Tarn-et-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France. It is traversed from which it takes its name; this area was part of the former provinces of Quercy and Languedoc. The department was created in 1808 by Napoléon Bonaparte, with territory being taken from the departments of Lot, Haute-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne and Aveyron; the department is rural with fertile agricultural land in the broad river valley, but there are hilly areas to the south and north. The departmental prefecture is Montauban, some of the other large communes include Castelsarrasin, Molières, Valence-d'Agen and the medieval town of Lauzerte. Quercy was part of Aquitania prima under the Romans, Christianity was introduced during the 4th century. Early in the 6th century the area fell under the authority of the Franks, in the 7th century became part of the autonomous Duchy of Aquitaine. At the end of the 10th century its rulers were the powerful counts of Toulouse. During the hostilities between England and France in the reign of Henry II of England, the English placed garrisons in the county, by the 1259 Treaty of Paris lower Quercy came under the control of England.
The kings of both England and France around this time tried to curry favour by adding to the privileges of the towns and the district. In 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed and the whole of Quercy passed to England. However, in the 1440s the English were expelled by the newly created army of Charles VII of France. In the 16th century Quercy was a stronghold of the Protestants, the scene of fierce religious conflicts; the civil wars of the reign of Louis XIII took place around Montauban. After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, the monarchy was re-established in France, but the discredited Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830, which established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. During this time the divide between the rich and poor increased. Before the department's formation in the nineteenth century, the northern half formed part of the old province of Quercy and the southern half, part of Languedoc; the department was created on 4 November 1808 during the First French Empire by a decision of Napoleon.
The emperor had been invited to visit the town of Montauban, an important industrial and commercial centre at the time, whose populace thought the town was central enough and sufficiently important to be the capital of a new department. He was granted their request; the department was formed out of territories, part of neighbouring areas. More than half of the territory was taken from the Department of Lot, over one-third was taken from Haute-Garonne, the rest from the departments of Lot-et-Garonne and Aveyron; the first Prefect was Félix Le Peletier d'Aunay, installed in his post on 31 December 1808. Tarn-et-Garonne constitutes part of the Occitanie region in southern France, it borders on the departments of Lot to the north, Aveyron to the northeast, Tarn to the east, Haute-Garonne to the south, Gers and Lot-et-Garonne to the west. The capital of the department is Montauban. Montauban is situated on the right bank of the river Tarn at its confluence with the river Tescou, the Tarn is joined by the Aveyron about 10 km further downstream.
The second largest commune in the department is Castelsarrasin which stands near the confluence of the Tarn and River Garonne. Montauban is connected to the Garonne via the 11 km Canal de Montech; the central part of the department is a broad river valley that does not exceed 150 m in altitude, but near the commune of Valence-d'Agen, in the extreme west of the department, the valley narrows as the hilly regions of Bas-Quercy to the north and Lomagne to the south draw closer together. In the northeast of the department is higher land in the form of limestone plateaus known as the Causses, part of the Massif Central; the highest point in the department, at 510 m, is the Pech Maurel, situated in the commune of Castanet. The economy of the department depends on agriculture but there is some industry, it benefits from its proximity to Toulouse; the commercial importance of Montauban is due to its trade in agricultural products, horses and poultry, but it does have some manufacturing industries, which include cloth-weaving, cloth-dressing, flour-milling, wood-sawing, the manufacture of furniture, silk-gauze and straw hats.
The surrounding countryside supports nursery-gardening, wine-making and the growing of maize and mulberries. This area is at the northern limit for the commercial production of the latter two crops because of the vagaries of the climate. Cantons of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Arrondissements of the Tarn-et-Garonne department Prefecture of Tarn-et-Garonne website General council of Tarn-et-Garonne website Arkheia History Review of Tarn-et-Garonne website
Indre-et-Loire is a department in west-central France named after the Indre River and Loire River. In 2016, it had a population of 606,223. Sometimes referred to as Touraine, the name of the historic region, it nowadays is part of the Centre-Val de Loire region, its prefecture is subprefectures are Chinon and Loches. Indre-et-Loire is a touristic destination for its numerous monuments that are part of the Châteaux of the Loire Valley. Indre-et-Loire is one of the original 83 departments established during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from the former province of Touraine. Its prefecture Tours was a centre of learning in the Early Middle Ages, having been a key focus of Christian evangelisation since St Martin became its first bishop around 375. From the mid-15th century, the royal court repaired with Tours as its capital. After the creation of the department it remained politically conservative, as Honoré de Balzac recorded in several of his novels. Conservative Tours refused to welcome the railways which instead were obliged to route their lines by way of Saint-Pierre-des-Corps on the city's eastern edge.
The moderate temper of the department's politics remained apparent after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870: sentiments remained predominantly pro-royalist during the early years of the Third Republic. For most of the nineteenth century, Indre-et-Loire was a rural department, but pockets of heavy-duty industrialisation began to appear towards the century's end, accompanied by left-wing politics. 1920 saw the birth of the French Communist Party at the Congress of Tours. By 1920, Saint-Pierre-des-Corps had become a major railway hub and a centre of railway workshops: it had acquired a reputation as a bastion of working class solidarity. Indre-et-Loire is part of the region of Centre-Val de Loire; the President of the General Council is Marisol Touraine of the Socialist Party. Indre-et-Loire is home to numerous outstanding châteaux that are open to the public, among them are the following: Château d'Amboise Château of Azay-le-Rideau Château de la Bourdaisière Château de Chenonceau Château de Chinon Château de la Guerche Château de Langeais Château de Loches Château de Marçay Château de Montpoupon Château de Plessis-lez-Tours Château du Rivau Château de Tours Château de Villandry Château du Clos Lucé Château d'Ussé Cantons of the Indre-et-Loire department Communes of the Indre-et-Loire department Arrondissements of the Indre-et-Loire department Prefecture website General Council website Indre-et-Loire at Curlie Official tourist website of Touraine Loire Valley
The Château d'Angers is a castle in the city of Angers in the Loire Valley, in the département of Maine-et-Loire, in France. Founded in the 9th century by the Counts of Anjou, it was expanded to its current size in the 13th century, it is located overhanging the river Maine. It is a listed historical monument since 1875. Now open to the public, the Château d'Angers is home of the Apocalypse Tapestry; the Château d'Angers was built as a fortress at a site inhabited by the Romans because of its strategic defensive location. In the 9th century, the Bishop of Angers gave the Counts of Anjou permission to build a castle in Angers; the construction of the first castle begun under Count Fulk III, celebrated for his construction of dozens of castles, who built it to protect Anjou from the Normans. It became part of the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenet Kings of England during the 12th century. In 1204, the region was conquered by Philip II and the new castle was constructed during the minority of his grandson, Louis IX in the early part of the 13th century.
Louis IX rebuilt the castle in black slate, with 17 semicircular towers. The construction undertaken in 1234 cost 4,422 livres one per cent of the estimated royal revenue at the time. Louis gave the castle to his brother, Charles in 1246. In 1352, King John II le Bon, gave the castle to his second son, Louis who became count of Anjou. Married to the daughter of the wealthy Duke of Brittany, Louis had the castle modified, in 1373 commissioned the famous Apocalypse Tapestry from the painter Hennequin de Bruges and the Parisian tapestry-weaver Nicolas Bataille. Louis II and Yolande d'Aragon added a royal apartments to the complex; the chapel is the name given to churches which enshrined a relic of the Passion. The relic at Angers was a splinter of the fragment of the True Cross, acquired by Louis IX. In the early 15th century, the hapless dauphin who, with the assistance of Joan of Arc would become King Charles VII, had to flee Paris and was given sanctuary at the Château d' Angers. In 1562, Catherine de' Medici had the castle restored as a powerful fortress, her son, Henry III, reduced the height of the towers and had the towers and walls stripped of their embattlements.
Nonetheless, under threat of attacks from the Huguenots, the king maintained the castle's defensive capabilities by making it a military outpost and by installing artillery on the château's upper terraces. At the end of the 18th century, as a military garrison, it showed its worth when its thick walls withstood a massive bombardment by cannons from the Vendean army. Unable to do anything else, the invaders gave up. A military academy was established in the castle to train young officers in the strategies of war. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, best known for taking part in the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo, was trained at the Military Academy of Angers; the academy was moved to Saumur and the castle was used for the rest of the 19th century as a prison, powder magazine, barracks. The castle continued to be used as an armory through the Second World Wars, it was damaged during World War II by the Nazis when an ammunition storage dump inside the castle exploded.
On 10 January 2009, the castle suffered severe damage from an accidental fire due to short-circuiting. The Royal Logis, which contains old tomes and administrative offices, was the most damaged part of the chateau, resulting in 400 square metres of the roof being burnt; the Tapestries of the Apocalypse were not damaged. Total damages have been estimated at 2 million Euros. According to Christine Albanel, the Minister of Culture, the expected date of completion for the restoration was the second trimester of 2009. Today, owned by the City of Angers, the massive, austere castle has been converted to a museum housing the oldest and largest collection of medieval tapestries in the world, with the 14th-century "Apocalypse Tapestry" as one of its priceless treasures; as a tribute to its fortitude, the castle has never been taken by any invading force in history. The outer wall is 3 metres thick, extends for about 660 m and is protected by seventeen massive towers; each of the perimeter towers measures 18 m in diameter.
The château covers an area of 20,000 square metres. Two pairs of towers landward entrances of the château; each of the towers was once 40 metres in height, but they were cut down for the use of artillery pieces. The Tour du Moulin is the only tower. Loire Valley List of castles in France Apocalypse Tapestry on the French Wikipedia Delbos, Claire, La France fortifiée: Châteaux, citadelles et forteresses, Petit Futé, ISBN 978-2-84768-198-7 Prestwich, Michael, "Castle Construction", Castles: A History and Guide, Blandford Press, pp. 28–43, ISBN 0-7137-1100-0 Baynes, T. S. ed. "Angers", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 29 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Angers", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, Cambridge University Press, p. 8–9 Mallet, Angers, le château: Maine-et-Loire, Association pour le développement de l'inventaire des Pays de la Loire, ISBN 978-2-906344-29-7 Mesqui, Jean, Le château d'Angers, Paris: Centre des monuments nationaux/ Monum. Éditions du patrimonie Château d'Angers - City of Angers Ministry of Culture database entry for Château d'Angers Ministry of Culture photos Castle of Angers in Google Cultural Institute
The Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Amiens, or Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic church. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Amiens, it is situated on a slight ridge overlooking the River Somme in Amiens, the administrative capital of the Picardy region of France, some 120 kilometres north of Paris. Medieval cathedral builders were trying to maximize the internal dimensions in order to reach for the heavens and bring in more light. In that regard, the Amiens cathedral is the tallest complete cathedral in France, its stone-vaulted nave reaching an internal height of 42.30 metres. It has the greatest interior volume of any French cathedral, estimated at 200,000 cubic metres; the cathedral was built between 1220 and c. 1270 and has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981. Although it has lost most of its original stained glass, Amiens Cathedral is renowned for the quality and quantity of early 13th-century Gothic sculpture in the main west façade and the south transept portal, a large quantity of polychrome sculpture from periods inside the building.
The lack of documentation concerning the construction of the Gothic cathedral may be in part the result of fires that destroyed the chapter archives in 1218 and again in 1258—a fire that damaged the cathedral itself. Bishop Evrard de Fouilly initiated work on the cathedral in 1220. Robert de Luzarches was the architect until 1228, was followed by Thomas de Cormont until 1258, his son, Renaud de Cormont, acted as the architect until 1288. The chronicle of Corbie gives a completion date for the cathedral of 1266. Finishing works continued, however, its floors are covered with a number such as the bent cross. The labyrinth was installed in 1288; the cathedral contains the alleged head of John the Baptist, a relic brought from Constantinople by Wallon de Sarton as he was returning from the Fourth Crusade. The construction of the cathedral at this period can be seen as resulting from a coming together of necessity and opportunity; the destruction of earlier buildings by fire, failed attempts at rebuilding forced the rapid construction of a building that has a good deal of artistic unity.
The long and peaceful reign of Louis IX of France brought prosperity to the region, based on thriving agriculture and a booming cloth trade, that made the investment possible. The great cathedrals of Reims and Chartres are contemporary; the original design of the flying buttresses around the choir had them placed too high to counteract the force of the ceiling arch pushing outwards resulting in excessive lateral forces being placed on the vertical columns. The structure was only saved when, centuries masons placed a second row of more robust flying buttresses that connected lower down on the outer wall; this fix failed to counteract similar issues with the lower wall which began to develop large cracks around the late Middle Ages. This was solved by another patch by the master mason, Pierre Tarisel, that consisted of a wrought iron bar chain being installed around the mezzanine level to resist the forces pushing the stone columns outward; the chain was installed red hot to act as a cinch. The west front of the cathedral, built in a single campaign from 1220 to 1236, shows an unusual degree of artistic unity: its lower tier with three vast deep porches is capped with the gallery of twenty-two over lifesize kings, which stretches across the entire façade beneath the rose window.
Above the rose window there is an open arcade, the galerie des sonneurs. Flanking the nave, the two towers were built without close regard to the former design, the south tower being finished in 1366, the north one, reaching higher, in 1406; the western portals of the cathedral are famous for their elaborate sculpture, featuring a gallery of locally-important saints and large eschatological scenes. Statues of saints in the portal of the cathedral have been identified as including the locally venerated Saints Victoricus and Gentian, Saint Domitius, Saint Ulphia, Saint Fermin; the spire over the central crossing was added between 1529 and 1533. The surface area is 7,700 square meters. During the process of laser cleaning in the 1990s, it was discovered that the western façade of the cathedral was painted in multiple colours. A technique was perfected to determine the exact make-up of the colours as they were applied in the 13th century. In conjunction with the laboratories of EDF and the expertise of the Society Skertzo, elaborate lighting techniques were developed to project these colours directly on the façade with precision, recreating the polychromatic appearance of the 13th century.
When projected on the statues around the portals, the result is a stunning display that brings the figures to life. The projected colors are faint to photograph, but a good quality DSLR camera provides excellent results, as shown below; the full effect of the colour may be best appreciated by direct viewing, with musical accompaniment, which can be done at the Son et lumière shows which are held on Summer evenings, during the Christmas Fair, over the New Year. Cathedral exterior gallery Amiens cathedral contains the largest medieval interior in Western Europe, supported by 126 pillars. Both the nave and the chancel are vast but light, with considerable amounts of stained glass surviving, despite the depredations of war; the ambulatory surrounding the choir is richly decorated with polychrome sculpture and flanked by numerous chapels. One of the most sumptuous is the Drapers' chapel; the cloth industry was the most dynamic component of
Bec Abbey, formally the Abbey of Our Lady of Bec, is a Benedictine monastic foundation in the Eure département, in the Bec valley midway between the cities of Rouen and Bernay. It is located in Le Bec Hellouin, Normandy and was the most influential abbey of the 12th-century Anglo-Norman kingdom. Like all abbeys, Bec maintained annals of the house but uniquely its first abbots received individual biographies, brought together by the monk of Bec, Milo Crispin; because of the abbey's cross-Channel influence, these hagiographic lives sometimes disclose historical information of more than local importance. "Bec" is the name of the stream running through the abbey, Old Norse bekkr, in English place or river names Beck. The abbey was founded in 1034 by Saint Herluin, whose life was written by Gilbert Crispin, Abbot of Westminster of Bec, collated with three other lives by Milo Crispin. Abbey construction began in 1034 and continued through 1035. Further lands were added through 1040. Saint Herluin was a Norman knight who in about 1031 left the court of Gilbert, Count of Brionne, to devote himself to a life of religion: the commune of Le Bec Hellouin preserves his name.
One hundred thirty-six monks made their profession. With the arrival of Lanfranc of Pavia, Bec became a focus of 11th century intellectual life. Lanfranc, famous for his lectures at Avranches, came to teach as prior and master of the monastic school, but left in 1062, to become abbot of St. Stephen's Abbey and Archbishop of Canterbury, he was followed as abbot by Anselm later an Archbishop of Canterbury, as was the fifth abbot, Theobald of Bec. Many distinguished ecclesiastics including the future Pope Alexander II and Saint Ivo of Chartres, were educated in the school at Bec; the life of the founder was written by Gilbert Crispin. Archbishop Lanfranc wrote a Chronicon Beccense of the life of Herlui. Milo Crispin's biography of the first four abbots was published at Paris in 1648; the followers of William the Conqueror supported the abbey, enriching it with extensive properties in England. Bec owned and managed St Neots Priory as well as a number of other British foundations, including Goldcliff Priory in Monmouthshire founded in 1113 by Robert de Chandos.
The village of Tooting Bec, now a London suburb, is so named. Bec Abbey was the original burial place of the Empress Matilda, whose bones were transferred to Rouen Cathedral. Bec Abbey was damaged during the Wars of Religion and left a ruin in the French Revolution but the 15th-century St. Nicholas Tower from the medieval monastery is still standing. In 1948 the site was re-settled as the Abbaye de Notre-Dame du Bec by Olivetan monks led by Dom Grammont, who effected some restorations; the abbey is known for its links with Anglicanism and has been visited by successive archbishops of Canterbury. The abbey library contains the John Graham Bishop deposit of 5,000 works concerning Anglicanism. Today the Abbey is best known for the pottery the monks produce; the following is a list of the abbots: List of Benedictine monasteries in France St Werburgh's Abbey Povington Priory Tooting Bec Weedon Bec Anonymous. Chronique du Bec et Chronique de François Carré. Rouen: Meétŕie, 1883. Anonymous. De libertate Beccensis monasterii.
In Giles Constable and Bernard S. Smith, Three Treatises from Bec on the Nature of Monastic Life. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 2008. Anselm. Sancti Anselmi Cantuariensis archiepiscopi Opera Omnia. Stuttgart: Frommann, 1968. Chibnall, Marjorie; the English Lands of the Abbey of Bec. Oxford: OUP, 1968. Crouch, David; the Beaumont Twins: The Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: CUP, 1986. Gazeau, Véronique. “From Bec to Canterbury: Between Cloister and World, the Legacy of Anselm, a personne d’autorité.” In Giles E. M. Gasper and Ian Logan, Saint Anselm of Canterbury and His Legacy. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2012. Milo Crispin, "Vita venerabilis Willelmi abbatis Beccensis tertii." In Patrologia Latina, vol. 150, coll. 713-724. Orderic Vitalis, The Ecclesiastical History. Oxford: OUP, 1969 and 1975. Pohl and Laura Gathagan. A Companion to the Abbey of Le Bec in the Middle Ages. Leiden: Brill, forthcoming. Porée, Adolphe-André. Histoire de l’abbaye du Bec. Évreux: Hérissey, 1901.
Vaughn, Salley. Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan: The Innocence of the Dove and the Wisdom of the Serpent. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press, 1987. Wilmot-Buxton, Ethel Mary. Anselm. London: Harrap, 1915. Abbaye de Notre-Dame du Bec: official website Le Bec Hellouin: official website gite site with details and photos Texts on Wikisource: "Bec". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Bec". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Charente-Maritime department; the city is connected to the Île de Ré by a 2.9-kilometre bridge completed on 19 May 1988. Its harbour opens into the Pertuis d'Antioche; the area of La Rochelle was occupied in antiquity by the Gallic tribe of the Santones, who gave their name to the nearby region of Saintonge and the city of Saintes. The Romans subsequently occupied the area, where they developed salt production along the coast as well as wine production, re-exported throughout the Empire. Roman villas have been found at Saint-Éloi and at Les Minimes, as well as salt evaporation ponds dating from the same period. La Rochelle became an important harbour in the 12th century; the establishment of La Rochelle as a harbour was a consequence of the victory of Duke Guillaume X of Aquitaine over Isambert de Châtelaillon in 1130 and the subsequent destruction of his harbour of Châtelaillon.
In 1137, Guillaume X to all intents and purposes made La Rochelle a free port and gave it the right to establish itself as a commune. Fifty years Eleanor of Aquitaine upheld the communal charter promulgated by her father, for the first time in France, a city mayor was appointed for La Rochelle, Guillaume de Montmirail. Guillaume was assisted in his responsibilities by 24 municipal magistrates, 75 notables who had jurisdiction over the inhabitants. Under the communal charter, the city obtained many privileges, such as the right to mint its own coins, to operate some businesses free of royal taxes, factors which would favour the development of the entrepreneurial middle-class. Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet in 1152, who became king of England as Henry II in 1154, thus putting La Rochelle under Plantagenet rule, until Louis VIII captured it in the 1224 Siege of La Rochelle. During the Plantagenet control of the city in 1185, Henry II had the Vauclair castle built, remains of which are still visible in the Place de Verdun.
The main activities of the city were in the areas of maritime commerce and trade with England, the Netherlands and Spain. In 1196, wealthy bourgeois Alexandre Auffredi sent a fleet of seven ships to Africa seeking wealth, he went bankrupt awaiting the return of his ships. The Knights Templar had a strong presence in La Rochelle since before the time of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who exempted them from duties and gave them mills in her 1139 Charter. La Rochelle was for the Templars their largest base on the Atlantic Ocean, where they stationed their main fleet. From La Rochelle, they were able to act as intermediaries in trade between England and the Mediterranean. A popular thread of conspiracy theory originating with Holy Blood, Holy Grail has it that the Templars used a fleet of 18 ships which had brought Jacques de Molay from Cyprus to La Rochelle to escape arrest in France; the fleet left laden with knights and treasures just before the issue of the warrant for the arrest of the Order in October 1307.
During the Hundred Years' War in 1360, following the Treaty of Bretigny La Rochelle again came under the rule of the English monarch. La Rochelle however expelled the English in June 1372, following the naval Battle of La Rochelle, between Castilian-French and English fleets; the French and Spanish decisively defeated the English, securing French control of the Channel for the first time since the Battle of Sluys in 1340. The naval battle of La Rochelle was one of the first cases of the use of handguns on warships, which were deployed by the French and Spanish against the English. Having recovered freedom, La Rochelle refused entry to Du Guesclin, until Charles V recognized the privileges of the city in November 1372. In 1402, the French adventurer Jean de Béthencourt left La Rochelle and sailed along the coast of Morocco to conquer the Canary islands; until the 15th century, La Rochelle was to be the largest French harbour on the Atlantic coast, dealing in wine and cheese. During the Renaissance, La Rochelle adopted Protestant ideas.
Calvinism started to be propagated in the region of La Rochelle, resulting in its suppression through the establishment of Cours présidiaux tribunals by Henry II. An early result of this was the burning at the stake of two "heretics" in La Rochelle in 1552. Conversions to Calvinism however continued, due to a change of religious beliefs, but to a desire for political independence on the part of the local elite, a popular opposition to royal expenses and requisitions in the building projects to fortify the coast against England. On the initiative of Gaspard de Coligny, the Calvinists attempted to colonize the New World to find a new home for their religion, with the likes of Pierre Richier and Jean de Léry. After the short-lived attempt of France Antarctique, they failed to establish a colony in Brazil, resolved to make a stand in La Rochelle itself. Pierre Richier became "Ministre de l'église de la Rochelle" when he returned from Brazil in 1558, was able to increase the Huguenot presence in La Rochelle, from a small base of about 50 souls, secretly educated in the Lutheran faith by Charles de Clermont the previous year.
He has been described, by Lancelot Voisin de La Popelinière, as "le père de l'église de La Rochelle". La Rochelle was the first French city, with Rouen, to experience iconoclastic riots in 1560, at the time of the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy, before the riots spread to many other cities. Further cases of Reformation iconoclasm were recorded in L
Doubs is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River. As early as the 13th century, inhabitants of the northern two-thirds of Doubs spoke Franc-Comtois, a dialect of Langue d'Oïl. Residents of the southern third of Doubs spoke a dialect of the Arpitan language. Both languages co-existed with French, the official language of law and commerce, continued to be spoken in rural areas into the 20th century, they are both still spoken today but not on a daily basis. Doubs was important as a portal to Switzerland through the pass at Joux. Many famous people, including Mirabeau, Toussaint Louverture and Heinrich von Kleist, were imprisoned in the Château de Joux. Doubs is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Franche-Comté. The prefecture is Besançon. In 1793, the republic of Mandeure was incorporated into the department; this district was passed between various territories and departments in the ensuing administrative reorganisations and wars, but was restored to Doubs in 1816 when the former principality of Montbéliard was added to the department.
However, the commune of Le Cerneux-Péquignot was annexed by the Canton of Neuchâtel under the terms of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, since remained Swiss territory. Between the defeat of France at the Battle of Waterloo and November 1818, Doubs was included in the area occupied by Austrian troops. Victor Hugo, Gustave Courbet, Auguste and Louis Lumière are among the famous people born in Doubs. Doubs is part of the current region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is surrounded by the French departments of Jura, Haute-Saône, Territoire de Belfort, the Swiss cantons of Vaud, Neuchâtel, Jura; the department is dominated by the Jura mountains. The President of the Departmental Council is Christine Bouquin; the inhabitants of the department are called Doubiens. The Doubs department is at the most industrialized in France, it is the birthplace of the automotive manufacturer Peugeot. The castle of Joux and Besançon are important tourist destinations. Arrondissements of the Doubs department Cantons of the Doubs department Communes of the Doubs department Hoffmann, Die französischen Konservativen in der katholischen Provinz Parteigenese und politische Kultur im Doubs.
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