Central business district

A central business district is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown, or several CBDs at once. In London, for example, the "city centre" is regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. In New York City, Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the city and in the world. In Chicago, the Chicago Loop is the second largest central business district in the United States and is referred to as the core of the city's downtown. Mexico City has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma – Polanco, the new Santa Fe.

The shape and type of a CBD always reflect the city's history. Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have a CBD quite a distance from the centre of the city; this is quite common for European cities such as Vienna. In cities in the New World that grew after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will contain most of the region's tallest buildings and act both as the CBD and the commercial and cultural city center. Increasing urbanisation in the 21st century have developed megacities in Asia, that will have multiple CBDs scattered across the urban area, it has been said. No two CBDs look alike in terms of their spatial shape, however certain geometric patterns in these areas are recurring throughout many cities due to the nature of centralised commercial and industrial activities. In Australia the acronym CBD is used commonly to refer to major city "centres".

It is used in particular to refer to the skyscraper districts in state capital cities such as Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. The iTowers of Masa Square CBD were built for doing business tasks only, it is located within Gaborone. In Canada, central business districts are referred to as downtown or downtown core and are highlighted by skyscrapers. In Quebec and the rest of French Canada, they are known as centre-ville. Toronto has Downtown Toronto, which includes the Financial District of Canada, major sporting and entertainment venues, educational institutions and multiple corporate headquarters. Additional central business districts in Toronto's divisions Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough serve their respective populations as local commercial areas. Midtown Toronto is another secondary central business district that developed during the 20th century from being a suburb. Toronto's surrounding suburban cities of Mississauga and Markham contain developed or developing central business districts. Other major Canadian cities, including Montreal, Calgary and Winnipeg contain downtown districts with skyscrapers above 200 metres in height.

Cities, such as Quebec City and Ottawa contain downtowns with cultural and heritage landmarks which restrict the heights of developments. In China terms "city centre" are used but a different commercial district outside of the historic core called a "CBD" or "Financial District" may exist. Large Chinese cities have multiple CBDs spread throughout the urban area. Cities traditionally being major cultural centres with many historic structures in the core such as Beijing, Suzhou or Xi'an will have the greenfield CBDs built adjacent to the urban core, similar to European cities. While other cities such as Guangzhou, Shanghai and Wuhan the city centre will house a number of CBDs in addition to greenfield CBDs built in the periphery. In France, the term "quartier d’affaires" may be used to describe the central business district; the main business districts in the country are as follows: La Défense in Paris, which with 3,300,000 square meters of office space is Europe's leading business district in terms of area.

La Part-Dieu in Lyon, is the 2nd largest business district in France and has nearly 1,600,000 square metres. Euralille in Lille, is the 3rd business district of France with 1,120,000 square metres of offices. Euroméditerranée in Marseille, is the 4th business district in France with 650,000 square metres of offices. In Germany, the terms Innenstadt and Stadtzentrum may be used to describe the central business district. Both terms can be translated to mean "inner city" and "city centre"; some of the larger cities have more than one central business district, like Berlin, which has three. Due to Berlin's history of division during the Cold War, the city contains central business districts both in West and East Berlin, as well as a newly built business centre near Potsdamer Platz; the city's historic centre – the location of the Reichstag building, as well as the Brandenburg gate and most federal ministries – was abandoned when the Berlin Wall cut through the area. Only after the reunification with the redevelopment of Potsdamer Platz, the construction of numerous shoppin

Ambasada Gavioli

Ambasada Gavioli is a nightclub in Izola, Slovenia named after its architect Gianni Gavioli. It has a capacity of 2,500 guests; the project is inspired from literature, theatre and fashion. Some themes include Italian baroque with Juliet's balcony and Charles Baudelaire's The Flowers of Evil; the architecture of the club is divided in two floors: wider main room and smaller, more intimate privee', which are connected with a glass wall, that allow visual and programming contact of rooms. The Ambasada Gavioli uses materials like wood, white stone and copper, combined in a Mediterranean style; the music of Ambasada Gavioli is based on a combination of several modern directions in club music such as clubbing techno futurism and modern house. The music is played by international DJs residents and other artists including Supa DJ Dmitry, Tiësto, Sven Väth, Marshall Jefferson, Laurent Garnier, Richie Hawtin, Jeff Mills, Takkyū Ishino, Boris Dlugosch, David Morales, DJ Umek. In the early 1990s a group of young Slovenian businessmen, operating under the name of Evolution Inc. decided to sell all their business assets, get international loans, invest in what was anticipated to become a trans-national chain of dance entertainment complexes of the future.

As opposed to other similar projects in the world at the time, this one was approached from a cultural point of view rather than purely commercial. A well-known Italian architect — maestro Gianni Gavioli — was invited to collaborate on the development. Before the first sketches were laid down, the architect spent over a month in Slovenian Istria, learning about its culture and legends while meeting with locals from many generations. In 1994 works began on what developed to be the maestro's life masterpiece, combining the feel of local cultures with stories of Charles Baudelaire, Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Due to its significance, the IRWIN artist group, part of Neue Slowenische Kunst movement, suggested the name of the new venue to be Ambasada Gavioli, it opened in December 1995. Despite the initial optimism, based on rapid development of independent Slovenia as an emerging cultural and economic power in the region, as well as on the overall faith in positive future emerging from the global Rave movement, the venue did not attract as large an audience as expected from the start.

1996 was a year of initial struggle for Ambasada Gavioli. Hard work and structural reorganization started to attract the attention of cultural circles and international media, ever-wider audiences, resulting in Ambasada Gavioli being recognised as one of the world's top 10 most prestigious and trendy electronic music venues in 1997 and one of the top clubbing destinations in Southern Europe. Ambasada Gavioli has been operating according to the neuropolitan teachings of part-time prophet and revolutionary Chiron Morpheus, he proclaimed AG as the cathedral of avant-pop and a portal to elusive territory of the revolutionary haven of a pirate utopia or a temporary autonomous zone. He practised neuromancy; the AG management used to receive weekly ideological feeds from Chiron Morpheus, which were used as flyers and repurposed in the club's programming by Valentino Kanzyani’s AG Music Direction department, MC Flasher’s AG Performance & Outreach division, Denis Papic's AG Ministry of Information. In 1998, the IRWIN group introduced the official flag of Ambasada Gavioli as a visual manifestation of its temporary state ideology.

The flag consisted of a golden and black field with five stars in a circle — two black stars on golden background, two golden stars on black background and a star of opposite colours connecting both fields. From the second half of 1999, the ideological aspect of Ambasada Gavioli has been maintained by MC Flasher, which after his Canadian relocation in 2000 evolved into the Final Flash series and the division morphed into the Final Flash Association. Through the years, the territory and/or the venue of Ambasada Gavioli has been regarded as Embassy of 3rd Europe, The Cathedral of Luxurious Colours. Since 2005, the ideological aspect of Ambasada Gavioli has been abandoned, bringing it closer to a concept of a more commercial discotheque. Since 1995 when it opened, Ambasada Gavioli has become the focal point of the electronic music community in Slovenia, Northern Italy, southern Austria and northwest Croatia, achieving a cult following appeal in the scene. In the cultural context many people see the venue and the movement it created as a display of new cultural strength of the independent Slovenia.

The club was intensely famed by the media due to its edgy provocative image, maintained by its Public Relations department, further reinforcing its futuristic cult-like appeal. Owned and managed by a share-holders corporation, Evolution Inc. the management of the club was occasionally shifted to the Final Flash Association for the Final Flash festival and to Ultimed Music business partnership on a full-time lease since 2005. Evolution Inc. remained the sole legal owner of the property. In August 2008 a part of the club's premises was sold to Slovenian biggest merchandising company Mercator; the club continued to host events until December 31, 2008. After that the destiny of Ambasada Gavioli remained unknown. In 2010 Fetch The Vibe organisation re-opened Ambasada Gavioli in a glorious manner with an oldies-goldies party, featuring two of Ambasada's first and most famous ambassadors: DJ Umek and Valentino Kanzyani. Maybe the

Martina Ebm

Martina Ebm is an Austrian actress. Martina Ebm was born in Vienna, moved to Mondsee in Upper Austria at the age of seven, where she attended the sports secondary school. After high school in Salzburg she returned to Vienna. From 2001 she first studied International Business Administration at the University of Vienna and from 2002 at the Medical University of Vienna. From 2004, she studied theater and media studies at the University of Vienna, graduating in 2010 with a thesis on "The Foundation of acting is the reality of doing: the Americanization of the acting theory Stanislawskis by Sanford Meisner". In December 2007, she completed the stage rehearsal exam, followed by a six-week course at the New York Film Academy. From 2011 to 2013, she played the role of the young Alma in the drama Alma - A Show Biz directed by Paulus Manker - in Vienna and in Prague. In 2013 she starred in the film adaptation of Kurt Palm's novel Bad Fucking. Since autumn 2014 she is a member of the ensemble at the Theater in der Josefstadt, where she starred as Kati in Nestroy's The Broken, in the world premiere of Christopher Hampton's A Dark Desire in the role of Sabina Spielrein.

Since 2015 she has appeared in the ORF television series Vorstadtweiber in one of the leading roles as Caroline "Caro" Melzer. The second season of the series was broadcast in 2016, the third season is to be shown in early 2018. In 2016 she was awarded the Mostdipf Prize of the Upper Austrian News. In 2017 she was shooting for the ORF / ARD comedy Law or Justice in front of the camera, in which she played a lawyer alongside Maria Happel. Ebm is mother of twins. 2010: FC Rückpass – 2010: Spuren des Bösen 2011: Die Lottosieger – 2013: CopStories – 2013: Bad Fucking 2013: Allein 2014: Die Hebamme 2014: SOKO Kitzbühel – 2014: Clara Immerwahr 2014: Manie seit 2015: Vorstadtweiber 2016: SOKO Wien – Out of control This article incorporates text available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license