Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie
Governor-General of India
The Governor-General of India was the head of British India and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William; the officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India". In 1858, as a consequence of the Indian Mutiny the previous year, the territories and assets of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British Crown; the Governor-General headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India, including the Punjab, Bombay, the United Provinces, others. However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled Viceroy and Governor-General of India.
This was shortened to Viceroy of India. The title of Viceroy was abandoned when British India split into the two independent dominions of India and Pakistan, but the office of Governor-General continued to exist in each country separately—until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956, respectively; until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British Government. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but thereafter did so on the advice of the newly-sovereign Indian Government. Governors-General served at the pleasure of the Sovereign, though the practice was to have them serve five-year terms. Governors-General could have their commission rescinded; the first Governor-General of British India was Lord William Bentinck, the first Governor-General of independent India was Louis, Lord Mountbatten. Many parts of the Indian subcontinent were governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor.
In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act of 1773. A Governor-General and Supreme Council of Bengal were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal; the first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act. The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India; the power to elect the Governor-General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company's territories in India were put under the direct control of the Sovereign; the Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign. The Governor-General, in turn, had the power to appoint all lieutenant governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval. India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until republican constitutions were written.
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General. India became a secular republic in 1950; the Governor-General had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence; the other Presidencies of the East India Company were not allowed to declare war on or make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William. The powers of the Governor-General, in respect of foreign affairs, were increased by the India Act 1784; the Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General or by the Company's Court of Directors. While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India.
That status came only with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act granted legislative powers to the Governor-General and Council. After 1858, the Governor-General functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a governor, Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administ
The Bengal Presidency reorganized as the Bengal Province, was once the largest subdivision of British India, with its seat in Calcutta. It was centred in the Bengal region. At its territorial peak in the 19th century, the presidency extended from the present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in the west to Burma and Penang in the east; the Governor of Bengal was concurrently the Viceroy of India for many years. Most of the presidency's territories were incorporated into other British Indian provinces and crown colonies. In 1905, Bengal proper was partitioned, with Eastern Bengal and Assam headquartered in Dacca and Shillong. British India was reorganised in 1912 and the presidency was reunited into a single Bengali-speaking province; the Bengal Presidency was established in 1765, following the defeat of the last independent Nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 23 June 1757, the Battle of Buxar in 22 October 1764. Bengal was the economic and educational hub of the British Raj, it was the centre of the late 19th and early 20th century Bengali Renaissance and a hotbed of the Indian Independence Movement.
The Partition of British India in 1947 resulted in Bengal's division on religious grounds, between the Indian state of West Bengal and the Pakistanian province of East Bengal, which first became East Pakistan in 1955 under Pakistanian rule and the nation of Bangladesh in 1971. Under Warren Hastings the consolidation of British imperial rule over Bengal was solidified, with the conversion of a trade area into an occupied territory under a military-civil government, while the formation of a regularised system of legislation was brought in under John Shore. Acting through Lord Cornwallis Governor-General, he ascertained and defined the rights of the landholders over the soil; these landholders under the previous system had started, for the most part, as collectors of the revenues, acquired certain prescriptive rights as quasi-proprietors of the estates entrusted to them by the government. In 1793 Lord Cornwallis declared their rights perpetual, gave over the land of Bengal to the previous quasi-proprietors or zamindars, on condition of the payment of a fixed land tax.
This piece of legislation is known as the Permanent Settlement of the Land Revenue. It was designed to "introduce" ideas of property rights to India, stimulate a market in land; the former aim misunderstood the nature of landholding in India, the latter was an abject failure. The Cornwallis Code, while defining the rights of the proprietors, failed to give adequate recognition to the rights of the under-tenants and the cultivators; this remained a serious problem for the duration of British Rule, as throughout the Bengal Presidency ryots found themselves oppressed by rack-renting landlords, who knew that every rupee they could squeeze from their tenants over and above the fixed revenue demanded from the Government represented pure profit. Furthermore, the Permanent Settlement took no account of inflation, meaning that the value of the revenue to Government declined year by year, whilst the heavy burden on the peasantry grew no less; this was compounded in the early 19th century by compulsory schemes for the cultivation of opium and indigo, the former by the state, the latter by British planters.
Peasants were forced to grow a certain area of these crops, which were purchased at below market rates for export. This added to rural poverty. So unsuccessful was the Permanent Settlement that it was not introduced in the North-Western Provinces after 1831, in Punjab after its conquest in 1849, or in Oudh, annexed in 1856; these regions remained administratively distinct. The area of the Presidency under direct administration was sometimes referred to as Lower Bengal to distinguish it from the Presidency as a whole. Punjab and Allahabad had Lieutenant-Governors subject to the authority of the Governor of Bengal in Calcutta, but in practice they were more or less independent; the only all-Presidency institutions which remained were the Civil Service. The Bengal Army was amalgamated into the new British-Indian Army in 1904–5, after a lengthy struggle over its reform between Lord Kitchener, the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy; the partition of the large province of Bengal, decided upon by Lord Curzon, Cayan Uddin Ahmet, the Chief Secretary of Bengal carried into execution in October 1905.
The Chittagong and Rajshahi divisions, the Malda District and the States of Hill Tripura and Comilla were transferred from Bengal to a new province, Eastern Bengal and Assam. The province of West Bengal consisted of the thirty-three districts of Burdwan, Bankura, Hughli, Twenty-four Parganas, Nadia, Jessore, Patna, Shahabad, Champaran, Darbhanga, Bhagalpur, Santhal Parganas, Balasore and Kandhmal, Sambalpur, Hazaribagh, Ranchi and Manbhum; the princely states of Sikkim and the tributary states of Odisha and Chhota Nagpur were not part of Bengal, but British relations with them were managed
Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha; the President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to summon and prorogue either house of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. The president can exercise these powers only upon the advice of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers; those elected or nominated to either house of Parliament are referred to as Members of Parliament. The Members of Parliament, Lok Sabha are directly elected by the Indian public voting in Single-member districts and the Members of Parliament, Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of all State Legislative Assembly by proportional representation; the Parliament has a sanctioned strength of 545 in Lok Sabha including the 2 nominees from the Anglo-Indian Community by the President, 245 in Rajya Sabha including the 12 nominees from the expertise of different fields of science, culture and history.
The Parliament meets at Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The Sansad Bhavan is located in New Delhi, it was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, who were responsible for planning and construction of New Delhi by British government. The construction of buildings took six years and the opening ceremony was performed on 18 January 1927 by the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Irwin; the construction costs for the building were ₹8.3 million. The parliament covers an area of 6 acres; the Central hall consists of the chambers of Rajya Sabha and the Library hall. Surrounding these three chambers is the four storied circular structure providing accommodations for members and houses Parliamentary committees and the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs; the centre and the focus of the building is the Central Hall. It consists of chambers of the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the Library Hall and between them lie garden courts. Surrounding these three chambers is the four storyed circular structure providing accommodations for Ministers, Parliamentary committees, Party offices, important offices of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Secretariats and the offices of the ministry of Parliamentary affairs.
The Central Hall is circular in shape and the dome is 29.87 metres in diameter. It is a place of historical importance; the Indian Constitution was framed in the Central Hall. The Central Hall was used in the library of erstwhile Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of States. In 1946, it was refurbished into Constituent Assembly Hall. At present, the Central Hall is used for holding joint sittings of both the houses of parliament and used for address by the President in the commencement of first session after each general election. A new Parliament building may replace the existing complex; the new building is being considered on account of the stability concerns regarding the current complex. A committee to suggest alternatives to the current building has been set up by the Former Speaker, Meira Kumar; the present building, an 85-year-old structure suffers from inadequacy of space to house members and their staff and is thought to suffer from structural issues. The building needs to be protected because of its heritage tag.
The Indian Parliament consists of two houses called the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head. The President of India, the Head of state is a component of Parliament. Under Article 60 and Article 111, President's responsibility is to scrutinise that bills/laws passed by the parliament are in accordance with constitutional mandate and stipulated procedure is followed before according his/her approval to the bills; the President of India is elected by the elected members of Parliament of India and the state legislatures and serves for a term of 5 years. Lok Sabha or the lower house has 545 members. 543 members are directly elected by citizens of India on the basis of universal adult franchise representing Parliamentary constituencies across the country and 2 members are appointed by the President of India from the Anglo-Indian Community. Every citizen of India, over 18 years of age, irrespective of gender, religion or race, otherwise not disqualified, is eligible to vote for the Lok Sabha.
The Constitution provides. It has a term of five years. To be eligible for membership in the Lok Sabha, a person must be a citizen of India and must be 25 years of age or older, mentally sound, should not be bankrupt and should not be criminally convicted; the total elective membership is distributed among the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States. Rajya Sabha or the upper house is a permanent body not subject to dissolution. One third of the members retire every second year, are replaced by newly elected members; each member is elected for a term of six years. Its members are indirectly elected by members of legislative bodies of the states; the Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of 250 members. It has a sanctioned strength of 245 members, of which 233 are elected from States and Union Territories and 12 are nominated by the President; the number of members from a state depends on its population.
The minimum age for a person to become a member of Rajya Sabha is 30 years. The period during which the House meets to conduct its business is called a session; the Constitution empowers the president to summon each House at such i
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation and the only British prince to do so. In 1910 he was appointed Grand Prior of the Order of St John and held this position until 1939. Arthur was educated by private tutors before entering the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich at the age of 16. Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the British Army, where he served for some 40 years, seeing service in various parts of the British Empire. During this time he was created a royal duke, becoming the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, as well as the Earl of Sussex. In 1911, he was appointed as Governor General of Canada, he occupied this post until he was succeeded by the Duke of Devonshire in 1916. He acted as the King's, thus the Canadian Commander-in-Chief's, representative through the first years of the First World War. After the end of his viceregal tenure, Arthur returned to the United Kingdom and there, as well as in India, performed various royal duties, while again taking up military duties.
Though he retired from public life in 1928, he continued to make his presence known in the army well into the Second World War, before his death in 1942. He was Queen Victoria's last surviving son. Arthur was born at Buckingham Palace on 1 May 1850, the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; the prince was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, on 22 June in the palace's private chapel. His godparents were Prince William of Prussia; as with his older brothers, Arthur received his early education from private tutors. It was reported, it was at an early age that Arthur developed an interest in the army, in 1866 he followed through on his military ambitions by enrolling at the Royal Military College at Woolwich, from where he graduated two years and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Corps of Royal Engineers on 18 June 1868. The Prince transferred to the Royal Regiment of Artillery on 2 November 1868 and, on 2 August 1869, to the Rifle Brigade, his father's own regiment, after which he conducted a long and distinguished career as an army officer, including service in South Africa, Canada in 1869, Egypt in 1882, in India from 1886 to 1890.
In Canada, Arthur, as an officer with the Montreal detachment of the Rifle Brigade, undertook a year's training and engaged in defending the Dominion from the Fenian Raids. Following his arrival at Halifax, Arthur toured the country for eight weeks and made a visit in January 1870 to Washington, D. C. where he met with President Ulysses S. Grant. During his service in Canada he was entertained by Canadian society, it was not, all social and state functions for Arthur. Arthur made an impression on many in Canada, he was given on 1 October 1869 the title Chief of the Six Nations by the Iroquois of the Grand River Reserve in Ontario and the name Kavakoudge, enabling him to sit in the tribe's councils and vote on matters of tribe governance. As he became the 51st chief on the council, his appointment broke the centuries-old tradition that there should only be 50 chiefs of the Six Nations. Of the Prince, Lady Lisgar, wife of Governor General of Canada the Lord Lisgar, noted in a letter to Victoria that Canadians seemed hopeful Prince Arthur would one day return as governor general.
Arthur was promoted to the honorary rank of colonel on 14 June 1871, substantive lieutenant-colonel in 1876, colonel on 29 May 1880 and, on 1 April 13 years was made a general. He gained military experience as Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army from December 1886 to March 1890, he went on to be General Officer Commanding Southern District, at Portsmouth, from September 1890 to 1893. The Prince had hoped to succeed his first cousin once-removed, the elderly Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, as Commander-in-chief of the British Army, upon the latter's forced retirement in 1895, but this desire was denied to Arthur, instead he was given, between 1893 and 1898, command of the Aldershot District Command. In August 1899 the 6th Battalion, Rifles of the Canadian Non-Permanent Active Militia, located in Vancouver, British Columbia, asked Prince Arthur to give his name to the regiment and act as its honorary colonel; the regiment had been converted to the infantry role from the 2nd Battalion, 5th British Columbia Regiment of Canadian Artillery.
With the Prince's agreement the unit was renamed 6th Regiment, Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles on 1 May 1900. He was subsequently appointed colonel-in-chief of the regiment k
The term Anglo-Indian can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent. The latter sense is now historical, but confusions can arise; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, gives three possibilities: "Of mixed British and Indian parentage, of Indian descent but born or living in Britain or of British descent or birth but living or having lived long in India". People fitting the middle definition are more known as British Asian or British Indian; this article focuses on the modern definition, a distinct minority community of mixed Eurasian ancestry, whose native language is English. During the centuries that Britain was in India, the children born to the British and Indians began to form a new community; these Anglo-Indians formed a small but significant portion of the population during the British Raj, were well represented in certain administrative roles. The Anglo-Indian population dwindled from two million at the time of independence in 1947 to 300,000 - 1,000,000 by 2010.
Many have adapted to local communities or emigrated to the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States and New Zealand. This process was replicated in many other meetings of European traders and colonisers across the subcontinent, creating the Anglo-Burmese people in Myammar and the Burgher people in Sri Lanka; the first use of "Anglo-Indian" was to describe all British people living in India. People of mixed British and Indian descent were referred to as "Eurasians". Terminology has changed, the latter group are now called "Anglo-Indians", the term that will be used throughout this article. During the British East India Company's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was common for British officers and soldiers to take local wives and have Eurasian children, owing to a lack of British women in India. By the mid-19th century, there were around 40,000 British soldiers, but fewer than 2,000 British officials present in India. Under Regulation VIII of 1813, they were excluded from the British legal system and in Bengal became subject to the rule of Islamic law outside Calcutta – and yet found themselves without any caste or status amongst those who were to judge them.
In 1821, a pamphlet entitled "Thoughts on how to better the condition of Indo-Britons" by a "Practical Reformer," was written to promote the removal of prejudices existing in the minds of young Eurasians against engaging in trades. This was followed up by another pamphlet, entitled "An Appeal on behalf of Indo-Britons." Prominent Eurasians in Calcutta formed the "East Indian Committee" with a view to send a petition to the British Parliament for the redress of their grievances. John William Ricketts, a pioneer in the Eurasian cause, volunteered to proceed to England, his mission was successful, on his return to India, by way of Madras, he received quite an ovation from his countrymen in that presidency. In April 1834, in obedience to an Act of Parliament passed in August 1833, the Indian Government was forced to grant government jobs to Anglo-Indians; as British women began arriving in India in large numbers around the early to mid-19th century as family members of officers and soldiers, British men became less to marry Indian women.
Intermarriage declined after the events of the Rebellion of 1857, after which several anti-miscegenation laws were implemented. As a result, Eurasians were neglected by both the Indian populations in India. Over generations, Anglo-Indians intermarried with other Anglo-Indians to form a community that developed a culture of its own, their cuisine, dress and religion all served to further segregate them from the native population. A number of factors fostered a strong sense of community among Anglo-Indians, their English language school system, their Anglo-centric culture, their Christian beliefs in particular helped bind them together. They formed social clubs and associations to run functions, including regular dances on occasions such as Christmas and Easter. Indeed, their Christmas balls, held in most major cities, still form a distinctive part of Indian Christian culture. Over time Anglo-Indians were recruited into the Customs and Excise and Telegraphs, Forestry Department, the railways and teaching professions – but they were employed in many other fields as well.
The Anglo-Indian community had a role as go-betweens in the introduction of Western musical styles and instruments in post-Independence India. During the colonial era, genres including ragtime and jazz were played by bands for the social elites, these bands contained Anglo-Indian members. During the independence movement, many Anglo-Indians identified with British rule, therefore, incurred the distrust and hostility of Indian nationalists, their position at independence was difficult. They felt a loyalty to a British "home" that most had never seen and where they would gain little social acceptance, they felt insecure in an India that put a premium on participation in the independence movement as a prerequisite for important government positions. Many Anglo-Indians left the country in 1947, hoping to make a new life in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Australia or Canada; the exodus continued through the 1950s and 1960s and by the late 1990s most had left with many of th
Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, was formed to write Pakistan's constitution and serve as its first parliament. It was preceded by the Constituent Assembly of India, which first met in the Indian Parliament on December 9, 1946 in Delhi, while India was still under British rule, it included the provinces that now compose Pakistan and Bangladesh, the representation of the princely states of India. In June 1947 the representatives of the Constituent Assembly of India from Sindh, East Bengal, West Punjab and the North West Frontier Province withdrew to form the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, meeting in Karachi. On August 15, 1947, following the partition of India, twenty-eight members of the Muslim League remained in the Indian Constituent Assembly, apart from 93 members who were from the princely states. Pakistan's Constituent Assembly first convened on August 11, 1947, on the eve of independence and the end of British rule. Muhammad Ali Jinnah remained its president until his death on September 11, 1948.
Subsequently, Liaquat Ali Khan headed it for three years and produced the Objectives Resolution, adopted by the Constituent Assembly in 1949 as an annex to Pakistan's constitution. It is important to mention; the assembly had a majority of Muslim League members, with the Pakistan National Congress, the successor to the INC in the state, forming the second largest party. The assembly was criticized for its incompetence. Addressing a rally in Lahore on October 14, 1950, Maulana Maududi demanded its dissolution, arguing that the "lampost legislators" were incapable of drawing up an Islamic constitution. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy said that assembly did not possess any of the characteristics of a democratic parliament, he argued that the nation would overlook any unconstitutional action on the governor general's part if he exorcised the fascist demon and established representative institutions. In contrast, the Constituent Assembly of India, which had more diversity, took less than two and a half years to draw up the Constitution of India.
The Indian constitution was promulgated on January 26, 1950, first general elections were held in 1952. The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was dissolved on October 24, 1954, by Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad; the dissolution was challenged by the president of the assembly in the notable case of Federation of Pakistan v. Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan, in which the federal court took the side of the governor general, in spite of dissent from one judge. Mohammad Ali Bogra was the Prime Minister of Pakistan at the time; the second Constituent Assembly reconstituted on May 28, 1955. The constitution was promulgated on March 23, 1956, Pakistan became an Islamic republic. On October 7, 1958, martial law was imposed on the country; the new regime abrogated the constitution. After coming to power, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto invited the leaders of the parliamentary parties to meet him on October 17, 1972, which resulted in an agreement known as the'constitutional accord', after an intensive discussion; as per consultations floated by the PPP, the National Assembly of Pakistan appointed a 25-member committee, on April 17, 1972, to prepare a draft of the permanent constitution of Pakistan.
Mahmud Ali Kasuri was the elected chairman of the committee. On October 20, 1972, the draft bill for the constitution was signed by leaders of all parliamentary groups in the National Assembly. A bill to provide a constitution for the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was introduced in the assembly on February 2, 1973; the assembly passed the bill nearly unanimously on April 10, 1973 and it was endorsed by the acting President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on April 12, 1973. The constitution came into effect on August 14, 1973. On the same day, Bhutto took over as the prime minister and Choudhary Fazal-e-Elahi as the president. On July 5, 1977, General Zia staged a military coup and suspended the constitution, restored in 1985; when General Musharraf took over in 1999, the constitution was suspended for several years. Constituent assembly History of Pakistan's National Assembly