Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l
Cities of the Philippines
A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific municipal charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies their administrative structure and powers; as of December 12, 2015, there were 145 cities. A city is entitled to at least one representative in the Philippine House of Representatives if its population reaches 250,000. Cities are allowed to use a common seal; as corporate entities, cities have the power to take, receive, lease and dispose of real and personal property for its general interests, condemn private property for public use, contract and be contracted with and exercise all the powers conferred to it by Congress. Only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, with this city charter Congress confers on a city certain powers that regular municipalities or other cities may not have. Despite the differences in the powers accorded to each city, all cities regardless of status are given a bigger share of the Internal Revenue Allotment compared to regular municipalities, as well as being more autonomous than regular municipalities.
A city's local government is headed by a mayor elected by popular vote. The vice mayor serves as the presiding officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod, which serves as the city's legislative body. Upon receiving their charters, cities receive a full complement of executive departments to better serve their constituents; some departments are established depending on the needs of the city. Source: Local Government Code of 1991. Cities, like municipalities, are composed of barangays, which can range from urban neighborhoods, to rural communities. Barangays are sometimes grouped into defined administrative districts. Examples of such are the cities of Manila, Davao and Samal; some cities such as Caloocan and Pasay have an intermediate level between the district and barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic districts and zones are not political units. Rather they only serve to make city planning, statistics-gathering other administrative tasks easier and more convenient. Cities are classified according to average annual income of the city based on the previous four calendar years.
Effective July 28, 2008 the thresholds for the income classes for cities are: The Local Government Code of 1991 classifies all cities into one of three legal categories: Highly Urbanized Cities: Cities with a minimum population of two hundred thousand inhabitants, as certified by the Philippine Statistics Authority, with the latest annual income of at least fifty million pesos based on 1991 constant prices, as certified by the city treasurer. There are 33 urbanized cities in the Philippines, 16 of which are located in Metro Manila. Independent Component Cities: Cities of this type have charters that explicitly prohibit their residents from voting for provincial officials. All five of them are considered independent from the province in which they are geographically located: Cotabato, Naga and Santiago. Component Cities: Cities which do not meet the preceding requirements are deemed part of the province in which they are geographically located. If a component city is located along the boundaries of two or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality.
All but five of the remaining cities are considered component cities. There are 38 independent cities in the Philippines, all of which are classified as either "Highly urbanized" or "Independent component" cities. From a legal and fiscal standpoint, once a city is classified as such: its Sangguniang Panlungsod legislation is no longer subject to review by any province's Sangguniang Panlalawigan. There are only four independent cities that can still participate in the election of provincial officials: Cities declared as urbanized between 1987 and 1992, whose charters explicitly permit residents to both vote and run for elective positions in the provincial government, therefore allowed by Section 452-c of the Local Government Code to maintain these rights: Lucena, Mandaue. In addition to the eligibility of some independent cities to vote in provincial elections, a few other situations become sources of confusion regarding the complete autonomy of independent cities from provinces: Some independent cities still serve as the seat of government for the province in which they are geographically located: Bacolod, Cagayan d
Metropolitan Manila is the seat of government and one of the three defined metropolitan areas of the Philippines. It is known as the National Capital Region, is known as Metro Manila or Manila, it is made up of 16 cities namely: the City of Manila, Quezon City, Las Piñas, Malabon, Marikina, Navotas, Parañaque, Pasig, San Juan and Valenzuela, as well as the municipality of Pateros. The region encompasses an area of 619.57 km2 and has a population of 12,877,253 as of 2015. It is the most densely populated region of the Philippines, it is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in Asia and the 5th most populous urban area in the world. The region is the center of culture, economy and government of the Philippines. Designated as a global power city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, both locally and internationally, it is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines, thereby making it an important center for international diplomacy in the country.
Its economic power makes the region the country's premier center for commerce. The region accounts for 37.2% of the gross domestic product of the Philippines. The region was established in 1975 through Presidential Decree No. 824 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population and for the creation for the center of political power and the seat of the Government of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the predecessor entity of the region, is one of the first eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines at the end of the 19th century. Manila's role in the Revolution is honored in the Flag of the Philippines, where the sun's eight rays symbolize the eight revolutionary provinces. A historical province known as Manila encompassed territories once held by various pre-Hispanic polities; this included the well-known Pasig River delta settlements of Maynila and Tondo, but smaller settlements such as those at Tambobong, Taguig and the fortified polity of Cainta.
It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power. In 1898, it included the City of 23 other municipalities. Mariquina served as the capital from 1898–1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States; the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the original global cities; the Manila galleon was the first known commercially traveled trade route that sailed the Pacific for 250 years, bringing to Spain their cargoes of luxury goods, economic benefits, cultural exchange. During the American period, at the time of the Philippine Commonwealth, American architect and urban designer Daniel Burnham was commissioned to create the grand Plan of Manila to be approved by the Philippine Government; the creation of Manila in 1901 is composed of the places and parishes of Binondo, Intramuros, Manila, Quiapo, San Andrés Bukid, San Fernando de Dilao, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana de Sapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo.
Meanwhile, the towns and parishes of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area were incorporated into the province of Rizal. Pasig serves as its provincial capital. In 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed; the establishment of Quezon City meant the demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more the loss of more than 100,000 lives at the Battle of Manila in 1945. On, Quezon City was declared as the national capital in 1948; the title was re-designated back to Manila in 1976 through Presidential Decree No. 940 owing to its historical significance as the uninterrupted seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period.
Presidential Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the Philippines being the center of trade, commerce and culture. During the war, President Manuel L. Quezon created the City of Greater Manila as an emergency measure, merging the cities of Manila and Quezon City, along with the municipalities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Pasig, Parañaque, Navotas, San Juan del Monte, San Pedro de Macati, San Felipe Neri and the Taguig-Pateros area. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor. Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town; this was in order to ensure Vargas, Quezon's principal lieutenant for administrative matters, would have a position of authority recognized under international military law. The City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country.
The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila and the administrative functions of the Governor of Metro Manila, established during the Marcos administration. On November 7, 1975, Metro Manila was formally established th
Cagayan Valley is an administrative region in the Philippines located in the northeastern portion of Luzon. It is composed of five provinces: Batanes, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino; the region has four cities: Cauayan, Ilagan and Tuguegarao. Most of the region lies in a large valley in northeastern Luzon, between the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre mountain ranges; the eponymous Cagayan River, the country's largest and second longest, runs through its center and flows out from its source in the Caraballo Mountains in the south to the Luzon Strait in the north, in the town of Aparri, Cagayan. The region encompasses the outlying islands of the Batanes to the north. Cagayan Valley is the second largest region of the Philippines in terms of land area, second only to MIMAROPA. Archaeology indicates that Cagayan has been inhabited for half a million years, though no human remains of any such antiquity have yet appeared; the earliest inhabitants are the Agta, or Atta, food-gatherers who roam the forests without fixed abodes.
A large tract of land has been returned to them. The bulk of the population are of Malay origin. For centuries before the coming of the Spanish, the inhabitants traded with Indians, Malays and Japanese. In the nineteenth century the prosperity found in tobacco cultivation caused many Ilokano to settle here. Tobacco is still a major factor in the economy of Cagayan, though a special economic zone and free port has been created to strengthen and diversify the provincial economy. During Spanish times Cagayan Valley had a larger territory than, it included the territories of the above-mentioned provinces and the eastern parts of the Cordillera provinces of Apayao, Kalinga and Benguet. As the historian and missionary Jose Burgues, said, "The old Cagayan Valley comprises the province of Cagayan and Nueva Vizcaya as well as the military Districts of Apayao, Quiangan and Bintangan, plus the area of the Sierra Madre to the Pacific Ocean in the said trajectory."During World War II at Balete Pass in Nueva Vizcaya, the retreating Japanese under General Tomoyuki Yamashita dug in and held on for three months against the American and Filipino forces who drove them out.
Cagayan Valley is the large mass of land in the northeastern region of Luzon, comprising the provinces of Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya and the Batanes group of islands. It is bordered to the west by the Cordillera mountain range, to the east by the Sierra Madre, to the south by the Caraballo Mountains, to the north by the Luzon Strait; the region contains two landlocked provinces and Nueva Vizcaya, which are ruggedly mountainous and forested. Nueva Vizcaya is the remnant of the southern province created when Cagayan Province was divided in two in 1839, they are ethnically and linguistically diverse, with a substrate of Agtas, Negritos who are food-gatherers with no fixed abodes, overlaid by Ilongots and others in a number of tribes, some of whom were fierce head-hunters, with the latest but largest element of the population being the Ilocanos followed by the Ibanags. Cagayan Valley comprises five provinces, one independent city, three component cities, 89 municipalities, 2,311 barangays; the province of Isabela and the city of Santiago are notably the most progressive province and city in the region, respectively.
Isabela was the 10th richest province in the Philippines in 2011, being the only province of northern Luzon to be included in the list. The city of Tuguegarao is the center of excellence in education, commerce and culture and as the economic center of the region, the city continuously aims for outstanding performance and competence in administration, citizen participation and economic development, cultural arts, fiscal management, intergovernmental cooperation, public safety and leisure services, social services, technology, its economy shifted from agriculture to secondary/tertiary economic activities such as trading and services. The shift was ushered by city's role as the Regional Government Center and Center of Commerce in Northern Luzon. Cauayan is a component city in the province of Isabela, it is dubbed as the Ideal City of the North and the host city for the proposed Isabela Special Economic Zone and the Regional Agro-Industrial Growth Center. It is the home of Cosmos Bottling Corporation, now acquired by the giant multinational business conglomerate San Miguel Corporation manufactures soft drinks in the area and the Mega Asia Bottling Corporation with its newly built plant for RC Cola brand.
It is here where the regional sales offices of several multi-national companies are located. As a young city, it has enormous potential for small to large enterprises and its real estate industry is just beginning. Medium size commercial centers or subdivisions are the appropriate ventures to put up. Ilagan is the capital of the province of Isabela; the city is the Corn Capital of the Philippines and has been considered as the Primary Growth Center of Region 2. Most of the industries in the city are agri-based. Over the past decades, there has been a great number of local investments in poultry and hog raising. There are small and medium scale hog raisers in the city. Other support facilities and small and big rice mills, strategically located in the different barangays of the city to address the storage ne
Aurora is a province in the Philippines located in the eastern part of Central Luzon region, facing the Philippine Sea. Its capital is Baler and borders, clockwise from the south, the provinces of Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya and Isabela. Before 1979, Aurora was part of the province of Quezon. Aurora was, in fact, named after Aurora Aragon, the wife of Pres. Manuel L. Quezon, the president of the Philippine Commonwealth, after whom the mother province was named. In 1572, the Spanish explorer Juan de Salcedo became the first European to visit the region that would be known as Aurora while he was exploring the northern coast of Luzon. Salcedo visited the towns of Casiguran and Infanta. In the early days of the Spanish colonial period, Aurora was ecclesiastically linked to Infanta, which today rests further south, in northern Quezon; the earliest missionaries in the province were the Franciscans, who had established missions in Baler and Casiguran in 1609. Due to lack of available personnel, the region was given to the jurisdiction of the Augustinians and Recollects in 1658, but was returned to the Friars Minor in 1703.
Other early missions included Dipaculao, established in 1719, Casiguran, in 1753. The early history of Aurora is linked to Quezon province, of which it formed a part, Nueva Ecija, under which the area was governed as the District of El Príncipe. In 1902, the district was separated from Nueva Ecija and transferred to the province of Tayabas. Aurora became a sub-province of Quezon in 1951 through Republic Act No. 648, became an independent province during the presidency of Ferdinand E. Marcos, through Batas Pambansa Blg. 7 enacted on August 13, 1979. As original part of the province of Quezon, Aurora was part of the Southern Tagalog Region. Upon the issuance of Executive Order No. 103, dated May 17, 2002, by then-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, the province of Aurora was moved to Central Luzon. The provinces south of Aurora formed as Mimaropa. Aurora is a coastal province covering an area of 3,147.32 square kilometres in east-central Luzon. To the north, it is bordered by the Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park of Isabela, to the west by the central range of the Sierra Madre which contains the Casecnan Protected Landscape and Aurora Memorial National Park, to the south by the Umiray River, to the east by the Philippine Sea which opens to the Philippine Sea.
The San Ildefonso Peninsula lies in the province's northern portion between the Philippine Sea and the Casiguran Sound. The province covers a portion of the Sierra Madre mountain range; as such, the elevation is steep to steep and only about 14% of the province's total area is flat. Aurora's climate is classified as Tropical rainforest climate, it experiences significant rainfall throughout the year. Because the coastal province faces the Pacific Ocean, it is visited by typhoons. Aurora is politically subdivided into 8 municipalities, all encompassed by a lone legislative district; the 8 municipalities of the province comprise a total of 151 barangays, with Suclayin in Baler as the most populous in 2010, Dibalo in San Luis as the least. The population of Aurora in the 2015 census was 214,336 people, with a density of 68 inhabitants per square kilometre or 180 inhabitants per square mile. Based on the 2000 census survey, Tagalogs comprised 52.85% of the total provincial population of 173,589, about less than 1/3 of the population were Ilocano at 31.43%.
Other ethnic groups in the province were Kasiguranin at 5.1%, Bicolano at 4.08%, Kankanaey at 1.36%, Bisaya at 0.88%, Dumagat at 0.6%, Cebuano at 0.48%. There are pockets of Negritos, called Dumagats. Most Dumagats are living in the mountains, they are believed to have result from a fusion of Austronesian and Melanesian ancestries, survive from fishing and hunting. There are three kinds of Dumagats in Aurora province, the Umiray Dumagat, Casiguran Dumagat, the Palanan Dumagat; the people of Aurora are Christianized as a result of hundreds of years of Spanish colonization. Some other Christian believers are present which includes Aglipayan Church, Born Again Christians, Jehovah's Witnesses, Members Church of God International, Iglesia Ni Cristo and Seventh-day Adventist while Muslims are found which presence is traced to migration by some people from some parts of Mindanao. Muslims, Anitists and atheists are present in the province. Corn crops and other major agricultural crops are grown in Aurora.
It has a total of 928 or 13 % of provincial Land Area of Agricultural land. It has 8,945 hectares of rice plantation that averages 24,000 ton every years. Casiguran is home to the Aurora Pacific Economic Zone and Freeport Authority or APECO a special economic zone located in this coastal town. Created in 2007 by virtue of Republic Act No. 9490 through the efforts of Sen. Edgardo Angara and Rep. Juan Edgardo Angara, it is expected be a major transshipment hub going to the pacific region, it aims to boost social and industrial developments in Aurora and nearby provinces by generating jobs for the people, improving the quality of their living conditions, advocating an eco-friendly approach to industrialization and enhancing the potential of the community in productivity. Aurora Quezon Siege of Baler Sierra Madre mountain range Media related to Aurora at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Aurora at OpenStreetMap
Tarlac is a landlocked province located in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. It is bounded on the north by the province of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija on the east, Zambales on the west and Pampanga in the south; the province comprises three congressional districts and is subdivided into 17 municipalities and one city, Tarlac City, the provincial capital. The province is situated in the heartland of Luzon, in what is known as the Central Plain spanning the neighbouring provinces of Pampanga, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan. Tarlac covers a total land area of 3,053.45 km2. Early in history, what came to be known as Valenzuela Ranch today was once a thickly-forested area, peopled by roving tribes of nomadic Aetas who are said to be the aboriginal settlers of the Philippines, for a lengthy period, it was the remaining hinterland of Luzon's Central Plains. Today, Tarlac is the most multi-cultural of the provinces in the region for having a mixture of four distinct ethnic groups: the Kapampangans, the Pangasinans, the Ilocanos and the Tagalogs.
It is known for its fine food and vast sugar and rice plantations in Central Luzon. Tarlac's name is a Hispanized derivation from a talahib weed called Malatarlak. Tarlac was divided into two parts: the southern division belonging to Pampanga and the northern division belonging to Pangasinan, it was the last province in Central Luzon to be organized under the Spanish colonial administration in 1874. During the Philippine Revolution of 1896, Tarlac was among the first eight provinces to rise against Spain, alongside neighbouring Pampanga, it became the new seat of the first Philippine Republic in March 1899 when General Emilio Aguinaldo abandoned the former capital, Bulacan. This lasted only for a month before the seat was moved to Nueva Ecija in Aguinaldo's attempt to elude the pursuing Americans. On October 23, 1899, Gregorio Aglipay, military vicar general of the revolutionary forces, called the Filipino clergy to a conference in Paniqui. There, they drafted the constitution of the Philippine Independent Church.
They called for the Filipinization of the clergy, which led to a separation from the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. Tarlac was captured by American forces on November 1899. A civil government was established in the province in 1901. During World War II, Camp O'Donnell in Capas became the terminal point of the infamous Bataan Death March of Filipino and American soldiers who surrendered at Bataan on April 9, 1942. Many prisoners died of disease and/or execution; the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was established from January 03, 1942 to June 30, 1946 and the 3rd Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was founding again from October 28, 1944 to June 30, 1946 and military stationed in the province of Tarlac and some parts in Central Luzon due to Japanese Occupation. Local troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army units has sending the clearing military operations in the province of Tarlac and Central Luzon from 1942 to 1945 and aided them by the recognized guerrilla groups including Hukbalahap Communist fighters and attacking Japanese Imperial forces.
But in the aftermath, some local guerrilla resistance fighters and Hukbahalap groups are became retreating Imperial Japanese troops around the province and before the liberation from the Allied forces. In early 1945, combined American and Filipino military forces with the recognized Aringay Command guerillas liberated Camp O'Donnell; the raid in Capas resulted in the rescue of American and other allied Prisoners of War. From January 20, 1945 to August 15, 1945, Tarlac was recaptured by combined Filipino and American troops together with the recognized guerrilla fighters against the Japanese Imperial forces during the liberation and beginning for the Battle of Tarlac under the Luzon Campaign; the Philippine Army has used Crow Valley in the borders of Barangay Patling and Santa Lucia in Capas, Tarlac as a testing ground for both Philippine forces and allies. Many of the Philippine military testings were done on March 17, 2006 most as a part of Operation Enduring Freedom - Philippines; the landlocked province is situated at the center of the central plains of Luzon, landlocked by four provinces: Pampanga on the south, Nueva Ecija on the east, Pangasinan on the north, Zambales on the west.
The province covers a total area of 3,053.60 square kilometres. 75% of the province is plains while the rest is hilly to mountainous. Eastern Tarlac is a plain, while Western Tarlac is hilly to mountainous; because of this, the province includes a large portion of mountains like Mt. Telakawa, located at Capas, Tarlac. Mt. Bueno, Mt. Mor-Asia and Mt. Canouman are located in Capas as well as Mt. Dalin; the other mountains are Mt. Maasin, found in the municipality of San Clemente. Noted are Mt. Damas of Camiling. A portion of Mount Pinatubo rests in Bamban and Capas; the whole of Mayantoc and San Jose are mountainous so it is suitable for the highest natural resources and forest products in the province such as coal, copper, temperate-climate fruits and vegetables, fire logs, sand and forest animals such as wild boar and deer. The main water sources for agriculture include the Tarlac River at Tarlac City, the Lucong and Parua rivers in Concepcion, Sacobia-Bamban River in Bamban and the Rio Chico in La Paz.
Tarlac is subdivided into 17 municipalities and 1 component city, all encompassed by three congressional districts. There are a total of 511 barangays comprising the p
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along the bottoms of valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, as plateaus or uplands. In a valley, a plain is enclosed on two sides, but in other cases a plain may be delineated by a complete or partial ring of hills, by mountains, or by cliffs. Where a geological region contains more than one plain, they may be connected by a pass. Coastal plains would rise from sea level until they run into elevated features such as mountains or plateaus. Plains are one of the major landforms on earth, where they are present on all continents, would cover more than one-third of the world’s land area. Plains may have been formed from flowing lava, deposited by water, wind, or formed by erosion by these agents from hills and mountains. Plains would be under the grassland, savannah or tundra biomes. In a few instances and rainforests can be plains. Plains in many areas are important for agriculture because where the soils were deposited as sediments they may be deep and fertile, the flatness facilitates mechanization of crop production.
Depositional plains formed by the deposition of materials brought by various agents of transportation such as glaciers, rivers and wind. Their fertility and economic relevance depend on the types of sediments that are laid down; the types of depositional plains include: Abyssal plains, flat or gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin. Planitia, the Latin word for plain, is used in the naming of plains on extraterrestrial objects, such as Hellas Planitia on Mars or Sedna Planitia on Venus. Alluvial plains, which are formed by rivers and which may be one of these overlapping types: Alluvial plains, formed over a long period of time by a river depositing sediment on their flood plains or beds, which become alluvial soil; the difference between a flood plain and an alluvial plain is: a flood plain represents areas experiencing flooding regularly in the present or whereas an alluvial plain includes areas where a flood plain is now and used to be, or areas which only experience flooding a few times a century.
Flood plain, adjacent to a lake, stream, or wetland that experiences occasional or periodic flooding. Scroll plain, a plain through which a river meanders with a low gradient. Glacial plains, formed by the movement of glaciers under the force of gravity: Outwash plain, a glacial out-wash plain formed of sediments deposited by melt-water at the terminus of a glacier. Sandar consist of stratified gravel and sand. Till plains, plain of glacial till that form when a sheet of ice becomes detached from the main body of a glacier and melts in place depositing the sediments it carries. Till plains are composed of unsorted material of all sizes. Lacustrine plains, plains that formed in a lacustrine environment, that is, as the bed of a lake. Lava plains, formed by sheets of flowing lava. Erosional plains have been leveled by various agents of denudation such as running water, rivers and glacier which wear out the rugged surface and smoothens them. Plain resulting from the action of these agents of denudation are called peneplains while plains formed from wind action are called pediplains.
Structural plains are undisturbed horizontal surfaces of the Earth. They are structurally depressed areas of the world that make up some of the most extensive natural lowlands on the Earth's surface. Altiplano Altiplano Cundiboyacense Caroni Plain Chilean Central Valley Gran Chaco Los Llanos Venezuelan Llanos Argentine Pampas Atlantic coastal plain Carrizo Plain Great Plains Gulf Coastal Plain Interior Plains Lake Superior Lowland Laramie Plains Mississippi Alluvial Plain Oxnard Plain Snake River Plain Chianan Plain Depsang Plains Kantō Plain Kedu Plain Kewu Plain Mallig Plains Nōbi Plain North China Plain Osaka Plain Pingtung Plain Sarobetsu plain West Siberian Plain Yilan Plain Bhuikhel Depsang Plains Dooars Eastern coastal plains Indo-Gangetic Plains More plains North Bengal plains Punjab Plains Terai Utkal Plains Western coastal plains Al-Ghab Plain Aleppo plateau Ararat plain Israeli coastal plain Khuzestan Plain Mugan plain Nineveh Plains Shiraki Plain Limagne North German Plain Ochsenfeld Pannonian Basin Parndorf Plain Westphalian Lowland Bărăgan Plain Danubian Plain Dnieper Lowland East European Plain European Plain Great Hungarian Plain Kosovo field Little Hungarian Plain Pannonian Steppe Polesian Lowland Upper Thracian Plain Wallachian Plain Cheshire Plain Hardangervidda Kaffiøyra Muddus plains North