance in Ashoknagar District of the state Madhya Pradesh in India. It is situated at a distance of 127 km from Shivpuri, 37 km from Lalitpur, 55 km from Ashok Nagar and about 45 km from Isagarh, it is surrounded by hills southwest of the Betwa River. Chanderi is surrounded by hills and forests and is spotted with several monuments of the Bundela Rajputs and Malwa sultans, it is famous for ancient Jain Temples. Its population in 2011 was 33,081. Chanderi is a block in Ashok Nagar District. Chanderi is located strategically on the borders of Bundelkhand. History of Chanderi goes back to the 11th century, when it was dominated by the trade routes of Central India and was proximate to the arterial route to the ancient ports of Gujarat as well as to Malwa, Central India and the Deccan. Chanderi became an important military outpost; the town finds mention in Mahabharata. Shishupal was the king of Chanderi during the Mahabharata period. Chanderi is mentioned by the Persian scholar Alberuni in 1030.
Ghiyas ud din Balban captured the city in 1251 for Sultan of Delhi. Sultan Mahmud I Khilji of Malwa captured the city in 1438 after a siege of several months. In 1520 Rana Sanga of Mewar captured the city, gave it to Medini Rai, a rebellious minister of Sultan Mahmud II of Malwa. In the Battle of Chanderi, the Mughal Emperor Babur captured the city from Medini Rai and witnessed the macabre Rajput rite of jauhar, in which, faced with certain defeat and in an attempt to escape dishonor in the hands of the enemy, women with children in their arms jumped in a fire pit to commit suicide, made for this specific purpose, against the background of vedic hymns recited by the priests. Jauhar was performed during the night and in the morning the men would rub the ashes of their dead women folk on their forehead, don a saffron garment known as kesariya, chew tulsi leaves, symbolizing their awareness about impending death and resolve to fight and die with honour; this method of fighting & dying for the cause of retaining honour was called "SAKA".
In 1540 it was captured by Sher Shah Suri, added to the governorship of Shujaat Khan. The Mughal Emperor Akbar made the city a sarkar in the subah of Malwa. According to Ain-e-Akbari, the autobiography of Akbar, Chanderi had 14000 stone houses and boasted of 384 markets, 360 sapcious caravan sarais and 12,000 mosques; the Bundela Rajputs captured the city in 1586, it was held by Ram Sab, a son of Raja Madhukar of Orchha. In 1680 Devi Singh Bundela was made governor of the city, Chanderi remained in the hands of his family until it was annexed in 1811 by Jean Baptiste Filose for the Maratha ruler Daulat Rao Sindhia of Gwalior; the city was transferred to the British in 1844. The British lost control of the city during the Revolt of 1857, the city was recaptured by Hugh Rose on 14 March 1858. Richard Harte Keatinge led the assault; the city was transferred back to the Sindhias of Gwalior in 1861, became part of Isagarh District of Gwalior state. After India's independence in 1947, Gwalior became part of the new state of Madhya Bharat, merged into Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 1956.
Chanderi is located at 24.72°N 78.13°E / 24.72. It has an average elevation of 456 metres; as of 2001 India census, Chanderi had a population of 28,313. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Chanderi has an average literacy rate of 62%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Shri Choubisi Bada Mandir Shri Khandargiri Jain temple Shri Thobon Ji Jain temple Shri Chandraprabha Digambar Jain temple Bawari masjid Jami Masjid, Chanderi kati ghati battesi wabri koshiq mahal Shahzadi ka Rauza Jageswari devi Temple Chanderi Museum Khandar Giri Atishay Khetra Malan Kho Baiju Bawra's Samadhi Janki Nath Temple There is a good roadway network in Chanderi; the town lies at State Highway 20 with connections to ISHAGARH, Lalitpur etc.. There is no Railway line in nearby. A proposed Railway line was enacted in 2014 as Pipraigaon-Chanderi-Lalitpur line of Northern Railways, Which will be in progress soon. One can visit Chanderi via Lalitpur 40 km from Chanderi.
Well connected by road Lalitpur is situated on the Bhopal-Jhansi railway route and is a stop for a number of important trains. Mungaoli 38 km from Chanderi. Mungaoli is well connected by road and is situated on the Bina-Kota railway route and express trains from Bina Etawa and Kota halt at Mungaoli. Ashok Nagar 65 km from Chanderi. Situated on the Bina-Kota railway route. Many passenger trains and few express like the Ahemdabad-Varanasi Express, Jabalpur-Jaipur-Ajmer Express, Okha-Gorakhpur Express, Santragachi-Ajmer Express, Ujjain-Dehradun Express, Puri-Bikaner Express, Durg-Jaipur Express, Tambaram - Bhagat Ki Kothi Express, Durg-Ajmer Express, Surat-Muzaffarpur Express, Ajmer-Kolkata Express, Bhopal-Gwalior Express, Indore-Jabalpur Express halt at the Ashok Nagar station; the Chanderi area has been a major center of Jain culture. It was a major center of the Parwar Jain community. There are a number of Jain places nearby- Gurilagiri, Bithala, Khandargiri and Bhiyadant, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh.
At a distance of 19 km from present Chanderi town is situated the Buddhi Chanderi. Buddhi Chanderi is situated on the banks of Urvashi river, it is believed that the Chaidnagar mentioned in Puranas is same as Buddhi Ch
Second Anglo-Maratha War
The Second Anglo-Maratha War was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India. The British had supported the "fugitive" Peshwa Raghunathrao in the First Anglo-Maratha War, continued with his "fugitive" son, Baji Rao II. Though not as martial in his courage as his father, the son was "a past master in deceit and intrigue." Coupled with his "cruel streak", Baji Rao II soon provoked the enmity of Malhar Rao Holkar when he had one of Holkar's relatives killed. After the fall of Mysore in 1799–1800, the Marathas were the only major power left outside British control in India; the Marathas were the most dominant power in the subcontinent. The Maratha Empire at that time consisted of a confederacy of five major chiefs: the Peshwa at the capital city of Poona, the Gaekwad chief of Baroda, the Scindia chief of Gwalior, the Holkar chief of Indore, the Bhonsale chief of Nagpur; the Maratha chiefs were engaged in internal quarrels among themselves. Lord Mornington, the Governor-General of British India had offered a subsidiary treaty to the Peshwa and Scindia, but Nana Fadnavis refused strongly.
In October 1802, the combined armies of Peshwa Baji Rao II and Scindia were defeated by Yashwantrao Holkar, ruler of Indore, at the Battle of Poona. Baji Rao fled to British protection, in December the same year concluded the Treaty of Bassein with the British East India Company, ceding territory for the maintenance of a subsidiary force and agreeing to treaty with no other power; the treaty would become the "death knell of the Maratha Empire." This act on the part of the Peshwa, their nominal overlord and disgusted the Maratha chieftains. The British strategy included Wellesley securing the Deccan Plateau, Lake taking Doab and Delhi, Powell entering Bundelkhand, Murray taking Badoch, Harcourt neutralizing Bihar; the British had available over 53,000 men to help accomplish their goals. In September 1803, Scindia forces lost to Lord Gerard Lake at Delhi and to Arthur Wellesley at Assaye. On 18 October, British forces took the pettah of Asirgarh Fort with a loss of two killed and five wounded; the fort's garrison subsequently surrendered on the 21st.
British artillery pounded ancient ruins used by Scindia forces as forward operating bases, eroding their control. In November, Lake defeated another Scindia force at Laswari, followed by Wellesley's victory over Bhonsale forces at Argaon on 29 November 1803; the Holkar rulers of Indore compelled the British to make peace. Maharata army was wiped On December 17, 1803, Raghoji II Bhonsale of Nagpur signed the Treaty of Deogaon. in Odisha with the British after the Battle of Argaon and gave up the province of Cuttack. On 30 December 1803, the Daulat Scindia signed the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon with the British after the Battle of Assaye and Battle of Laswari and ceded to the British Rohtak, Ganges-Jumna Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, parts of Bundelkhand, some districts of Gujarat and the fort of Ahmmadnagar; the British started hostilities against Yashwantrao Holkar on 6 April 1804. The Treaty of Rajghat, signed on 24 December 1805, forced Holkar to give up Tonk and Bundi. Henty, G. A.. At the Point of the Bayonet: A Tale of the Mahratta War.
London. - historical fiction describing the war Third Anglo-Maratha War List of Maratha dynasties and states Fort of Ahmednagar Pettah of Ahmednagar Alexander Adams Citations Bibliography Chaurasian, R. S. History of the Marathas. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 978-81-269-0394-8
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Jaora State was a 13 gun-salute princely state of the British Raj. It was part of the Malwa Agency; the total area of the princely state, with the dependencies of Piploda and Panth-Piploda, was 1,471 km2. Jaora state was divided into four tehsils, Barauda and Barkhera; the chief crops were millets, cotton and opium. Jaora State was founded by a pindari called'Abdu'l Ghafur Muhammad Khan, a Muslim of Afghan pashtun descent and a Rohilla in 1808. In 1818 the state became a British protectorate.'Abdu'l Ghafur Muhammad Khan was a cavalry officer serving the Pashtun leader Muhammad Amir Khan. He served the Holkar maharaja of Indore State, subduing Rajput territories in northern Malwa and pillaging their lands. In return for his services, he was granted the title of Nawab in 1808 by Akbar Shah II; the state was confirmed by the British government in 1818 by the Treaty of Mandsaur. Nawab Muhammad Ismail was an honorary major in the British Army. During the reign of Nawab Muhammad Iftikhar Ali Khan, Piploda became a separate state in 1924, Panth-Piploda became a province of British India in 1942.
Nawab Muhammad Usman'Ali Khan acceded to the Government of India on 15 June 1948. The rulers of the state bore the title of'Nawab'. 6 Jan 1817 - 9 Sep 1825 Abdul Ghafur Mohammad Khan 9 Sep 1825 – 29 Apr 1865 Ghows Mohammad Khan 9 Sep 1825 - 1827 Musharraf Begum -Regent + Jahangir Khan 1827 - 1840 Borthwick -Regent 30 Apr 1865 - 6 Mar 1895 Ehtesam al-Dowla Mohammad Isra´il Khan aka Nawab Muhammad Khan 30 Apr 1865 - 1872 Regents - Hazrat Nur Khan - Political Agent Western Malwa 6 Mar 1895 – 15 Aug 1947 Fakhr al-Dowla Mohammad Eftekhar `Ali Khan 6 Mar 1895 – 20 May 1906 Sahibzada Yar Muhammad Khan -Regent Central India Agency Political integration of India Hussain Tekri Pathans of Madhya Pradesh Media related to Jaora State at Wikimedia Commons Jaora State 2 paisa coin other side, year 1893
Datia State was a princely state in subsidiary alliance with British India. The state was administered as part of the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India, it lay in the extreme north-west of Bundelkhand, near Gwalior, was surrounded on all sides by other princely states of Central India, except on the east where it bordered upon the United Provinces. Datia had been a state in the Bundelkhand region founded in 1626; the ruling family were Rajputs of the Bundela clan. It was second highest in the rank of all the Bundela states after Orchha, with a 17-gun salute, its Maharajas bore the hereditary title of Second of the Princes of Bundelkhand; the land area of the state was 2,130 square miles its population in 1901 was 53,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £2,00,000; the state suffered from famine in 1896–97, again to a lesser extent in 1899–1900. After India's independence in 1947, the Maharaja of Datia acceded unto the Dominion of India. Datia, together with the rest of the Bundelkhand agency, became part of the new state of Vindhya Pradesh in 1950.
In 1956, Vindhya Pradesh state was merged with certain other areas to form the state of Madhya Pradesh within the Union of India. The following rulers carried the title "Rao": 1706 – 1733: Rao Ramchandra Singh 1733 – 1762: Rao Indrajit Singh 1762 – 1801: Rao Shatrujit Singh The following rulers carried the title "Raja": 1801 – 1839: Raja Parichhat Singh 1839 – 20 Nov 1857: Bijai Singh 1857 – 1865: Bhavani Singh The following rulers carried the title "Maharaja Raja Lokendra"; the title came into effect from the year 1877: 1865 – Jul 1907: Sir Bhavani Singh Bahadur 5 August 1907 – 15 August 1947: Sir Govind Singh From 1893 there were primitive stamps bearing the name'DUTTIA STATE' and also'DATIA STATE'. The first issue is among the rarest of all Indian princely state stamps. A total of 29 series of stamps were issued until 1920. From 1921 only Indian Stamps were valid. Datia District Datia Palace Media related to Datia at Wikimedia Commons
Scindia was a Hindu Maratha dynasty that ruled the Gwalior State. The Gwalior state was a part of the Maratha Confederacy in the 18th and 19th centuries, a princely state of the colonial British government during the 19th and the 20th centuries. After India's independence in 1947, the members of the Scindia family became politicians; the Scindia family of Kanherkhed served as shiledars under the Bahmani Sultanate. They served the Peshwa; the Scindia dynasty was founded by Ranoji Scindia, the son of Jankojirao Scindia, the Deshmukh of Kanherkhed, a village in Satara District, Maharashtra. Peshwa Baji Rao's career saw the strengthening of the Maratha Empire. Ranoji was in charge of the Maratha conquests in Malwa in 1726. Ranoji established his capital at Ujjain in 1731, his successors included Jayajirao, Dattajirao, Mahadji Shinde and Daulatrao Scindia. The Scindhia state of Gwalior became a major regional power in the latter half of the 18th century and figured prominently in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars.
They held sway over many of the Rajput states, conquered north India. After the defeat of the allied Maratha states by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1818, Daulatrao Scindia was forced to accept local autonomy as a princely state within British India and to give up Ajmer to the British. After the death of Daulatrao, Maharani Baiza Bai ruled the empire, saving it from the British power, till the adopted child Jankoji Rao took over the charge. Jankoji died in 1843, his widow Tarabai Raje scindia maintained the position and adopted a child from close lineage named Jayajirao; the Scindia family ruled Gwalior until India's independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, when the Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia acceded to the Government of India. Gwalior was merged with a number of other princely states to become the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat. George Jivajirao served as the state's rajpramukh, or appointed governor, from 28 May 1948 to 31 October 1956, when Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh.
In 1962, Rajmata Vijayraje Scindia, the widow of Maharaja Jiwajirao, was elected to the Lok Sabha, beginning the family's career in electoral politics. She was first a member of the Congress Party, became an influential member of the Bharatiya Janata Party, her son Madhavrao Scindia was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1971 representing the Congress Party, served until his death in 2001. His son, Jyotiraditya Scindia in the Congress Party, was elected to the seat held by his father in 2004. Vijayaraje's daughters have supported the Bharatiya Janata Party. Vasundhara Raje Scindia contested and won five parliamentary elections from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Under the Vajpayee government from 1998 onwards, Vasundhara was in charge of several different ministries. In 2003 she led the Bharatiya Janata Party to its largest majority in Rajasthan, became the state's Chief Minister. In 2013 again, she led Bharatiya Janata Party to a thumpin win in the state of Rajasthan, winning over 160 out of the 200 seats in the assembly elections.
Her other daughter, Yashodhara Raje Scindia, contested assembly elections from Shivpuri in Madhya Pradesh and won in 1998, 2003 and 2013 and lokshabha 2004,2009 from gwalior. Upon the BJP's win in the state, she became the state's Minister for Tourism and Youth Affairs. Vasundhara's son Dushyant Singh entered the Lok Sabha in 2004 from Rajasthan. In the course of their military service, the Shinde were bestowed numerous titles by the British Empire, which grew more elaborate with the passage of time: 1745: Shrimant Sardar Shinde Bahadur 1745–1787: Meherban Shrimant Sardar Shinde Bahadur 1787–1790: His Highness Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Sahib Subadar Shrimant Shinde Bahadur Maharaja Shinde of Gwalior 1790–1794: His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Farzand-i-Arjumand, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Sahib Subadar Shrimant Shinde Bahadur, Mansur-i-Zaman, Naib ul-Istiqlal-i-Maharajadhiraj Sawai Madhav Rao Narayan, Maharaja Shinde of Gwalior 1794–1827: His Highness Ali Jah, Naib Vakil-i-Mutlaq, Amir ul-Umara, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Shinde Bahadur, Maharaja Shinde of Gwalior 1827–1845: His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Shinde Bahadur, Mansur-i-Zaman, Maharaja Shinde of Gwalior 1845–1861: His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, Hisam us-Sultanat, Mukhtar ul-Mulk, Azim ul-Iqtidar, Rafi-us-Shan, Wala Shikoh, Muhtasham-i-Dauran, Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Shinde Bahadur, Mansur-i-Zaman 1861–1901: His Highness Ali Jah, Umdat ul-Umara, His