Houlihan Lokey, Inc. is American multinational independent investment bank and financial services company. Houlihan Lokey was founded in 1972 and is headquartered at Constellation Place in Century City, Los Angeles, California; the firm advises large public and held companies as well as institutions and governments. Its main service lines include mergers and acquisitions, capital markets and distressed M&A, fairness opinions and strategic consulting; as of May 31, 2018, Houlihan Lokey employed more than 1,300 employees worldwide. In 2017, Houlihan Lokey was named the No. 1 M&A Advisor for All U. S. Transactions, the No. 1 Global Investment Banking Restructuring Advisor, a Top 10 Most Active Global M&A Advisor by Thomson Reuters. In 2016, Houlihan Lokey was named the No. 1 M&A Advisor for all U. S. transactions, the No. 1 Global M&A Fairness Opinion Advisor, the No. 1 Global Investment Banking Restructuring Advisor by Thomson Reuters. Houlihan Lokey was founded in Los Angeles in 1972 as a provider of general business advisory services to held companies.
The 1974 passage of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act launched the firm’s valuation business by creating demand for independent valuations of private businesses those that had formed employee stock ownership programs. In 1986, Kenneth Friedman founded and became President of Houlihan Lokey’s investment banking broker dealer to provide M&A advisory services and to raise debt and equity financing. Friedman formed the investment bank to provide Wall Street level expertise to the expanding investment banking demands of Houlihan Lokey’s clients and other middle market companies. By 1987, many of the leveraged transactions completed earlier in the decade were starting to exhibit signs of financial distress. Accordingly, a market was developing for financial restructuring advisory services. To position itself to serve this burgeoning market, the investment banking broker-dealer purchased Cheviot Capital Corporation in 1987 and, led by Jeff Werbalowsky and Irwin Gold, began assembling what would become an active, worldwide financial restructuring group.
With the surge of mergers and leveraged buyouts, Wall Street’s large investment banking firms began calling on Houlihan Lokey for independent valuation expertise in fairness and employee stock ownership plan opinions. The firm advised on transactions valued at more than $100 billion during this period; the firm started to offer estate planning valuation services. In addition, the firm opened several offices in the 1980s in New York City, San Francisco, Chicago. Houlihan Lokey opened eight offices across the U. S. in the 1980s and 1990s as it expanded. In 1995, to grow its information services division, Houlihan Lokey acquired Mergerstat, a publishing company with a 30-year history in analytical M&A research, from Merrill Lynch. In 2001, Houlihan Lokey launched its first non-U. S. Office by expanding into London, it expanded its industry group platform and private equity coverage program in keeping with investment banking trends. In 2002, Houlihan Lokey advised the official creditors committees in three large bankruptcies: WorldCom and Conseco.
In 2005, the firm opened a Paris office. In 2006, the firm opened a Frankfurt office. In 2006, Houlihan Lokey agreed to merge with ORIX USA, the U. S. corporate lending operations of ORIX Corp. of Japan, to address the growing international demand for middle-market investment banking services. In 2007, Houlihan Lokey expanded into Asia, opening offices in Hong Tokyo. Within the next three years, the firm opened an office in Beijing. In 2008, Houlihan Lokey advised the creditors of Lehman Brothers. In 2010, Houlihan Lokey bought a sizable minority stake in Avista Advisory Group, a decade-old advisory group; this gave the firm offices in both Singapore. In 2013, Houlihan Lokey expanded its Financial Institutions Group through the acquisition of Milestone Advisors; the firm launched the Illiquid Financial Assets practice to advise on the sales of assets such as stakes in loan pools, life settlements, minority positions, pharmaceutical royalties, operating leases. In 2014, Houlihan Lokey strengthened its capabilities and coverage for clients across the technology sector with the acquisition of ArchPoint Partners.
In 2015, Houlihan Lokey acquired management consulting firm Bridge Strategy Group, digital media and entertainment focused investment bank MESA Securities, London-based consumer-focused firm McQueen Ltd. and operations of the Continental European investment bank Leonardo & Co. In 2015, Houlihan Lokey acquired the investment banking operations of Leonardo & Co. NV in Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, became a minority partner in a joint venture with the management team of Leonardo in respect to Leonardo’s investment banking operations in Italy; this gave the firm offices in both Milan. On August 13, 2015, Houlihan Lokey completed its initial public offering, beginning trading as HLI on the NYSE. In January 2017, Houlihan Lokey acquired a leader in Tech + IP advisory work. In January 2018, Houlihan Lokey acquired Quayle Munro Limited, an independent advisory firm focused on providing corporate finance advisory services to companies in the data & analytics sector. In May 2018, the firm acquired BearTooth Advisors, an independent advisory firm that provided strategic advisory and placement agency services to alternative investment managers.
The financial restructuring team has 200 professionals worldwide, every assignment is staffed with professionals who facilitate the completion of due diligence and analysis. Houlihan Lokey has advised several complicated deals, between 2007 and 2017 the firm advised on more
West Los Angeles
West Los Angeles is a residential and commercial neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. The neighborhood is divided by the Interstate 405 Freeway, each side is sometimes treated as a distinct neighborhood, mapped differently by different sources; each of them lies within the larger Westside region of Los Angeles County and together they comprise most of the 90025 zip code. The West Los Angeles Community Plan area recognized by the city of Los Angeles is bounded by Centinela Avenue on the west. Among the neighborhoods included within it are Sawtelle, Rancho Park, Cheviot Hills, Castle Heights, Century City; the community plan area. The Automobile Club of Southern California does not mark boundaries on its map, but centers the neighborhood of West Los Angeles proper as south of Santa Monica Boulevard, west of Interstate 405, north of Olympic Boulevard and east of Barrington Avenue; the borders of the official West Los Angeles Neighborhood Council correspond to this second definition.
Its district stretches from the 405 freeway in the east to Centinela Avenue in the west and Wilshire Boulevard in the north and the 10 freeway in the south. This is the same area labeled as "Sawtelle" in the Mapping L. A. website of the Los Angeles Times. However, according to the Mapping L. A. website of the Los Angeles Times, West Los Angeles lies south of Santa Monica Boulevard, west of Beverly Glen Boulevard, north of Pico Boulevard and east of Sepulveda Boulevard. The western and eastern portions together comprise a large portion of the official West Los Angeles Community Plan area. In 2003, a Los Angeles Times correspondent noted: The meaning of the term West Los Angeles varies widely; some use it to describe the entire Westside including Santa Monica and stretching east to Western Avenue. More though, it is the portion of incorporated Los Angeles between the Santa Monica city limits on the west, Wilshire Boulevard on the north, Century City to the east and extending just beyond National Boulevard on the south.
Sections of West L. A. run the gamut from stylish Cheviot Hills to a cluster of generic homes east of Bundy Drive. That report on the meaning of West Los Angeles included Rancho Park and the Westdale Trousdale area near National Boulevard and Barrington Avenue; this definition is similar to the one used by Frommer's, which described West Los Angeles as "a label that applies to everything that isn't one of the other Westside neighborhoods. It's the area south of Santa Monica Boulevard, north of Venice Boulevard, east of Santa Monica and Venice, west and south of Century City."The 2004 City of Los Angeles & Communities map by the Los Angeles Almanac shows West Los Angeles as the neighborhood south of Santa Monica Boulevard and north of Culver City and the neighborhood of Palms. Century City, Rancho Park, Cheviot Hills are shown as sub-neighborhoods in West Los Angeles. Excluded from the neighborhood is the area west of the I-405, shown as Sawtelle. For the area west of the 405 freeway, Mapping L.
A. gives the population of the 2.69 -square-mile "Sawtelle" neighborhood as 35,844 according to the 2000 U. S. census, with a rise to 38,698 in 2008 as estimated by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning. Its density of 13,319 people per square mile, about was average for the city of Los Angeles but among the highest densities for the county; the percentage of Asian people is high for the county and the area is diverse compared to both City of Los Angeles and County of Los Angeles averages. Mexico and Iran are the most common foreign places of birth. Notably, 49.8% of residents 25 and older have a four-year degree, high for the city of Los Angeles and high for the county. The percentages of never married males and never married females are among the county's highest. For the area east of the 405 freeway, Mapping L. A. gives the population of the 1.05-square-mile neighborhood as 12,659 according to the 2000 U. S. census, with a rise to 13,582 in 2008 as estimated by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning.
Its density of 12,061 people was about average for the city of Los Angeles. It had an high percentage of white people compared with the county at large, 76.7%, the neighborhood was not diverse for the county. Others ethnicities were Asian, 11.4%. The median household income in east Mapping L. A. area was $86,403 in 2008 dollars, considered high for both the city and the county. The percentage of households earning $125,000 and up was high for the county. Median age of residents was 38, old compared with other locality in the county; the average household size was 1.9, low for the county. 51% of residents rented their living quarters, 49% owned them. The percentage of widowed men and women was among the county's highest. Iranian and Russian were the most common ancestries; the east Mapping L. A. area was educated, with 60.4% of residents 25 and older holding a four-year degree, a higher ratio than found in the rest of the city or the county. Neighborhoods within the West Los Angeles subregion include: Beverlywood Castle Heights Century City Cheviot Hills Crestview Faircrest Heights La Cienega Heights Reynier Village Pico-Robertson Carthay Square Little Ethiopia Picfair Village South Carthay Wilshire Vista Rancho Park The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services SPA 5 West Area Health Office serves West Los Ange
Anthony J. Lumsden
Anthony John Hale Lumsden was an American architect most noted for his sculptural and "futuristic" designs. His projects in Southern California such as the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant are seen in Hollywood films and televisions shows such as Star Trek Next Generation as part of Starfleet Academy. Lumsden was born on May 1928 in Bournemouth, England, he was raised in Sydney Australia. After graduation, he traveled throughout Europe on motorcycle for a year from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean and settled in London. After a few years there, he was encouraged by a colleague to travel to the United States, his first job at Eero Saarinen & associates in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan was running the blue print machine. He soon got an opportunity to work on a new chapel design for Concordia Senior College and Eero noticed his talent, he became a core member of the design team at the office and met numerous famous designers and artists of the time such as Charles and Ray Eames, Mies Van Der Rohe and Alexander Calder.
After Eero's death, he continued to work with John Dinkeloo in Hamden, Connecticut. During this period of time he worked on several National AIA award-winning projects such as the General Motors Technical Center. In 1965, Lumsden and colleague Cesar Pelli left Roche-Dinkeloo to work in California together at Daniel, Johnson & Mendenhall where Lumsden soon became Principal for Design for the firm and stayed in that position for over 25 years. In the 1970s, many of his designs for rolling glass and steel buildings were published internationally, he was selected as a LA 12 member of the Silver Group, the LA12. In 1979, he was honored as one of six nationally recognized architects including Michael Graves and James Wines invited to display his work in the Museum of Modern Art for the BEST Showroom Competition in 1979 by Philip Johnson. Although he worked on hundreds of well known large scale projects including the Moscone Center, Ontario International Airport, the San Francisco Marriott, his most famous built work is the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant administration building.
Lumsden died of pancreatic cancer in Los Angeles, California, at the age of 83. He was survived by three children. Lumsden won more than 30 architectural design awards from institutions such as the American Institute of Architects, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Progressive Architecture, National Society of Professional Engineers, Consulting Engineers Association, Institute of Human Engineering Sciences, American Institute of Steel Construction. In recognition of the design excellence of his projects and for "the innovation of his design approach," Lumsden was named to the College of Fellows of the American Institute of Architects in the first year of his eligibility. Leon Whiteson, Architecture Critic for the Los Angeles Times described Lumsden, "In the practice of architecture, it is rare to find a man, both successful and respected by his peers. Anthony Lumsden, is that rare man." By the general consent of colleagues and critics ranging from intensely opinionated minds like Britain's Charles Jencks and Reyner Banham to practicing peers like Lou Naidorf, director of design for Welton Becket Associates, Lumsden is one of the best mainstream modernists in America, or anywhere."Critic and Architectural Historian Professor Kenneth Frampton, Columbia University wrote in SD 1999, "Lumsden remains a man apart on the American scene, unsung by the critical establishment but regarded with great respect by those who have a longer aim in view."Leon Whiteson, architectural critic, wrote in an article for the Los Angeles Times, "The Los Angeles architect with the longest track record and most respected reputation in the design of public projects is Anthony Lumsden".
Jencks, C. Architecture Today ISBN 978-0-8109-1883-2 Images Publishing A J Lumsden Masters of Architecture Series ISBN 978-1-875498-56-7 Heyer, Paul American Architecture ISBN 978-0-471-28529-8 Sky, Alison Unbuilt America ISBN 978-0-89659-341-1 Slert, N. and Harter, J. Photographic Consultants: Julius Shulman and Marvin Rand, "12 Los Angeles Architects" 1978, Cal Poly Pomona Official website L. A. 12 Masters of Architecture lecture series
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the
The Century Plaza Hotel
The Century Plaza Hotel is a landmark 19-story luxury hotel in Los Angeles. Located in Century City, the hotel forms a sweeping crescent design fronting the Avenue of the Stars, adjacent to the twin Century Plaza Towers and the 2000 Avenue of the Stars complex. At the time of its opening in 1966, the Century Plaza Hotel was the highest building in Century City, with views extending all the way to the Pacific Ocean, it was the first hotel to have color televisions in all of its rooms. The hotel closed for renovations in 2016, will reopen in late 2019 operated by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. In 1961, developer William Zeckendorf and Alcoa bought about 180 acres from 20th Century Fox after the studio had suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating in the box-office disaster Cleopatra; the new owners conceived Century City as "a city within a city" with the arc-shaped, 19-story, 750-room Minoru Yamasaki-designed Century Plaza as the centerpiece of the new city. When the Century Plaza began operating in 1966, its doormen wore red Beefeater costumes.
The hotel was managed by Western International Hotels, which changed its name to Westin Hotels. The hotel's ballrooms became the center for numerous high-profile events, including an opening charity gala in 1966 emceed by Bob Hope, who with singer Andy Williams entertained Ronald and Nancy Reagan and Walt and Lillian Disney. In 1967, 1,300 club-swinging police clashed with about 10,000 Vietnam War demonstrators as President Johnson spoke at a Democratic fundraiser at the hotel. On August 13, 1969, President Richard Nixon hosted a lavish state dinner in the Los Angeles Ballroom to celebrate the Apollo 11 moon landing astronauts. In 1984, the hotel added a 322-room tower on the south portion of the property, adjacent to Olympic Boulevard; the Tower at Century Plaza was marketed as a luxury wing of the hotel and increased capacity to 1,072 rooms. Ronald Reagan by arrangement signed in as the first guest of the just completed Tower, while Century Plaza Vice-President and Managing Director William Quinn greeted him on December 27, 1984.
In 1999 the hotel rededicated its penthouse suite, the entire 32nd floor the Ronald Reagan Suite, attendees including Nancy Reagan. While Reagan was in office, he stayed in the Tower so the media dubbed it his Western White House. President Reagan had celebrated his re-election to a second term as President on the stage of the Los Angeles Ballroom in the original Century Plaza Hotel on November 6, 1984. In 2000, soon after Westin was acquired by Starwood, the Tower was converted into a separate hotel under a more luxurious Starwood brand, The St. Regis Los Angeles; that hotel was sold by the owners of the Century Plaza in 2005 to developers who closed it for conversion to residential use. With its 1980s ceilings too low to meet modern residential demands, the new building was razed to make way for The Century, a high-rise condominium completed in fall 2009. In 2006, after being managed for its entire forty-year history by Westin Hotels, the property was taken over by Hyatt Hotels and renamed Hyatt Regency Century Plaza.
However, the sign above the main entrance reading The Century Plaza was left unchanged. Sunstone Hotel Investors Inc. bought the Hyatt Regency Century Plaza in 2005 for $293 million and spent $22 million upgrading the guest rooms and common areas. On June 1, 2008, Sunstone sold the Hyatt Regency Century Plaza to Next Century Associates for $366.5 million. The sale price of $505,000 per room was one of the highest-paid for a hotel in California. On December 18, 2008, the new owners announced plans to demolish the hotel and build a pair of fifty-story towers in its place. On April 28, 2009, The Century Plaza Hotel was added to The National Trust for Historic Preservation's list of the 11 most endangered historic places in America. In February 2010, the developer announced that it would renovate the historic hotel building and convert some of the floors to condominiums, rather than demolishing and replacing the building as proposed; the hotel closed on March 2016 to begin the $2.5 billion overhaul.
It ceased to be operated by Hyatt at this time. The two towers named Century Plaza South Tower. Designed by Pei Cobb Freed, they will contain a total of 290 condominiums; the original 726-room hotel tower will be rebuilt with 394 much larger guest rooms and 63 condominiums. The hotel's lobby will be opened to create a public space; the hotel will reopen in 2019 as Fairmont Century Plaza Los Angeles, managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. The Century Plaza has played host to various celebrities, foreign dignitaries, presidents; the hotel was the venue for the 1967 Emmy Awards, the 1970 and 1971 Grammy Awards. It was the venue for the 2009 and 2010 Visual Effects Society's prestigious annual awards ceremony; the Century Plaza Hotel is featured in the 2008 video game, Midnight Club: Los Angeles, is mimicked in the 2004 video game, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Century Plaza condominiums official website Seeing-stars.com: Los Angeles Landmarks, Century Plaza Hotel Los Angeles Conservancy: "The Century Plaza Hotel history and its planned demolition" article Los Angeles Times'.com: "Century Plaza as L.
A. Statement"− Story of the making of the Ronald Reagan Suite at the Century Plaza Tower — with photos. Story of the Century Plaza Hotel, Century City — with photos, Fox back lots, hotel's 30th anniversary exhibits
Crystal Cruises is an American cruise line with headquarters in Los Angeles in the United States. In March 2015, former parent company Nippon Yusen Kaisha announced that it was selling Crystal Cruises to Genting Hong Kong. Since the acquisition, Crystal Cruises has become Ltd.. The company was founded in 1988 and commenced operations with Crystal Harmony, retired from the Crystal fleet in 2005. On March 3, 2015, NYK announced that it was selling Crystal Cruises to GHK, the owner of Star Cruises and a major shareholder in Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings; the sale price was US$550 million in cash, subject to certain adjustment items. NYK announced that Crystal Cruises would be building a new ship, but did not provide any specifics, such as the new ship's size, or date of entry into service. On May 15, 2015, GHK announced. On July 20, 2015, Crystal announced that in addition to Crystal Cruises, the group would operate the following divisions: Crystal Yacht Expedition Cruises launched in December 2015 with the Crystal Esprit.
The 62-guest, 3,000-ton yacht is outfitted with features including a two-passenger submarine, four 10-passenger zodiacs for excursions and a 12-passenger yacht tender for boating adventures. Additionally, water skis, wake boards, jet skis, fishing and snorkel equipment are available. On January 15, 2018, the company cut steel for Crystal Endeavor at MV Werften. Crystal will debut its new PC6-designated expedition yacht in 2020. Crystal Endeavor will have a tonnage of 19,800 GT and will operate polar expeditions as well as voyages in remote tropical regions; the yacht will offer accommodation for 200 guests. In July 2016, Crystal launched Crystal River Cruises with the re-furbished vessel Crystal Mozart. Crystal Bach and Crystal Mahler, the first two of four "Rhine Class' new-build river ships, were added in 2017 followed by Crystal Debussy and Crystal Ravel, in 2018. Crystal Mozart is Europe's most spacious river ship, at twice the width of any other. Crystal Luxury Air private jet service launched in 2015 with the company's Bombardier Global Express jet, available for charter and accommodating 12 guests.
In August 2017, Crystal AirCruises took flight with the launch of Crystal Skye, a Boeing 777-200LR configured with 88 first class flat-bed seats, a lounge/dining room that seats 24 and a full bar. The National Hockey League is one of its first three charter customers. In addition the company took delivery of a Boeing 787 Dreamliner in May 2017; this aircraft is stored. It was announced on February 4, 2016 that Crystal Cruises had signed a purchase option for the SS United States, Crystal would cover docking costs in Philadelphia for nine months while it conducted a feasibility study; the plan was formally dropped on August 2016, citing too many technical challenges. But Crystal Cruises did announce a donation of $350,000 to cover docking costs through to the end of the year. Crystal Cruises set sail in partnership with Caesars Palace at Sea casinos on its first ship, Crystal Harmony; the partnership continued with Crystal's subsequent ocean ships, Crystal Symphony and Crystal Serenity. After the acquisition by GHK, the casinos were re-branded under a new partnership with Resorts World Casinos.
William Zeckendorf, Sr. was a prominent American real estate developer. Through his development company Webb and Knapp—for which he began working in 1938 and which he purchased in 1949—he developed a significant portion of the New York City urban landscape. Architects I. M. Pei and Le Corbusier worked for Zeckendorf on some of his projects. Zeckendorf was born to a Jewish family in Paris, the son of a hardware store manager, his family moved to New York City. He attended New York University but dropped out to work at the real estate company of his uncle, Sam Borchard, he soon left his uncle's firm to work for Webb & Knapp, a small New York building manager and brokerage. Zeckendorf's most notable property acquisition, potential development of a "dream city" to rival Rockefeller Center, was a 17-acre site along the East River between 42nd Street and 48th Street. In a now celebrated transaction in December 1946, the prominent architect Wallace Harrison and Nelson Rockefeller bought the site from him for $8.5 million and Nelson's father John D. Rockefeller, Jr. subsequently donated this land for the building of the United Nations Headquarters.
Zeckendorf owned New York's famous Chrysler Building and the venerable Hotel Astor in Times Square. He purchased Chicago's famous Robie House in 1958 before transferring ownership to the University of Chicago, he developed two of I. M. Pei's early skyscrapers—the Mile High Center in downtown Denver, Place Ville-Marie in downtown Montreal. Zeckendorf partnered with Chicago real estate titan Arthur Rubloff to develop a stretch of Michigan Avenue into what Rubloff dubbed the Magnificent Mile; the Rubloff Company was acquired by Prudential and subsequently has become a division of Berkshire Hathaway. In December 1958, Zeckendorf entered into a deal with Spyros Skouras, head of 20th Century-Fox, to purchase Fox's project to develop 176 acres of its historic backlot in Los Angeles, into a proposed $400 million Century City; the studio had suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating in the box-office disaster Cleopatra and was in dire need of money. The project, conceived under the direction of Edmund Herrscher, the studio's director of property development, had been announced the first week of 1958, with construction said to begin in July 1958.
However, construction did not start as promised, rumors confirmed, circulated that developer Zeckendorf would take over the project by purchasing 20th's interest in the project for $53 million. The following March it was announced that construction would begin that month on the new headquarters for architect Welton Becket, chief architect on the project That did not occur either. Zeckendorf hired New York public relations executive Tex McCrary to lend new life and visibility to the project. McCrary, in turn contracted with Los Angeles publicist Charles A. Pomerantz, well known in the entertainment industry, to come up with a campaign and execute it. Pomerantz turned to a young publicist he had hired, Worley Thorne, the only other publicist in the small firm, for suggestions. Thorne said. Thorne learned that there was deep skepticism that the project would be built. 20th did not have the money, why they brought in Zeckendorf, but Zeckendorf was unable to deliver the $53-million purchase price, let alone $400 million.
The California papers had given a lot of publicity to Century City and, for them, any more coverage would just be re-hash in which they were not interested. Thorne reported to Pomerantz his opinion that the only way to restore credibility to the project was to "begin" construction, Pomerantz went for the plan. Thorne called Herrscher and asked if there was some small building they could demolish with a bulldozer, to begin to "break ground" for the Becket building. Herrscher said there was a tin shack, expendable and he'd make it available, as well as the bulldozer. McCrary and William Zeckendorf, Jr. vice-president of Webb & Knapp approved. Thorne said that it should be a large affair with the mayors of Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, Santa Monica, plus politicians and other dignitaries, invited, as well as all the Southern California press, he and Pomerantz would find a star to "launch" the project by breaking a bottle of champagne on the shack prior to its being demolished. They secured Mary Pickford for that task.
It was all purely symbolic, since construction did not begin, but no one stated that it was dramatic, successful. The Los Angeles Times devoted three full pages to its coverage of the event. Still lacking sufficient money, Zeckendorf was forced to make $1000 per day penalty payments to Fox. In 1960, Zeckendorf solved his problem by partnering with Alcoa in a joint-venture relationship to build Century City, which by now had escalated to a $500 million project; the new owners embraced the studio's conception of Century City as "a city within a city" with the arc-shaped, 19-story Century Plaza Hotel to be the centerpiece. This joint-venture marked an increasing interest by large corporations with land "surplus" in order to create housing communities, industrial parks and office buildings. Before his company's bankruptcy in 1965, Zeckendorf became the embodiment of glamorous real-estate dealmaking, which included developing Roosevelt Airfield, where Charles Lindbergh began his transatlantic flight, helping to advance and develop Long Island University.
From the start of his career Zeckendorf had been able to use his dealm