click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Central London Railway

The Central London Railway known as the Twopenny Tube, was a deep-level, underground "tube" railway that opened in London in 1900. The CLR's tunnels and stations form the central section of the London Underground's Central line; the railway company was established in 1889, funding for construction was obtained in 1895 through a syndicate of financiers and work took place from 1896 to 1900. When opened, the CLR served 13 stations and ran underground in a pair of tunnels for 9.14 kilometres between its western terminus at Shepherd's Bush and its eastern terminus at the Bank of England, with a depot and power station to the north of the western terminus. After a rejected proposal to turn the line into a loop, it was extended at the western end to Wood Lane in 1908 and at the eastern end to Liverpool Street station in 1912. In 1920, it was extended along a Great Western Railway line to Ealing to serve a total distance of 17.57 kilometres. After making good returns for investors, the CLR suffered a decline in passenger numbers due to increased competition from other underground railway lines and new motorised buses.

In 1913, it was taken over by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, operator of the majority of London's underground railways. In 1933 the CLR was taken into public ownership along with the UERL. In November 1889, the CLR published a notice of a private bill that would be presented to Parliament for the 1890 parliamentary session; the bill proposed an underground electric railway running from the junction of Queen's Road and Bayswater Road in Bayswater to King William Street in the City of London with a connection to the then-under construction and South London Railway at Arthur Street West. The CLR was to run in a pair of tunnels under Bayswater Road, Oxford Street, New Oxford Street, High Holborn, Holborn Viaduct, Newgate Street and Poultry. Stations were planned at Queen's Road, Stanhope Terrace, Marble Arch, Oxford Circus, Tottenham Court Road, Southampton Row, Holborn Circus, St. Martin's Le Grand and King William Street; the tunnels were to be 11 feet in diameter, constructed with a tunnelling shield, would be lined with cast iron segments.

At stations, the tunnel diameter would be 29 feet depending on layout. A depot and power station were to be constructed on a 1.5-acre site on the west side of Queen's Road. Hydraulic lifts from the street to the platforms were to be provided at each station; the proposals faced strong objections from the Metropolitan and District Railways whose routes on the Inner Circle, to the north and the south the CLR route paralleled. The City Corporation objected, concerned about potential damage to buildings close to the route caused by subsidence as was experienced during the construction of the C&SLR; the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral objected, concerned about the risks of undermining the cathedral's foundations. Sir Joseph Bazalgette objected; the bill was approved by the House of Commons, but was rejected by the House of Lords, which recommended that any decision be postponed until after the C&SLR had opened and its operation could be assessed. In November 1890, with the C&SLR about to start operating, the CLR announced a new bill for the 1891 parliamentary session.

The route was extended at the western end to run under Notting Hill High Street and Holland Park Avenue to end at the eastern corner of Shepherd's Bush Green, with the depot and power station site relocated to be north of the terminus on the east side of Wood Lane. The westward extension of the route was inspired by the route of abandoned plans for the London Central Subway, a sub-surface railway, proposed in early 1890 to run directly below the roadway on a similar route to the CLR; the eastern terminus was changed to Cornhill and the proposed Southampton Row station was replaced by one in Bloomsbury. Intermediate stations were added at Lansdowne Road, Notting Hill Gate, Davies Street and at Chancery Lane; the earlier plan to connect to the C&SLR was dropped and the diameter of the CLR's tunnels was increased to 11 feet 6 inches. This time the bill was approved by both Houses of Parliament and received Royal Assent on 5 August 1891 as the Central London Railway Act, 1891. In November 1891, the CLR publicised another bill.

The eastern end of the line was re-routed north-east and extended to end under the Great Eastern Railway's terminus at Liverpool Street station with the Cornhill terminus dropped and a new station proposed at the Royal Exchange. The proposals received assent as the Central London Railway Act, 1892 on 28 June 1892; the money to build the CLR was obtained through a syndicate of financiers including Ernest Cassel, Henry Oppenheim, Darius Ogden Mills, members of the Rothschild family. On 22 March 1894, the syndicate incorporated a contractor to construct the railway, the Electric Traction Company Limited, which agreed a construction cost of £2,544,000 plus £700,000 in 4 per cent debenture stock; when the syndicate offered 285,000 CLR company shares for sale at £10 each in June 1895, only 14 per cent was bought by the British public, cautious of such investments following failures of similar railway schemes. Some shares were sold in Europe and the United States, but the unsold remainder was bought by members of the syndicate or by the ETCL.

To design the railway, the CLR employed the engineers James Henry Greathead, Sir John Fowler, Sir Benjamin Baker. Greathead

Smile (Smile.dk album)

Smile is the debut album by Swedish pop band Smile.dk. The album sold gold in Japan, Smile.dk received "Best International Girl Group" in Hong Kong in 1998. All songs produced by Robert Uhlmann and Robin Rex. "Butterfly" – 2:58 "Coconut" – 3:23 "Sweet Senorita" – 3:10 "Middle of the Night" – 3:24 "Tick-Tock" – 3:00 "Get Out" – 3:12 "Boys" – 3:06 "Mr. Wonderful" – 3:14 "Knock Knock" – 3:16 "Comme Ci Comme Ca" – 3:03 "Happy In Love" – 3:26

Deep ocean minerals

Deep ocean minerals are mineral nutrients extracted from deep ocean water found at ocean depths of between 250 and 1500 meters. DOW contains over 70 mineral nutrients and trace elements including magnesium and potassium in their bio ionic form. To extract these products, DOW is treated with micro filtration and reverse osmosis to desalinate and concentrate magnesium, other minerals and trace elements whilst eliminating the salt. Although research about DOM is in its early stages, as it is a source of electrolytes that can help metabolize carbohydrate and fat plus maintain bone and muscle function, health benefits are possible; the abundance of minerals and trace elements is of note as deficiencies in macro minerals and micro trace elements can lead to premature aging, immune dysfunction and susceptibility to cardiovascular related diseases. The minerals and trace elements present in DOW have three important functions: Provide the structure to our organs and bones – calcium, magnesium and sulfur.

The electrolyte form facilitates body fluid activity in tissues to maintain fluid balance, acid-base balance, membrane permeability, tissue irritability - sodium, chloride and magnesium in blood, all present in DOMs. Magnesium alone catalyses up to 600 enzyme and hormone reactions. Sea water has had a long history of therapeutic use, referred to as ‘Thalassotherapy’ it originates from the Greek word'thalassa’. Both the Greeks and the Romans used the therapeutic effects of sea water for relaxation and stimulation. Books on the healing power of sea water first appeared in the 17th Century and until the early 20th Century seaside holidays were both therapeutic and recreational. In 1897, René Quinton published the first comprehensive scientific thesis advocating the medical use of sea water in his book, Seawater Organic Matrix, 1904, he discovered the similarity between nutrient profile in micro algae ocean water and our blood nutrient profile. He noted that the ratios of minerals in both fluids were similar with the exception of sodium chloride, which he adjusted.

Quinton selected sea water from regions which contained micro algae. There are three distinctly different layers of ocean water - Surface Sea Water, Deep Ocean Water and Very Deep Ocean Water; each layer remains separate and autonomous from the others, moving at different speeds and directions from different kinetic forces and having different temperatures and life form status. The surface sea water layer is influenced by sunlight penetration and circulates in unison with the seasons and wind patterns to a depth of 250 meters, it supports micro and animal life. The middle layer is DOW where the water is free of life forms, it is characterized not only by its mineral density but cold temperature and trace elements. DOW is present at depths of between 1500 meters; this deep ocean current moves slowly under the influence of density and temperature gradients. The high mineral density is attributed to the depth related pressure and the change in temperature from 20 °C+ at the surface to 8 °C at 600 meters depth generates the movement of this layer.

Deep ocean water has been discovered in a number of troughs in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Depths can range from 1500 meters to 15 kilometers and life forms are supported where volcanic processes bring heat and minerals to the seabed floor. DOM creation begins when the summer ice melts from the Sub Arctic region; the melting water trace elements during its journey to the ocean. The minerals make the water heavier so the water sinks to the ocean floor where it commences a 2000-year journey, it flows southwards down the Atlantic Ocean, moves around the African Cape and inches north through the Indian Ocean and into the western Pacific Ocean, first coming close to land at Taiwan Okinawa and Hawaii and arching back south, towards the Antarctica where the changing sea water temperatures from the summer sun force the deep ocean water to the surface to feed the largest micro and macro food chain on our planet. The east coast of Taiwan is directly adjacent to one of the largest reservoirs of accessible DOW.

The southern islands off Japan and Hawaii have land access to deep ocean water. Taiwan´s East Coast is ideally located to siphon deep ocean water directly to the surface from the coast, it is micro filtered, followed by reverse osmosis to desalinate and concentrate the magnesium and other minerals and trace elements at the expense of sodium chloride. Over the past 15 years, there have been many new publications establishing DOM as statistically significant with regards improved cardiovascular and metabolic function. Recent clinical research from Taiwan and Korea shows statistically significant therapeutic health benefits from either topical or oral consumption of DOM. In 2009, scientists at the National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan, published the first notable wistar rat treadmill fatigue study. Researchers used desalinated deep ocean water processed with ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis to increase magnesium levels and hardness; the water was sourced from the East Coast of Taiwan. The Study showed that the DOM experimental groups were better than the control group with regards exhausting time and the ratio of lactic acid elimination to lactic acid increment.

Summarizing the results, the researchers suggested that endurance, adaptation for exercising load and accelerating elimination in fatigue of rats could be improved when fed with DOM of higher ha

Balestier Khalsa FC

Balestier Khalsa Football Club is a professional football club which plays in Singapore Premier League. The club's logo depicts the nickname of the club, on top of a pair of Kirpan; the logo is made up of key elements from the two clubs. The Tiger is the mascot of the Balestier half of the merged entity while the kirpan is a religious dagger worn by members of the Sikh faith, who were a major backer of half of the merged entity through the Clementi club. Tracing their origins all the way back to 1898, the club was formed as Fathul Karib and based in Farrer Park. One of the highlights over the following half century, before the side was renamed Balestier United Recreation Club in the 1970s, was providing nine players to the Singapore side which competed in the 1958 Asian Games, losing 2–1 to both continental heavyweights South Korea and Israel; the club's name was changed to Balestier United Recreation Club in April 1975, when it joined the inaugural National Football League. The team captured the Singapore Cup in 1958 and 1992.

The club played in the Singapore Premier League from 1988 to 1995. The club became the first club in Singapore to bring in foreign players when they signed two Yugoslavian players, Josko Spanjic and Boris Lucic, for the 1989 season. Balestier United are still active in local football, competing in the National Football League Division 1. Former Balestier Khalsa players such, Ruhaizad Ismail, Daniel Ong and Syafiq Zainal all playing for this team currently. In 1996, Balestier United Recreational Club became a founder member of the S. League and changed its name to Balestier Central. Clementi Khalsa was formed as a club to represent Singapore's Sikh community and joined the S. League in 1999. Prior to the merger with Balestier Central, the club was based in the Clementi area of Singapore and played its home games at the Clementi Stadium; the club is an amalgamation of Balestier Central Football Club and Clementi Khalsa Football Club who merged at the end of the 2002 S. League season. Due to its link with Clementi Khalsa, the club is popular amongst Singapore's Sikh community.

On 10 August 2012, Balestier Khalsa won the first League Cup Plate Final as the team defeated Young Lions in the Jalan Besar Stadium. In 2013, Darren Stewart signed several players from his former team, Gombak United and formed a strong foundation of the team, including foreign players Kim Min-ho and Park Kang-jin, together with Singapore national team player Qiu Li and proved to be a success. On 14 September 2013, The Tigers went one level higher by scoring a huge 4–0 win over DPMM FC in the League Cup Final and clinched their first silverware. Captain, Paul Cunningham and the team lift the trophy as well as clinching 3rd placing in the Singapore Cup. Balestier Khalsa signed former U-21 Croatian international Goran Ljubojević on 11 February 2014 as their first marquee signing; as well as Emir Lotinac of Serbia from Novi Pazar. The Tigers won their first Singapore Cup on 7 November 2014, beating Home United 3–1 with Goran and Park scoring the goals. Thus, qualified for AFC Cup in the following year.

The Tigers make their continental competition debut on 24 February 2015, losing 0–3 to Hong Kong Premier League champions, Kitchee. 10 March, they held eventual 2015 champions, Johor Darul Ta'zim to goalless draw but the visitor scored in the stoppage time. Balestier Khalsa got their historical first win in the following week, Jonathan Xu scoring his and Tiger's maiden AFC Cup goal and Miroslav Krištić's goal beating East Bengal 2–1. On 10 July 2015, Balestier Khalsa lost narrowly 2–1 against Albirex Niigata to finish runner up in the League Cup. In 2016, Balestier Khalsa qualified for AFC Cup as Singapore's 2nd best local team and got their first away goals/ point in the AFC Cup, held Dhivehi Premier League champions, New Radiant 2–2 at Malé, they continue to improved their run in the competition and winning Kitchee & New Radiant 1–0 and 3–0 at home. Balestier Khalsa finished 4th in the Singapore Cup after losing to Ceres-La Salle in the third place playoff. In 2017, due to tight budget, Balestier Khalsa signed 3 Myanmar national football team players, Aung Kyaw Naing, Kyaw Zayar Win, Nanda Lin Kyaw Chit from Nay Pyi Taw, Ayeyawady United and Yadanabon respectively.

As of 26 February 2020Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Remarks:U23 These players are under the age of 23 to fulfill the league requirement of minimum of 6 U-23 players per team. Prime League Winners: 2012, 2013 Singapore Cup Winners: 2014Community Shield Runners-up: 2015League Cup Winners: 2013 Runners-up: 2015League Cup Plate Tournament Winners: 2012 Runners-up: 2014FA Cup Winners: 2012President's Cup Winners: 1992FAS Challenge Cup Winners: 1958 As Balestier Central/ Balestier Khalsa As Clementi Khalsa The 1996 season of the S. League was split into two series. 2003 saw the introduction of penalty shoot-outs. Winners of penalty shoot-outs gained two points instead of one. Official club website S. League website page on Balestier Khalsa FC

João de Lemos

João de Lemos Seixas Castelo Branco was a Portuguese journalist and dramatist. Lemos was born in Peso da Régua, he was known as "the troubadour" in Coimbra, where he graduated in Law, thanks the publication of the poetic newspaper O Trovador. Besides João, director of that publication, were part of The Troubadour: Luís da Costa Pereira, António Xavier Rodrigues Cordeiro, José Freire de Serpa, Augusto Lima and Couto Monteiro. João collaborated with other periodicals, as exemplified by the comedy newspaper The Comedy Portuguese, where he started publishing in 1888; the funeral and the dove: Poem in 5 corners Songbook I - Flowers and Lovers II - Faith and Fatherland III - Impressions and Recollections Elisa's book: Fragments Songs Afternoon Evenings Village Uncle Damian: lyric Monk Painter Maria Pais Ribeira: drama in four acts A happy shock: comedy The Friars He and She The Inquisition of 1850 Works by João de Lemos at Project Gutenberg Works by or about João de Lemos at Internet Archive Comedy Portuguese: weekly chronicle of customs cases, politics and lettras

Oleksandr Vilkul

Oleksandr Vilkul or Aleksandr Vilkul is a Ukrainian Statesman, former Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine, Chief of State commission for technogenic and ecological safety and emergency situation. His father Yuri Vilkul has been Mayor of Kryvyi Rih since 2010. Born on 24 May 1974 in Kryvyi Rih. In 1996 graduated from Kryvyi Rih Technical University with a specialization in "Open Cast Mining", he started his career as an Assistant of Engine Driver of excavator at OJSC "Southern Iron Ore Enrichment Works", served as Mining Master. 1997-2001 – Led Commercial and Finance Department, General Deputy Director. 2001-2002 – Vice President of Economics and Foreign Economic Relations of Public Organization "Academy of Mining Science of Ukraine". 2002-2003 – Deputy Chief Executive of Southern Iron Ore Enrichment Works. 2003-2004 - General Director of Central Iron Ore Enrichment Works. 2004-2006 – General Director of CGOK and Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works 2006-2010 - Honorary President of CGOK and NGOK. Over 5 years period, he was in the top 10 of Ukrainian Top Managers according to ratings of "TOP100.

Best Top Managers of Ukraine" and "Guards of Managers". From 2006 he was elected as MP of the 5th convocation. In July 2006 he was elected as Vice Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Committee on issues of Industrial and Regulatory Policy and Entrepreneurship. From 2003 Vilkul became a member of Party of Regions. From 2005 he is a Chief of Kryvorizhska State Organization of the Party of Regions. In 2004 and 2006 was a Head of Kryvorizhskyi electoral headquarters of the Party of Regions. On early parliamentary election in 2007 became MP of Ukraine of the 6th convocation, he was Vice Chairman of Parliamentary Committee on Industrial and Regulatory Policy and Entrepreneurship. Being Ukrainian People’s Deputy, Oleksandr Vilkul, had achieved redistribution of charge emission in favour of local government budgets; as a result, regions got 70% of ecological dues. In 2007 he was a head of electoral headquarter of the Party of Regions and in 2010 - electoral headquarter of the candidate for Presidency of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovich at Dnipropetrovsk Region.

From March 2010 Oleksandr Vilkul is a Head of Dnipropetrovsk Regional Organization of the Party of Regions. 18 March 2010, according to Decree of the President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovich No.384/2010 Vilkul was appointed Chairman of Dnipropetrovsk Regional State Administration. From November 2010 Vilkul is a Deputy of Dnipropetrovsk Regional Council, he was elected by majority voted system and got 83,17% votes of electors. 24 December 2012 by Decree of the President of Ukraine he was appointed as a Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine. According to The Ukrainian Week Vilkul is linked to Ukrainian oligarch Rinat Akhmetov. On 18 March 2010 by the Decree of the President of Ukraine Oleksandr Vilkul was appointed the President of the State Administration of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. According to the "Comments" weekly newspaper, in 2010 Oleksandr Vilkul was recognized the best Governor in Ukraine, and following the results of the year of 2011, Oleksandr Vilkul became the winner of the national award "Person of the Year", having won the category "Regional Leader."

24 December 2012 by the Decree of the President of Ukraine Vilkul was appointed Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine. The sphere of competence of Oleksandr Vilkul as Vice-Prime Minister of Ukraine includes the following areas: Development of infrastructure and logistical capacity of the country; the Yatsenyuk Government, without a post for Vilkul, was created in Ukraine in the aftermath of the Ukrainian revolution on 27 February 2014. Vilkul was elected MP during the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election for Opposition Bloc. Vilkul was nominated by his party Opposition Bloc on 17 December 2018 to be their candidate in the 2019 Ukrainian presidential election, but a Ukrainian court ruled three days before that Opposition Bloc's congress at which Vikul was to be nominated could not "reorganize the party by any means". On 18 December 2018 the website of Opposition Bloc stated that therefore all the decisions made at the congress were invalid. On 20 December 2018 the website of Opposition Bloc was down.

Vilkul was nominated for the presidency again by Opposition Bloc - Party for Development and Peace on 20 January 2019. On 7 March 2019 Evgeny Murayev pulled out of the election favor of Vilkul, he announced that the Vilkul party Opposition Bloc and Muraev's Nashi would soon merge. Vilkul lost the election, coming in 8th place out of the 39 candidates in the first round with 784,274 votes which represented 4.15%. The election was won by Volodymyr Zelensky in the second round, defeating incumbent Petro Poroshenko. Vilkul was in the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election at the top of the nationwide party-list of Opposition Bloc, but the nationwide list of this party won 3.23% of the votes and thus did not overcame the 5% election barrier keeping him out of parliament. Marital Status – married to Olena Anatoliivna Vilkul, they have a daughter Maria. From 2003 – 2006 – The Rector of Krivorozhskiy Technical University. From August 2006 until June 2010 – Head of Dnipropetrovsk Regional Council of the 5th convocation.

Wrote a statement of Resignation as a Head of Dnipropetrovsk Reg