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Central School of Art and Design

The Central School of Art and Design was a public school of fine and applied arts in London, England. It offered degree level courses, it was established in 1896 by the London County Council as the Central School of Crafts. Central became part of the London Institute in 1986, in 1989 merged with Saint Martin's School of Art to form Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design; the Central School of Arts and Crafts was established in 1896 by the London County Council. It grew directly from the Crafts movement of William Morris and John Ruskin; the first principal – from 1896 to 1900 as co-principal with George Frampton – was the architect William Richard Lethaby, from 1896 until 1912. He was succeeded in 1912 by Fred Burridge; the school was at first housed in rented from the Regent Street Polytechnic. In 1908 it moved to purpose-built premises in the London Borough of Camden. In the same year the Royal Female School of Art, established in 1842, was merged into the school; the Central School of Arts and Crafts was renamed the Central School of Art and Design on 1 May 1966.

It became part of the London Institute in 1986, in 1989 merged with Saint Martin's School of Art to form Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. The alumni of the Central School of Art and Design include: Terence Conran and writer, founder of Habitat Lucian Freud, painter Eric Gill and typographer Kathleen Hale and creator of Orlando the Marmalade Cat David Hicks, interior decorator and designer Mike Leigh, film director, theatre director, writer Bill Moggridge, designer of the first laptop computer Victor Pasmore, abstract artist Vivian Stanshall, musician, of the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band Joe Strummer, musician, of The Clash

Moses Malone

Moses Eugene Malone was an American basketball player who played in both the American Basketball Association and the National Basketball Association from 1974 through 1995. A center, he was named the NBA Most Valuable Player three times, was a 12-time NBA All-Star and an eight-time All-NBA Team selection. Malone led the Philadelphia 76ers to an NBA championship in 1983, winning both the league and Finals MVP, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility in 2001. Malone began his professional career out of high school after he was selected in the third round of the 1974 ABA Draft by the Utah Stars, he was named an ABA All-Star as a rookie and played two seasons in the league until it merged with the NBA in 1976. He landed in the NBA with the Buffalo Braves. Malone became a five-time All-Star in six seasons with the Rockets. After leading the NBA in rebounding in 1979, he was named league MVP for the first time, he led the Rockets to the NBA Finals in 1981, won his second MVP award in 1982.

Traded to Philadelphia the following season, he repeated as MVP and led the 76ers to the 1983 championship. In his first of two stints with Philadelphia, he was an All-Star in each of his four seasons. Following another trade, Malone was an All-Star in his only two seasons with the Washington Bullets, he signed as a free agent with the Atlanta Hawks, earning his 12th straight and final NBA All-Star selection in his first season. In his years, he played with the Milwaukee Bucks before returning to the 76ers and completing his career with the San Antonio Spurs. Malone was a tireless and physical player who led the NBA in rebounding six times, including a then-record five straight seasons. Nicknamed the "Chairman of the Boards" for his rebounding prowess, he finished his career as the all-time leader in offensive rebounds after leading both the ABA and NBA in the category a combined nine times. Combining his ABA and NBA statistics, Malone ranks ninth all-time in career points and third in total rebounds.

He was named to both the NBA's 50th Anniversary All-Time Team. Malone was born in Virginia, he was an only child, raised by his mother, who had dropped out of school after finishing the fifth grade. When Malone was two years old, Mary forced her husband to move out of their home due to his alcohol use. Malone's father moved to Texas. Malone attended Petersburg High School; the team went undefeated in his final two years, winning 50 games and back-to-back Virginia state championships. Malone signed a letter of intent to play college basketball for the University of Maryland under head coach Lefty Driesell. After the Utah Stars of the American Basketball Association selected him in the third round of the 1974 ABA Draft, Malone decided to become a professional; the New York Times called him "the first high schooler in modern basketball to go directly to the pros". He began his professional career with Utah in the 1974–75 season after signing a five-year contract worth $1 million. At 6 ft 10 in and a somewhat skinny 215 pounds at the time, Malone began his professional career playing at forward until he bulked up enough to handle the rigors at center.

As a rookie, he earned ABA All-Rookie honors. The Stars folded 16 games into the 1975–76 season, Malone was sold to the ABA's Spirits of St. Louis to help pay down the Stars' debts, he played for the Spirits for the remainder of the 1975–76 season. In two seasons in the ABA, Malone averaged 12.9 rebounds per game. The ABA–NBA merger occurred after the 1975–76 season, but the Spirits of St. Louis were not among the ABA teams chosen to join the NBA. Malone had been selected by the NBA's New Orleans Jazz in a December 1975 pre-merger draft for ABA players of undergraduate age. However, the NBA let them place Malone into the 1976 ABA Dispersal Draft pool in exchange for the return of their first-round draft pick in 1977, which they used to trade for Gail Goodrich. In the 1976 dispersal draft, held for the remaining ABA players, Malone was selected by the Portland Trail Blazers with the fifth overall pick in the draft; the Blazers, had acquired power forward Maurice Lucas in the draft and believed that Malone and Lucas had similar skill sets.

Concerns over the team's salary costs compelled Portland to trade Malone to the Buffalo Braves prior to the first game of the 1976–77 season for a first-round draft choice in the 1978 NBA draft and $232,000. Malone played in two games with Buffalo; because they could not meet Malone's demands for playing time, they traded him to the Houston Rockets in exchange for first-round draft picks in the 1977 and 1978 drafts. With the Houston Rockets, Malone played forward opposite Rudy Tomjanovich, he appeared in 82 games overall for both Buffalo and Houston and finished the season averaging 13.2 points per game with 13.1 rebounds per game, ranking third in rpg. Malone set a then-NBA record with 437 offensive rebounds in a season, though he surpassed that mark two years later. Malone blocked 2.21 shots per game, the seventh-most in the league. In the second game of the Eastern Conference Semifinals against the Washington Bullets, Malone recorded 15 offensive rebounds in the overtime win, setting an NBA playoff record.

The Rockets reached the Eastern Conference Finals, where they lost 4–2 to the Philadelphia 76ers, his future team. During his second season in the NBA, Malone was diagnosed with a stress fracture in his right foot, which caused him to miss the final 23 games of the season

8th New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry

The 8th New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 8th New Hampshire Infantry was organized in Manchester, New Hampshire, mustered in for a three-year enlistment on December 23, 1861, under the command of Colonel Hawkes Fearing, Jr.. The regiment was attached to Butler's New Orleans Expedition to March 1862. 1st Brigade, Department of the Gulf, to November 1862. Independent Command, Department of the Gulf, to January 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, XIX Corps, Department of the Gulf, to September 1863. The 8th New Hampshire Infantry ceased to exist in December 1863 when its designation was changed to the 2nd New Hampshire Cavalry. Left New Hampshire for Boston, January 24, 1862. Duty at Ship Island until April 1862. Occupation of Forts Wood and Pike, Lake Pontchartrain, May 5. Moved to New Orleans and duty at Camp Parapet until October. Expedition to Lake Pontchartrain July 23 – August 2. Operations in District of LaFourche October 24 – November 6.

Occupation of Donaldsonville October 25. Action at Georgia Landing, near Labadieville, October 27, at Thibodeauxville October 27. Duty in the District of Lafourche until March 1863. Expedition to Bayou Teche January 12–14, 1863. Aboard the steamer Cotton January 14. Operations on Bayou Plaquemine and the Black and Atchafalaya rivers February 12–28. Operations against Port Hudson March 7–27. Teche Campaign April 11–20. Fort Bisland, near Centreville, April 12–13. Irish Bend April 14. Expedition from Opelousas to Chicotsville and Bayou Boeuff May 1. Expedition to Alexandria on Red River May 5–17. Movement from Alexandria to Port Hudson May 17–24. Siege of Port Hudson May 24 – July 8. Assault on Port Hudson June 14. Expedition to Niblett's Bluff May 26–29. Surrender of Port Hudson July 9. Moved to Baton Rouge, August 22. Sabine Pass Expedition September 4–11. Moved to Camp Bisland September 15 and duty there until October. Moved to Opelousas to Franklin, December 1863; the regiment lost a total of 360 men during service.

Colonel Hawkes Fearing, Jr. List of New Hampshire Civil War units New Hampshire in the American Civil War Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Stanyan, John M. A History of the Eighth Regiment of New Hampshire Volunteers, 1892. Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co


Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages. It represents Slavic speech from the 2nd millennium B. C. through the 6th century A. D; as with most other proto-languages, no attested writings have been found. Rapid development of Slavic speech occurred during the Proto-Slavic period, coinciding with the massive expansion of the Slavic-speaking area. Dialectal differentiation occurred early on during this period, but overall linguistic unity and mutual intelligibility continued for several centuries, into the 10th century or later. During this period, many sound changes diffused across the entire area uniformly; this makes it inconvenient to maintain the traditional definition of a proto-language as the latest reconstructable common ancestor of a language group, with no dialectal differentiation. Instead, Slavicists handle the entire period of dialectally-differentiated linguistic unity as Common Slavic. One can divide the Proto-Slavic/Common-Slavic time of linguistic unity into three periods: an early period with little or no dialectal variation a middle period of slight-to-moderate dialectal variation a late period of significant variationAuthorities differ as to which periods should be included in Proto-Slavic and in Common Slavic.

The language described in this article reflects the middle period termed Late Proto-Slavic and dated to around the 7th to 8th centuries. This language remains unattested, but a late-period variant, representing the late 9th-century dialect spoken around Thessaloniki in Greek Macedonia, is attested in Old Church Slavonic manuscripts; the ancestor of Proto-Slavic is Proto-Balto-Slavic, the ancestor of the Baltic languages, e.g. Lithuanian and Latvian; this language in turn is descended from Proto-Indo-European, the parent language of the vast majority of European languages. Proto-Slavic evolved into the various Slavic languages during the latter half of the first millennium AD, concurrent with the explosive growth of the Slavic-speaking area. There is no scholarly consensus concerning either the number of stages involved in the development of the language or the terms used to describe them. For consistency and convenience, this article adopts the following scheme. Proto-Slavic is divided into periods.

One division is made up of three periods: Early Proto-Slavic Middle Proto-Slavic Late Proto-Slavic Another division is made up of four periods: Pre-Slavic: A long, stable period of gradual development. The most significant phonological developments during this period involved the prosodic system, e.g. tonal and other register distinctions on syllables. Early Common Slavic or Early Slavic: The early, uniform stage of Common Slavic, but the beginning of a longer period of rapid phonological change; as there are no dialectal distinctions reconstructible from this period or earlier, this is the period for which a single common ancestor can be reconstructed. Middle Common Slavic: The stage with the earliest identifiable dialectal distinctions. Rapid phonological change continued, although with the massive expansion of the Slavic-speaking area. Although some dialectal variation did exist, most sound changes were still uniform and consistent in their application. By the end of this stage, the vowel and consonant phonemes of the language were the same as those still found in the modern languages.

For this reason, reconstructed "Proto-Slavic" forms found in scholarly works and etymological dictionaries correspond to this period. Late Common Slavic: The last stage in which the whole Slavic-speaking area still functioned as a single language, with sound changes propagating throughout the entire area, although with significant dialectal variation in the details; this article considers Middle Common Slavic, noting when there is slight dialectal variation. It covers Late Common Slavic when there are significant developments that are shared identically among all Slavic languages. Two different and conflicting systems for denoting vowels are in use in Indo-European and Balto-Slavic linguistics on one hand, Slavic linguistics on the other. In the first, vowel length is distinguished with a macron above the letter, while in the latter it is not indicated; the following table explains these differences: For consistency, all discussions of words in Early Slavic and before use the common Balto-Slavic notation of vowels.

Discussions of Middle and Late Common Slavic, as well as dialects, use the Slavic notation. The caron on consonants ⟨č ď ľ ň ř š ť ž⟩ is used in this article to denote the consonants that result from iotation and the Slavic first palatalization; this use is based o

Magdalena of Nassau-Dillenburg

Magdalena of Nassau-Dillenburg was a daughter of William I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg and his second wife, Juliana of Stolberg. Magdalena was a sister of William the Silent. Magdalena spent most of her life at Weikersheim castle, her daily routine consisted of her family life. She worked in the castle's pharmacy, where she gave medicine to the poor, a practice her mother had begun, she was described as generous, giving money and medicine to the poor and the needy. She died in Öhringen in 1633. On 27 January 1567 at Dillenburg Castle, she married Count Wolfgang of Hohenlohe-Weikersheim, he was a son of Louis Casimir of Anna of Solms-Lich. They had the following children: Catherine Anna Agnes, married Philip Ernest of Gleichen-Tonna, the Count of gleichen, Tonna and Pyrmont, he was the son of Count George of Gleichen-Tonna and Countess Walpurga of Spiegelberg George Frederick Juliana, married Wolfgang II of Castell-Remlingen Magdalena, married Count Henry I of Reuss-Gera. He was the son of Count Henry XVI of Reuss-Gera and his second wife Dorothea of Solms-Sonnewalde Praxedis Marta, married John Casimir of Leiningen-Westerburg Maria Elisabeth, married Johann Reinhard I, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg.

He was the son of Philip V, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Ludowika Margaretha of Zweibrücken-Bitsch Louis Casimir Catherine Joanna Crato VII, he married Countess Palatine Sophia of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, the daughter of Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld and Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg Philip Ernest, married Anna Maria of Solms-Sonnewalde. She was a daughter of Anna Amalia of Nassau-Weilburg. Anna Amalia was the eldest daughter of Count of Nassau-Weilburg. Albert Wolfgang Ernest Dotorthea Walburga, married Philip Henry of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg, Count of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg from 1615 until his death, he was a son of George Frederick I of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg and Dorothea Reuss of Plauen Genealogy


The Acroceridae are a small family of odd-looking flies. They have a hump-backed appearance with a strikingly small head with a long proboscis for accessing nectar, they are rare and not known. The most applied common names are small-headed flies or hunch-back flies. Many are wasp mimics; because they are parasitoids of spiders, they are sometimes known as spider flies. The Acroceridae vary in size from small to large, about the size of large bees, with a wingspan over 25 mm in some species; as a rule, both sexes have tiny heads and a characteristic hump-backed appearance because of the large, rounded thorax. In appearance, they are compact flies without major bristles, but many species have a bee-like hairiness on their bodies, some are bee or wasp mimics. In most species, the eyes are holoptic in both sexes, the heads composed of the large faceted eyes; this is in contrast to many insects in which the males have larger eyes, whereas the females have normal eyes. The squamae are disproportionately large covering the halteres, the abdomen has an inflated appearance practically globular.

The tarsi are equipped with large claws with three pulvilli below them. The Acroceridae are a small family in the Brachycera, they are members of the infraorder Muscomorpha, DNA studies suggest that they are most related to the families Nemestrinidae and Bombyliidae. A 2013 analysis of morphological data suggested the Acroceridae were a sister group to the Asiloidea and Eremoneura; the 520 species are placed in 50 genera. In 2019, a revised classification of the family based on phylogenetic studies was published, listing five extant subfamilies and one extinct subfamily containing Archocyrtus from the Late Jurassic Karabastau Formation of Kazakhstan. Obsolete synonyms for Acroceridae include Cyrtidae and Ogcodidae. Acroceridae are nowhere abundant, they appear episodically and in most places are observed. They occur most in semiarid tropical locations; as far as is known, all Acroceridae are parasitoids of spiders. They are most collected when a spider from the field is brought into captivity; as in the related families and Nemestrinidae, members of the family undergo hypermetamorphosis: the adults do not seek out their hosts.

Females lay large number of eggs, up to 5,000, after hatching, the planidia seek out spiders. They do not resemble the triungulin of most beetles with a hypermetamorphosis, but do resemble the triungulin of Stylops; the larva can move with a looping movement like a leech or inchworm, can leap several millimetres into the air. When a spider contacts an acrocerid planidium, the planidium grabs hold, crawls up the spider's legs to its body, forces its way through the body wall at an articulation membrane, it lodges near a book lung, where it may remain for years before completing its development. Mature larvae pupate outside the host; the adults of most species, like various members of the Tabanidae and Bombyliidae, are nectar feeders with exceptionally long probosces, sometimes longer than the entire body length of the insect. Unlike the other families, when not deploying the proboscis for feeding, the Acroceridae carry it lengthwise medially beneath the body, instead of projecting forward; as a result, the proboscis might escape casual notice, though careful inspection may reveal it projecting behind the abdomen.

Flies are found in small numbers on plants in July and August in the Palearctic ecozone. Palaearctic Nearctic Japan Australian and Oceanian List of soldierflies and allies of Great Britain Sack, P. 1936. Acroceridae. In: Lindner, E.. Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 21, pp. 1–36. Keys to Palaearctic species, but in need of revision. Narchuk, E. P. 1988. Family Acroceridae. In Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 Part 2, English edition. Keys to Palaearctic species, but in need of revision. Przemysław, Trojan, 1962. Acroceridae. In Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski 28, 23, 1–17. Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58. Warsaw: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Family description, illustrations Images at Images and information at BugGuide Family Acroceridae at EOL Acroceridae in Italian Wing venation