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Cephalic index

The cephalic index or cranial index is the ratio of the maximum width of the head of an organism multiplied by 100 divided by its maximum length. The index is used to categorize animals dogs and cats; the cephalic index was used by anthropologists in the early 20th century to categorize human populations, by Carleton S. Coon in the 1960s, it is now used to describe individuals' appearances and for estimating the age of fetuses for legal and obstetrical reasons. The cephalic index was defined by Swedish professor of anatomy Anders Retzius and first used in physical anthropology to classify ancient human remains found in Europe; the theory became associated with the development of racial anthropology in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when prehistorians attempted to use ancient remains to model population movements in terms of racial categories. Humans are characterized by having either a dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic, or brachycephalic cephalic index or cranial index. Cephalic indices are grouped as in the following table: Technically, the measured factors are defined as the maximum width of the bones that surround the head above the supramastoid crest, the maximum length from the most noticed part of the glabella to the most noticed point on the back part of the head.

The usefulness of the cephalic index was questioned by Giuseppe Sergi, who argued that cranial morphology provided a better means to model racial ancestry. Franz Boas studied the children of immigrants to the United States in 1910 to 1912, noting that the children's cephalic index differed from their parents', implying that local environmental conditions had a significant impact on the development of head shape. Boas argued that if craniofacial features were so malleable in a single generation the cephalic index was of little use for defining race and mapping ancestral populations. Scholars such as Earnest A. Hooton continued to argue that both environment and heredity were involved. Boas did not himself claim it was plastic. In 2002, a paper by Sparks and Jantz re-evaluated some of Boas' original data using new statistical techniques and concluded that there was a "relatively high genetic component" of head shape. Ralph Holloway of Columbia University argues that the new research raises questions about whether the variations in skull shape have "adaptive meaning and whether, in fact, normalizing selection might be at work on the trait, where both extremes, hyperdolichocephaly and hyperbrachycephaly, are at a slight selective disadvantage."In 2003, anthropologists Clarence C.

Gravlee, H. Russell Bernard, William R. Leonard reanalyzed Boas' data and concluded that most of Boas' original findings were correct. Moreover, they applied new statistical, computer-assisted methods to Boas' data and discovered more evidence for cranial plasticity. In a publication, Gravlee and Leonard reviewed Sparks' and Jantz' analysis, they argue that Sparks and Jantz misrepresented Boas' claims, that Sparks' and Jantz' data support Boas. For example, they point out that Sparks and Jantz look at changes in cranial size in relation to how long an individual has been in the United States in order to test the influence of the environment. Boas, looked at changes in cranial size in relation to how long the mother had been in the United States, they argue that Boas' method is more useful, because the prenatal environment is a crucial developmental factor. Jantz and Sparks responded to Gravlee et al. reiterating that Boas' findings lacked biological meaning, that the interpretation of Boas' results common in the literature was biologically inaccurate.

In a study, the same authors concluded that the effects Boas observed were the result of population-specific environmental effects such as changes in cultural practices for cradling infants, rather than the effects of a general "American environment" which caused populations in America to converge to a common cranial type, as Boas had suggested. The cephalic index is used in the categorisation of animals breeds of dogs and cats. A brachycephalic skull is broad and short. Dog breeds such as the pug are sometimes classified as "Extreme Brachycephalic". Middle White Jersey Wooly Lionhead rabbit Lop rabbit Netherland Dwarf rabbit Giant panda Ross seal Spectacled Bear A mesaticephalic skull is of intermediate length and width. Mesaticephalic skulls are not markedly dolichocephalic; when dealing with animals dogs, the more appropriate and used term is not "mesocephalic", but rather "mesaticephalic", a ratio of head to nasal cavity. The breeds below exemplify this category. Note: Almost all Felines are mesaticephalic Note: Most cat landraces and species are mesaticephalic.

Dutch rabbit Mini Rex Polish rabbit New Zealand rabbit American Sable Brown Bear American Black Bear Polar bear Sun Bear Spotted Hyena A dolichocephalic skull is long skull. English Spot English Lop Belgian Hare Cephalic index in cats and dogs Craniometry Phrenology Human skull Cephalic index Brachycephalic Experienced Veterinarians Database

Indian immigrants in Sweden

Indians in Sweden are citizens and residents of Sweden who are of Indian descent. During the period of 2001 to 2010, a total of 7,870 Indian students came for higher studies in Sweden taking advantage of the high quality tuition-free education system. According to Statistics Sweden, as of 2016, there are a total 25,719 India-born immigrants living in Sweden. Most of these people of Indian origin are Punjabis and South Indians; some Indians sought and obtained political asylum after 1984. Some Indians have come to Sweden from Uganda in the 1970s According to Statistics Sweden, India is among the most common countries of birth for international adoptions in Sweden; as of 2016, there are 1,017 India-born children and young adults aged 0-21 who are adopted in Sweden. According to the Institute of Labor Economics, as of 2014, India-born immigrants residing in Sweden have a labor force participation rate of 54%, their employment population ratio is about 49%. They have an unemployment rate of around 6%.

Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs: Sweden Embassy of India, sweden Indians In Sweden India in Sweden Indian Association in Malmö Hindu Temple in Sweden Indian Expat Platform Indian Students Organization

Baron Mohun of Okehampton

Baron Mohun of Okehampton was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created on 15 April 1628 for John Mohun a Member of Parliament for Grampound, Cornwall; the family was seated at Hall in the parish of Lanteglos-by-Fowey in Cornwall, was a junior branch of the Mohun family, feudal barons of Dunster, of Dunster Castle in Somerset, of whom the first member, the warrior William de Moyon, had come over with William the Conqueror during the Norman Conquest of 1066. The family of Mohun of Hall was seated at Bodinnick in the parish of Lanteglos-by-Fowey and at Boconnoc, both in Cornwall, was one of the four co-heirs of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, feudal baron of Plympton, feudal baron of Okehampton, etc. of Tiverton Castle, Okehampton Castle, etc. the last of the old Courtenay Earls of Devon. This was due to the marriage of William Mohun of Hall to Elizabeth/Isabel Courtenay, one of the four daughters of Sir Hugh Courtenay of Boconnoc, whose son Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon was created Earl of Devon following the extinction of the mediaeval Courtenay Earls during the Wars of the Roses.

The great-grandson of the latter was Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, who died without progeny, one of whose co-heirs was his distant cousin Sir Reginald Mohun of Hall, great-grandson of Elizabeth Courtenay and William Mohun. In recognition of this ancestry, in 1628 the senior representative of the Mohun family of Hall was created Baron Mohun of Okehampton, namely John Mohun, 1st Baron Mohun of Okehampton eldest son and heir of Sir Reginald Mohun, 1st Baronet of Boconnoc; the family of Mohun of Hall and Boconnoc died out in the male line in 1712, following the death by duel of Charles Mohun, 4th Baron Mohun of Okehampton, who died without progeny. However, the family had long out-lived the senior Dunster line which died out in the male line in 1375, following the death of John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun, KG, of Dunster. John Mohun, 1st Baron Mohun of Okehampton was the son of Sir Reginald Mohun, 1st Baronet of Boconnoc in the County of Cornwall, in the Baronetage of England, which baronetcy had been created on 25 November 1611.

Sir Reginald Mohun subsequently sat as Member of Parliament for East Lostwithiel. In 1639, eleven years after his elevation to the peerage, Lord Mohun of Okehampton succeeded his father in the baronetcy; the 4th and last Baron was best known for his frequent participation in duels, the cause of his death, for his reputation as a rake. The titles became extinct on his death on 15 November 1712; the family surname was pronounced "Moon". Sir Reginald Mohun, 1st Baronet Sir John Mohun, 2nd Baronet John Mohun, 1st Baron Mohun of Okehampton Warwick Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun of Okehampton Charles Mohun, 3rd Baron Mohun of Okehampton Charles Mohun, 4th Baron Mohun of Okehampton

Ajai Kumar

B S Ajai Kumar is an Indian oncologist and entrepreneur. He is the founder chairman & CEO of HealthCare Global Enterprises Ltd, a South Asian provider of cancer care. Kumar got his MBBS from Bangalore, he completed his residency at University of Virginia Hospital. He obtained a MD at MD Anderson Hospital in Houston, Texas. During the course of his career he visited India frequently. In 1989 he founded Bharath Hospital and Institute of Oncology in Mysore, built with grants given by the government of the United States through a non profit trust, he began practising value based medicine, which consists of giving the same treatment at a much lower cost than in the United States and Europe. He started the Bangalore Institute of Oncology, he practised for two decades in USA. Introducing new technology for cancer treatment. In 2019 HCG had around 15 comprehensive cancer care centres, he partnered with Kamini A. Rao to establish fertility centers in India in 2013. Kumar is the President of Association of Healthcare Providers Bangalore and Chapter and Advisor of the Federation of Healthcare Associations.

He has given several talks at Harvard Business School and other universities and participates in different health initiatives. CEO of the Year at the Asian Healthcare Leadership Awards 2014 2011 Ernst and Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award. CII Regional Emerging Entrepreneurs Award 2011 BC Roy Award by the Indian Science Monitor. Frost & Sullivan Oncology Leader of the Year 2009-2010 and 2010 - 2011. HealthCare Global Enterprises became a case study at Harvard Business School for affordable healthcare for the poor in India Kumar has established the "International Human Development & Upliftment Academy", near Mysore, engaged in alleviating rural illiteracy, empowering women; the HCG Foundation does free cancer treatments for patients from economically backward families. Antardhwani is an independent Think Tank of HCG which works in health and agriculture projects, it works on anti-tobacco control programmes to fight cancer. Excellence Has No Borders - 2019 Interview Dr. B. S. Ajaikumar, Chairman & CEO, HCG, Bengaluru Extract from his book Excellence Has No Borders Extract from his book in Quartz

The Steppes (band)

The Steppes were an Irish American guitar based neo-psychedelic rock band that emerged in the mid 1980s. In late 1982 singer-songwriter brothers John and David Fallon got together with Eddie Gryzb and recorded a 5 track 7" EP under the moniker'The Blue Macs.' They mailed the bulk of the pressed EPs to record labels and magazines, were featured in Melody Maker in March 1983 with a positive review of said EP, noting their evident influences:..."think of Weller, think of Dylan, Think of Lennon..."In 1983 the band expanded the lineup to four members, changed its name to The Steppes, demoed songs that would be released as a self-titled debut album on Mystic Records in 1984. The record found its way onto imported copies spread throughout Europe; the next few years saw The Steppes playing several shows in southern California, as well as demoing lots of songs with their new drummer Jim Bailey. The band signed to Greg Shaw's Voxx label who would put out several of the band's records, starting with 1986s'Drop of The Creature,' recorded in west LA.

The album received critical acclaim and includes fan favorites such as "A Play on Wordsworth" and "Holding Up Well." The band began to be miscategorized as being part of the Paisley Underground neo-psychedelic revival because during this period they sometimes performed with some of those L. A.-based bands. 1988 saw the band release the album'Stewdio', produced by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion. They embarked on their first tour of Europe, lauded as a success with stops in Greece having 1,000+ people in attendance. In November'88 they began work on their next album'Enquire Within.' Recorded over a four-week period at Goldust Studios in Bromley,UK,'Enquire,' is the band's third release on Voxx records and saw a progression in the sound of The Steppes as well as an increase in press exposure, with the then-new Q Magazine calling the record "a strange, but rather fascinating brew." Released in 1989, the album includes fan favorites such as "Master James" and "In Your Prime." By 1990 The Steppes were residing in different parts of the world but still managed to record what many regard as their career defining album, "Harps & Hammers."

Like the albums preceding it, "Harps" accumulated expanded positive press and continued to finely hone the band's developing sound. Soon after the release of "Harps & Hammers" the band dissolved; this has been attributed to complications involved with getting the band all on the same continent. A live album'Alive Alive, Oh' was released posthumously on Voxx records in 1991. In September 1991 John Fallon recorded a solo album in London, it was released in 1992 by Voxx records being credited to The Steppes, erroneously. It was re-released with proper crediting going to John Fallon; each of the respective band members remain inactive musically, although Delerium Records owned by Richard Allen persuaded the Steppes to reconvene in June 1995 and write and record a new one-off studio album,'Gods and Ghosts.' The album was produced and recorded in Milwaukee by John Frankovic of the band Plasticland and released by Delerium in 1997. A rarities album was released on Delerium in 1997 along with sonically improved CD editions of'Drop Of The Creature' and'Stewdio'.

In 2011 John Fallon re-activated his musical career by recording and releasing a 7" single on vinyl, "Picture Yourself Today" backed with "Theme For Steve McQueen," as well as returning to performing live. 2013 saw the release of a two-disc compendium by Cherry Red Records spanning the entire recorded output of The Steppes from 1983-1997. Entitled'Green Velvet Electric' the set includes 41 songs and was released on October 28 in the UK and November 5th in the U. S. A. In 2016 the Italian label Teen Sound Records reissued The Steppes' "Drop Of The Creature" in a gatefold vinyl edition with two bonus cuts, liner notes and unseen pictures of the band The Steppes' influences include: The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, The Who, The Kinks, Bob Dylan, The Byrds, Neil Young, Chicago Chess Records blues, Handel, Irish folk music, loads more. Studio Releases The Steppes 1984 Drop Of The Creature 1986 Stewdio 1988 Enquire Within 1989 Harps & Hammers 1990 Gods, Men And Ghosts 1997Live Releases Alive, Alive, Oh!

1991Compilation Releases Rarities 1997 Green Velvet Electric 2013 John Fallon David Fallon Tim Gilman Jim Bailey Cherry Red Records Delerium Records

Willis Augustus Hodges

Willis Augustus Hodges was an African American abolitionist and statesman. Though born to free parents, Hodges became an outspoken advocate for enslaved African Americans during the Antebellum period, giving aid to the Underground Railroad, collaborating with such notable figures as William Lloyd Garrison, John Brown and Frederick Douglass, publishing an antislavery newspaper, The Ram’s Horn. Following the Civil War, Hodges was active in Reconstruction politics, attending the State Constitutional Convention of Virginia as a delegate from 1867 to 1868. Hodges was born in Princess Anne County, Virginia on February 12, 1815 to Charles Augustus Hodges, a free African American, Julia Nelson Willis, a free woman of mixed-race descent. Charles was a landowner and a successful farmer, owning 200 acres of property and one slave by the time of 1840. While he would come to be a forceful opponent of slavery, Willis's origins led to a lifelong concern for the free blacks in the South, he dedicated his autobiography to their plight.

When Willis was fourteen, his brother William was arrested for antislavery agitation and thrown into jail. He escaped and fled to Canada, but the incident marked the Hodges family as pariahs in Princess Anne County, young Willis found himself the victim of mob violence on more than one occasion during this time. Further discriminatory measures taken by whites in the aftermath of the Nat Turner rebellion caused Willis to leave Virginia for New York in 1836. At the instigation of his sister, Willis devoted himself to study, he soon began attending antislavery meetings. Hodges grew impatient with Northerners he viewed as being "more men of words than deeds," and became an impassioned advocate for the immediate abolition of slavery by any means necessary, he started a newspaper, The Ram's Horn, in the 1840s, which soon drew him into collaboration with John Brown, the antislavery zealot who would famously go on to raid Harpers Ferry, Virginia in 1859. During the Civil War, Hodges served as a scout for the Union Army and used his knowledge of Princess Anne County and the surrounding area to assist Federal forces in its occupation.

At the conclusion of the war, Hodges returned to his boyhood home and was chosen to represent Virginia at the constitutional convention of 1867-1868. The conventions of this period, mandated by the United States Congress, marked the "first time sat alongside whites as lawmakers," both in Virginia and throughout the occupied south. Hodges' leading role at the convention singled him out for ridicule in the southern press, bitterly hostile to the role of African Americans in Reconstruction. Aligning himself with the Radical Republicans, Hodges supported the enfranchisement of blacks, demanded the disenfranchisement of former Confederates, sought the racial integration of schools; when Democrats returned to power in Virginia, Hodges again went to New York in 1881, though he would revisit Virginia in years. Hodges died on September 1890, in Norfolk, Virginia, he was seventy-five. Foner, Eric. "Blueprints for a Republican South: The Constitutional Conventions." In Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 316-33.

New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2014. Hodges, Willis Augustus, Willard B. Gatewood. Free Man of Color: The Autobiography of Willis Augustus Hodges. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982. Kirk, Ian. "Hodges, Willis Augustus." The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Accessed November 17, 2018. Https://blackpast.org/aah/hodges-willis-augustus-1815-1890. Lowe, Richard. "William Augustus Hodges: "We Are Now Coming to New Things"." Edited by Steven Woodworth. In The Human Tradition in the Civil War and Reconstruction, 213-24. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. 2000. Kirk, Ian. "Hodges, Willis Augustus." Black Past. "Documents of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Virginia." Archive