Comcast Corporation is an American global telecommunications conglomerate that is the largest broadcasting and cable television company in the world by revenue. Comcast services U. S. residential and commercial customers in 40 states, the companys headquarters are located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The first Universal theme park outside of the U. S, Universal Studios Japan, opened in 2001, followed by Universal Studios Singapore in 2011. Few new locations are being planned or developed for future operation, Comcast has significant holdings in digital distribution. In February 2014 the company agreed to merge with Time Warner Cable in an equity swap deal worth $45.2 billion, under the terms of the agreement Comcast was to acquire 100% of Time Warner Cable. However, on April 24,2015, Comcast terminated the agreement, Comcast has been criticized for multiple reasons, the companys customer satisfaction often ranks among the lowest in the cable industry. Critics point out a lack of competition in the vast majority of Comcasts service area, given Comcasts negotiating power as a large ISP, some suspect that Comcast could leverage paid peering agreements to unfairly influence end-user connection speeds.
And its ownership of content production and content distribution has raised antitrust concerns. These issues, in addition to others, led to Comcast being dubbed The Worst Company in America by The Consumerist in 2010 and 2014. Despite being publicly-traded, Comcast is a business, with the Ralph J Roberts family owning 33% controlling stake. Comcast is sometimes described as a family business, Brian L. Roberts, President, and CEO of Comcast, is the son of co-founder Ralph Roberts. Roberts owns or controls just over 1% of all Comcast shares but all of the Class B supervoting shares, legal expert Susan P. Crawford has said this gives him effective control over every step. In 2010, he was one of the highest paid executives in the United States, Comcast is headquartered in Philadelphia and has corporate offices in Atlanta, Detroit and Manchester, New Hampshire. On January 3,2005, Comcast announced that it would become the tenant in the new Comcast Center in downtown Philadelphia. The 975 ft skyscraper is the tallest building in Pennsylvania, Comcast has begun construction on a second 1,121 ft skyscraper directly adjacent to the original Comcast headquarters in the summer of 2014.
The company is criticized by both the media and its own staff for its less upstanding policies regarding employee relations. A2012 Reddit post written by an anonymous Comcast call center employee eager to share their experiences with the public received attention from publications including The Huffington Post. A2014 investigative series published by The Verge involved interviews with 150 of Comcasts employees and it sought to examine why the company has become so widely criticized by its customers, the media and even members of its own staff
Calder’s monumental stationary sculptures are called stabiles. He produced wire figures, which are like drawings made in space, Alexander Sandy Calder was born in 1898 in Lawnton, Pennsylvania. His actual birthday, remains a source of much confusion, according to Calders mother, Calder was born on August 22, yet his birth certificate at Philadelphia City Hall, based on a hand-written ledger, stated July 22. When Calders family learned about the certificate, they reasserted with certainty that city officials had made a mistake. His father, Alexander Stirling Calder, was a sculptor who created many public installations. Calders mother was a portrait artist, who had studied at the Académie Julian. She moved to Philadelphia, where she met Stirling Calder while studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Calders parents married on February 22,1895, his sister, Mrs. Margaret Calder Hayes, was instrumental in the development of the UC Berkeley Art Museum. In 1902, Calder posed nude for his father’s sculpture The Man Cub and that same year he completed his earliest sculpture, a clay elephant.
Three years later, Stirling Calder contracted tuberculosis, and Calders parents moved to a ranch in Oracle, the children were reunited with their parents in late March 1906 and stayed at the ranch in Arizona until fall of the same year. After Arizona, the Calder family moved to Pasadena, the windowed cellar of the family home became Calders first studio and he received his first set of tools. He used scraps of copper wire that he found in the street to make jewelry for his sisters dolls, on January 1,1907, Nanette Calder took her son to the Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, where he observed a four-horse-chariot race. This style of event became the finale of Calders miniature circus performances, in the fall of 1909, the Calder family moved back to Philadelphia, where Calder briefly attended Germantown Academy, moved to Croton-on-Hudson, New York. That Christmas, he sculpted a dog and an out of sheet brass as gifts for his parents. The sculptures are three-dimensional and the duck is kinetic because it rocks when gently tapped, in Croton, during his early high school years, Calder was befriended by his fathers painter friend Everett Shinn with whom he built a gravity powered system of mechanical trains.
Calder described it, We ran the train on wooden rails held by spikes and we even lit up some cars with candle lights. After Croton, the Calders moved to Spuyten Duyvil to be closer to New York City, while living in Spuyten Duyvil, Calder attended high school in nearby Yonkers. During Calders high school years, the family moved back and forth between New York and California, in each new location, Calders parents reserved cellar space as a studio for their son. Toward the end of period, Calder stayed with friends in California while his parents moved back to New York
In architecture, an atrium is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light. Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries, are several stories high and having a glazed roof or large windows. Atria are a design feature because they give their buildings a feeling of space. The atrium has become a key feature of buildings in recent years. Atria are popular with building users, building designers and building developers, users like atria because they create a dynamic and stimulating interior that provides shelter from the external environment while maintaining a visual link with that environment. Designers enjoy the opportunity to new types of spaces in buildings. Fire control is an important aspect of contemporary atrium design due to criticism that poorly designed atria could allow fire to spread to a buildings upper stories more quickly. The Latin word atrium referred to the central court from which enclosed rooms led off.
The impluvium was a shallow pool sunken into the floor to catch rainwater from the roof, some surviving examples are beautifully decorated. The opening in the ceiling above the pool called for some means of support for the roof, as the centrepiece of the house, the atrium was the most lavishly-furnished room. Also, it contained the chapel to the ancestral spirits. The term was used for a variety of spaces in public and religious buildings, mostly forms of arcaded courtyards. Byzantine churches were often entered through such a space, the 19th century brought the industrial revolution with great advances in iron and glass manufacturing techniques. Courtyards could have horizontal glazing overhead, eliminating some of the elements from the space. One of the public spaces at Federation Square, in Melbourne, Australia, is called The Atrium and is a street-like space, five storeys high with glazed walls. The structure and glazing pattern follow the system of fractals used to arrange the panels on the rest of the facades at Federation Square, as of 2016, the Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai, has the worlds tallest atrium at 590 feet.
The Luxor Hotel, in Las Vegas, has the largest atrium in the world at 29 million cubic feet, cavaedium Courtyard Quadrangle Roth, Leland M. Understanding Architecture, Its Elements History and Meaning
A banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, slogan or other message. A flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms is called a banner of arms, also, a bar shape piece of non-cloth advertising material sporting a name, slogan, or other marketing message. Church banners commonly portray the saint to whom the church is dedicated, the word derives from French word bannière and late Latin bandum, a cloth out of which a flag is made. Banns has the same origin meaning an official proclamation, and abandon means to change loyalty or disobey orders, the vexillum was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army. The word vexillum is a diminutive of the Latin word, meaning a sail, which confirms the historical evidence that vexilla were literally little sails i. e. flag-like standards. In the vexillum the cloth was draped from a crossbar suspended from the staff. A heraldic banner is usually square or rectangular, a distinction exists between the heraldic banner and the heraldic standard.
The distinction, however, is often misunderstood or ignored, for example, the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is in fact a banner of the royal arms. The prophet Isaiah was commanded to raise a banner and exalt his voice, habakkuk received a similar order to write a vision upon tables that could be read by one who runs past it. Banners in churches have, in the past, been used mainly for processions, the emphasis has, in recent years, shifted markedly towards the permanent or transient display of banners on walls or pillars of churches and other places of worship. A famous example of large banners on display is Liverpool R. C, where the banners are designed by a resident artist. Banners are used to communicate the testimony of Jesus Christ by evangelists, the same kind of banners are used in many other countries. Many, but not all of them, have red as a dominant colour and these marches were one of the most prominent annual celebrations staged in Australia by any group. Most of these banners have not survived, the Labour Council of NSW has the largest surviving collection at Sydney Trades Hall Sydney Trades Hall in Sussex Street, Sydney.
The Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia was formed in 1873, the reverse of the banner shows the warship Australia at sea. The banner is canvas and was painted by Sydney firm Althouse & Geiger, master painters and decorators, founded in 1875, the company is still in operation. The banner is a powerful tool in communicating the experience. For more on the design and making of these banners, see Banner-making, sports fans often buy or make banners to display in the grandstands
Philadelphia City Hall
Philadelphia City Hall, built in 1901 and located at 1 Penn Square, is the seat of government for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The building was designed by Scottish-born architect John McArthur, Jr. in the Second Empire style, City Hall was topped off in 1894, although the interior wasnt finished until 1901. Designed to be the worlds tallest building, it was surpassed during construction by the Washington Monument, with almost 700 rooms, City Hall is the largest municipal building in the United States. The building houses three branches of government, playing host to the executive branch, its legislature. The statue is the tallest atop any building in the world, Calder wished the statue to face south so that its face would be lit by the sun most of the day, the better to reveal the details of his work. Beyond Penn Treaty Park is Pennsbury Manor, Penns country home in Bucks County, yet another version for why the statue pointed generally north instead of south is that it was the current architects method of showing displeasure with the style of the work.
By 1894, the design was not in the current. Penns statue is hollow, and an access tunnel through it leads to a small hatch atop the hat. The abrogation of this agreement supposedly brought a curse onto local sports teams, during the 1990s, whenever one of Philadelphias four major sports teams was in contention for a championship, the statue was decorated with the jersey or hat of that team. Other architectural features and history The tower features clocks 8 m in diameter on all four sides of the portion of the tower. This clock was designed by Warren Johnson, City Halls observation deck is located directly below the base of the statue, about 152 m above street level. Once enclosed with chain link fence, the deck is now enclosed by glass. It is reached in a 6-person elevator whose glass panels allow visitors to see the wooden superstructure that supports the tower, stairs within the tower are only used for emergency exit. The ornamentation of the tower has been simplified, the huge garlands that festooned the top panels of the tower were removed, in the 1950s, the city fathers investigated tearing down City Hall for a new building elsewhere.
They found that the demolition would have bankrupted the city due to the masonry construction. City Hall became a National Historic Landmark in 1976, in 2006, it was named a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers. City Hall is a fully bearing masonry structure with walls up to 22 feet thick, the principal exterior materials are limestone and marble. City Hall is topped with a 37 foot tall statue of William Penn, City Hall was the tallest building in Pennsylvania from 1901 until 1932, when it was surpassed by the Gulf Tower in Pittsburgh
Clothespin is a weathering steel sculpture, by Claes Oldenburg. It is located at Centre Square,1500 Market Street, Philadelphia and it is designed to appear as a large black clothespin. Oldenburg is noted for his attempts to democratize art, and the location of Clothespin, above SEPTAs City Hall subway station and it was dedicated June 25,1976. Made of Corten steel, Clothespin is praised by art critics for its velvety texture and weathered, the silvery steel spring part the two textured work resembles the numerals 76, apt for the United States Bicentennial year. The design has been likened to the couple in Constantin Brâncușis sculpture The Kiss in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. It was commissioned in May 1974, by developer Jack Wolgin, as part of the Philadelphia Redevelopment Authoritys one percent for art program
Jean Philippe Arthur Dubuffet was a French painter and sculptor. He is perhaps best known for founding the art movement Art Brut, Dubuffet enjoyed a prolific art career, both in France and in America, and was featured in many exhibitions throughout his lifetime. Dubuffet was born in Le Havre to a family of wine merchants who were part of the wealthy bourgeoisie. He moved to Paris in 1918 to study painting at the Académie Julian, becoming friends with the artists Juan Gris, André Masson. Six months later, upon finding academic training to be distasteful, during this time, Dubuffet developed many other interests, including music and the study of ancient and modern languages. Dubuffet traveled to Italy and Brazil, and upon returning to Le Havre in 1925, he married for the first time and he took up painting again in 1934 when he made a large series of portraits in which he emphasized the vogues in art history. But again he stopped, developing his business at Bercy during the German Occupation of France.
Years later, in a text, he boasted about having made substantial profits by supplying wine to the Wehrmacht. In 1942, Dubuffet decided to devote himself again to art and he often chose subjects for his works from everyday life, such as people sitting in the Paris Métro or walking in the country. Dubuffet painted with strong, unbroken colors, recalling the palette of Fauvism, as well as the Brucke painters, with their juxtaposing, many of his works featured an individual or individuals placed in a very cramped space, which had a distinct psychological impact on viewers. His first solo show came in October 1944, at the Galerie Rene Drouin in Paris and this marked Dubuffets third attempt to become an established artist. In 1945, Dubuffet attended and was impressed by a show in Paris of Jean Fautriers paintings in which he recognized meaningful art which expressed directly and purely the depth of a person. Emulating Fautrier, Dubuffet started to use oil paint mixed with materials such as mud, coal dust, pieces of glass, straw, gravel, cement.
His use of materials and the irony that he infused into many of his works incited a significant amount of backlash from critics. Greenberg went on to say that Dubuffet is perhaps the one new painter of importance to have appeared on the scene in Paris in the last decade. Indeed, Dubuffet was very prolific in the United States in the following his first exhibition in New York. After 1946, Dubuffet started a series of portraits, with his own friends Henri Michaux, Francis Ponge, Jean Paulhan and he painted these portraits in the same thick materials, and in a manner deliberately anti-psychological and anti-personal, as Dubuffet expressed himself. A few years he approached the surrealist group in 1948, in 1944 he started an important relationship with the resistance-fighter and French writer, Jean Paulhan who was strongly fighting against intellectual terrorism, as he called it
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Fort Wayne is a city in the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County. Located in northeastern Indiana, the city is 18 miles west of the Ohio border and 50 miles south of the Michigan border. With an estimated population of 260,326 in 2015, Fort Wayne is the 77th most populous city in the United States and the second largest in Indiana, after Indianapolis. It is the city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen and Whitley counties. In addition to the three counties, the combined statistical area includes Adams, DeKalb, Noble. Under the direction of American Revolutionary War statesman Anthony Wayne, the United States Army built Fort Wayne last in a series of forts near the Miami tribe village of Kekionga in 1794. Named in Waynes honor, the European-American settlement developed at the confluence of the St. Joseph, St. Marys, the village was platted in 1823 and underwent tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad. The city is a center for the industry which employs thousands.
Fort Wayne was an All-America City Award recipient in 1982,1998, the city received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U. S. This area at the confluence of rivers was long occupied by cultures of indigenous peoples. The Miami tribe established its settlement of Kekionga at the confluence of the Maumee, St. Joseph and it was the capital of the Miami nation and related Algonquian tribes. In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes as commander of the outpost, the French built Fort Miami in 1697 as part of a group of forts and trading posts built between Quebec and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissots death, Fort Miami was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis, the first census in 1744 recorded a population of approximately 40 Frenchmen and 1,000 Miami. Increasing tension between France and the United Kingdom developed over the territory, in 1760, the area was ceded to the British Empire after French forces surrendered during the French and Indian War.
In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule, the Miami regained control of Kekionga, a rule that lasted for more than 30 years. In 1790, George Washington ordered the United States Army to secure Indiana Territory, Three battles were fought at Kekionga against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors defeated U. S. forces in the first two battles, Anthony Wayne led a third expedition resulting in the destruction of Kekionga and the start of peace negotiations between Little Turtle and the U. S. After General Wayne refused to negotiate, the tribe advanced to Fallen Timbers where they were defeated on August 20,1794
A plaza /ˈplɑːzə/ is an open urban public space, such as a city square. The plaza might be enough to serve as a military parade ground. At times of crisis or fiesta, it was the space where a large crowd might gather, like the Italian piazza, the plaza remains a center of community life that is only equaled by the market-place. A plaza de toros is a bullring, in modern usage, a plaza can be any gathering place on a street or between buildings, a street intersection with a statue, etc. Todays metropolitan landscapes often incorporate the plaza as an element, or as an outcome of zoning regulations, building budgetary constraints. Sociologist William H. Plaza is a Spanish word, cognate to Italian piazza, Portuguese praça, Galician praza, Catalan plaça, Romanian piața, German Platz, the origin of all these words is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning broad. The first purpose-built shopping center in the United States, opened in Kansas City, Missouri in 1922, knowingly took the name of Country Club Plaza and adopted Spanish architectural details.
More recently plaza has been used to describe a complex, similar to a shopping mall. Examples, Pantip Plaza, Bintang Plaza, Kuching Plaza, Plaza Las Américas, Plaza de las Estrellas, Central Plaza, Schiphol Plaza, Plazas del Centro Comercial Santafé, The Plaza, and Cityplaza. Central Plaza, in Hong Kong, was for four years the tallest building in Asia, at 78 storeys,374 m
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors. When the term was used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors. Mostly designed for office and residential uses, a skyscraper can be called a high-rise, for buildings above a height of 300 m, the term supertall can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m are classified as megatall. One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls and these curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a surface area of windows.
Modern skyscrapers often have a structure, and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, and transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, a relatively big building may be considered a skyscraper if it protrudes well above its built environment and changes the overall skyline. The maximum height of structures has progressed historically with building methods and technologies, the Burj Khalifa is currently the tallest building in the world. High-rise buildings are considered shorter than skyscrapers, the first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Even the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic and this definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicagos Monadnock Building. What is the characteristic of the tall office building.
The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and it must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, the word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. A loose convention of some in the United States and Europe draws the limit of a skyscraper at 150 m or 490 ft. The tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt and it was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 14th century AD Lincoln Cathedral being conjectured by many to have exceeded it