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Cerebellum

The cerebellum is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. Although smaller than the cerebrum, in some animals such as the mormyrid fishes it may be as large as or larger. In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control, it may be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as in regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium and motor learning in humans. Anatomically, the human cerebellum has the appearance of a separate structure attached to the bottom of the brain, tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres, its cortical surface is covered with finely spaced parallel grooves, in striking contrast to the broad irregular convolutions of the cerebral cortex.

These parallel grooves conceal the fact that the cerebellar cortex is a continuous thin layer of tissue folded in the style of an accordion. Within this thin layer are several types of neurons with a regular arrangement, the most important being Purkinje cells and granule cells; this complex neural organization gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability, but all of the output from the cerebellar cortex passes through a set of small deep nuclei lying in the white matter interior of the cerebellum. In addition to its direct role in motor control, the cerebellum is necessary for several types of motor learning, most notably learning to adjust to changes in sensorimotor relationships. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain sensorimotor calibration in terms of synaptic plasticity within the cerebellum; these models derive from those formulated by David Marr and James Albus, based on the observation that each cerebellar Purkinje cell receives two different types of input: one comprises thousands of weak inputs from the parallel fibers of the granule cells.

The basic concept of the Marr–Albus theory is that the climbing fiber serves as a "teaching signal", which induces a long-lasting change in the strength of parallel fiber inputs. Observations of long-term depression in parallel fiber inputs have provided support for theories of this type, but their validity remains controversial. At the level of gross anatomy, the cerebellum consists of a folded layer of cortex, with white matter underneath and a fluid-filled ventricle at the base. Four deep cerebellar nuclei are embedded in the white matter; each part of the cortex consists of the same small set of neuronal elements, laid out in a stereotyped geometry. At an intermediate level, the cerebellum and its auxiliary structures can be separated into several hundred or thousand independently functioning modules called "microzones" or "microcompartments"; the cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa. The fourth ventricle and medulla are in front of the cerebellum, it is separated from the overlying cerebrum by a layer of leathery dura mater, the tentorium cerebelli.

Anatomists classify the cerebellum as part of the metencephalon, which includes the pons. Like the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum is divided into two cerebellar hemispheres. A set of large folds is, by convention, used to divide the overall structure into 10 smaller "lobules"; because of its large number of tiny granule cells, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the total from the rest of the brain, but takes up only 10% of the total brain volume. The number of neurons in the cerebellum is related to the number of neurons in the neocortex. There are about 3.6 times as many neurons in the cerebellum as in the neocortex, a ratio, conserved across many different mammalian species. The unusual surface appearance of the cerebellum conceals the fact that most of its volume is made up of a tightly folded layer of gray matter: the cerebellar cortex; each ridge or gyrus in this layer is called a folium. It is estimated that, if the human cerebellar cortex were unfolded, it would give rise to a layer of neural tissue about 1 meter long and averaging 5 centimeters wide—a total surface area of about 500 square cm, packed within a volume of dimensions 6 cm × 5 cm × 10 cm.

Underneath the gray matter of the cortex lies white matter, made up of myelinated nerve fibers running to and from the cortex. Embedded within the white matter—which is sometimes called the arbor vitae because of its branched, tree-like appearance in cross-section—are four deep cerebellar nuclei, composed of gray matter. Connecting the cerebellum to different parts of the nervous system are three paired cerebellar peduncles; these are the superior cerebellar peduncle, the middle cerebellar peduncle and the inferior cerebellar peduncle, named by their position relative to the vermis. The superior cerebellar peduncle is an output to the cerebral cortex, carrying efferent fibers via thalamic nuclei to upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex; the fibers arise from the deep cerebellar nuclei. The middle cerebellar peduncle is connected to the pons and receives all of its input from the pons from the pontine nuclei; the input to the pons is from the cerebral cortex and is relayed from the pontine nuclei via transverse pontine fibers to the

Mike Joy (freshwater ecologist)

Mike Joy is a New Zealand freshwater ecologist and science communicator. He is employed at the Institute for Governance and Policy Studies at Victoria University of Wellington. Dr Joy is publicly outspoken about the decline in freshwater quality and ecosystems the impact of nutrient pollution from intensive dairying on New Zealand's "100% Pure", green image; this has led to awards from scientific organisations, as well as criticism from the dairy industry and former Prime Minister John Key. Joy was described by school teachers as'most to fail' and left school at 17, he worked various jobs including dairying, labouring and taxi driving and sheep farming, before enrolling at Massey University in 1993 at the age of 33. His Master's thesis, entitled Freshwater fish community structure in Taranaki: dams, diadromy or habitat quality? was completed in 1999 and received first class honours. This led to his PhD thesis, The development of predictive models to enhance biological assessment of riverine systems in New Zealand, submitted in 2003 and supervised by freshwater ecologist Russell Death.

He was a Senior Lecturer in Ecology and Environmental Science at Massey University in Palmerston North until May 2018. He is employed at the Institute for Governance and Policy Studies at Victoria University of Wellington, he gives talks around the country to environmental, farming and school groups. On 16 November 2012, on the eve of the release of the movie The Hobbit, The New York Times published an article contrasting the image of New Zealand portrayed by Tourism New Zealand with the less appealing views put forward by others, including the Ministry for the Environment, the Green Party, Federated Farmers. Dr Joy was quoted as saying “There are two worlds in New Zealand. There is the picture-postcard world, there is the reality,” and that for a country purporting to be so pure, New Zealand seemed to be failing many international environmental standards. Following this, Dr Joy was accused of economic sabotage, ego-tripping and overstatement. Mark Unsworth, from government relations consultancy Saunders Unsworth, accused Joy in a leaked email of selfish egotism, stated that "You guys are the foot and mouth disease of the tourism industry.

Most ordinary people in NZ would have you lot locked up". Controversial political blogger Cameron Slater wrote in support of The New York Times article, stating that it was a "serious problem" that over half of New Zealand's rivers were unsafe for swimming, that dairy farmers should not be subsidised for polluting. However, Slater came out in support of Unsworth's leaked email. Slater is widely quoted as saying that "Joy should be taken out and shot at dawn for economic sabotage" and calling him a traitor, but these words appear to be commentary from other authors published on his blog. Prime Minister John Key dismissed the criticism of the 100% Pure New Zealand brand, saying that the slogan was not inaccurate but needed "to be taken with a pinch of salt."Joy's statements were supported by the New Zealand Association of Scientists. In a press statement, the Association focused on claims in a New Zealand Herald editorial that damage being done to New Zealand's environment was insignificant and that criticism of Joy was "well-warranted".

The Association opposed the implication that the damage caused by Dr Joy to New Zealand's international reputation and potential loss of tourists was of greater importance than "the need for truth in public debate". In 2016, Joy was quoted as saying that he was hurt by the incident but undeterred, that "for every one Unsworth, there are 20 people who randomly email me or ring me and thank me for what I'm doing." In 2009, Joy received the Ecology in Action award from the New Zealand Ecological Society. In 2011, he was awarded Forest & Bird's Old Blue award for his research into freshwater ecology and his work bringing freshwater conservation issues to public attention. Joy received the Royal Society of New Zealand's Charles Fleming Award for Environmental Achievement in 2013, for his contribution to the sustainable management and protection of New Zealand's freshwater ecosystems. Recipients of the award are required to deliver a public lecture series over the next year, hosted by selected branches of the Royal Society.

Joy's 2014 tour was entitled The demise of New Zealand’s fresh waters: politics and science, where he discussed the sidelining of freshwater science by politics, the lack of acknowledgement of the loss of natural capital, the importance of scientists speaking up for the science. "Mike Joy". Stuff. 15 June 2019

Mount Archer National Park

Mount Archer National Park is a national park in Central Queensland, Australia, 522 kilometres northwest of Brisbane. It makes up the backdrop to the city of Rockhampton, it comprises 4250 ha of open forests and woodland and its highest peak is Mount Archer which stands at 604m above sea level. The Darumbal tribe Raki-warra clan considers the park as a part of its traditional country, it was explored by the Archer brothers in 1853 and was named after them. In 1898, the site of the park was set aside as a water reserve and a timber reserve in 1940; the grazing went on until 1985 and the area came under the supervision of the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. It became an environmental park in 1987 and was declared a national park in 1994; the vegetation is open eucalypt woodland with patches of vine scrub. The rufous shrikethrush, white-browed scrubwren, powerful owl and glossy black cockatoo are some of the bird species found in the park. A road leads to the summit of Mount Archer, where there are a few bushwalking and rock climbing opportunities.

Protected areas of Queensland Mount Archer National Park - Queensland Holidays

Henrike Hahn

Henrike Hahn is a German politician, a Member of the European Parliament since July 2019. She is a member of Alliance 90/The Greens at national level, sits with the Group of the Greens/European Free Alliance in the European Parliament. Hahn is a political scientist, having studied at Sorbonne-Nouvelle in Paris, University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Wayne State University in Detroit, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. For many years, Hahn worked as a consultant for technology-oriented companies, with a focus on strategy consulting, market research, competitive analysis in Paris and Munich. From 2010 to 2015, she worked for a member of the Bavarian State Parliament. In 2017, she worked as research associate at the German Bundestag, she worked as a researcher on Europe and Transatlantic relations at Centre for Applied Policy Research at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. Hahn has been an active member the Bavarian Greens since 2012, having served as the spokeswoman for the state working group for economy and finance.

She has worked as an assessor for the Bavarian Greens, has been a member of the national executive committee of Alliance 90/The Greens since October 2017. She ran for election to the European Parliament in 2014. Since the 2019 European elections, Hahn has been a Member of the European Parliament, she has since been serving on the Committee on Industry and Energy. In addition to her committee assignments, she is part of the Parliament’s delegations for relations with China and the United States. Hahn is a member of Amnesty International, the German Alpine Club, the German Federation for the Environment and Nature Conservation, Greenpeace. Hahn was born in Munich, grew up in Oberpframmern, she lives in Munich-Neuhausen with her two daughters

Petticoat Politics

Petticoat Politics is a 1941 film, the ninth and final of Republic's Higgins Family series. Lil Higgins become excessively worried that her newly retired husband Joe will die now that he has nothing to do all day, she has learned from a sales-eager insuranceman that the mortality rate is exceptionally high for inactive older men. To try to keep Joe alive, Lil wants him to make some home improvements in the kitchen, it turns out Joe is a catastophy in the kitchen, but instead Lil tries to make him run for mayor in town. Since Joe is a most reluctant candidate for "petticoat politics", ne needs a good reason to do as his wife wants, he gets one when he is denied membership in an exclusive lodge, the Knights of Bedlam, by a man named Wilcox. Joe is determined to show Wilcox; when Joe is down at City Hall to file his application and pay the fee, he bumps into a hoodlum named Slats O'Dell, who works for infamous gangster boss Guy Markwell. Joe is lured into betting on his own campaign, with one dollar for every vote he gets against every vote he loses though Markwell controls the current mayor.

Unaware that Joe has decided to run for mayor after all and her friend Ella Jones has persuaded Wilcox to be a reform mayoral candidate. When Joe hears about this, he and his father-in-law, Grandpa Edgar, try to get Wilcox out if the race, they arrange a duck hunt where Wilcox participates and "gets into trouble". Joe "rescues" Wilcox from drowning and out of gratitude Wilcox decides to drop out of the mayoral race. Joe has no idea that the real reason for Wilcox dropping out is that he has been threatened by Markwell. Soon Joe understands that there are forces who do not want him to win the election, that he is the only candidate standing in the way of the sitting mayor, being reelected. Ella and Edgar try to help Je by attempting to steal information proving that Markwell is crooked and has blackmailed the candidates, but their plan fails. Without anything on Markwell, Joe is convinced he will be done off with if he does not drop out of the race. In the meantime, Wilcox has seen to it that Joe be accepted as a member of the lodge, trying to help him win the race.

As part of the initiation, Joe is kidnapped by masked lodgers. Joe does not realize they are from the lodge, but hinks they are Markwell's goons coming to kill him. Je is overpowered in the end, they strap him to a sign high up above the ground, try to convi ce him it's only part of the initiation. Joe falks down, landing in Lil's car; the spectacular events surrounding the initiation make headlines in the newspaper afterwards, helps Joe win the election. Markwell and his goons end up in jail, Joe visits them to collect his prize for winning the bet. Roscoe Karns as Joe Higgins Ruth Donnelly as Lil Higgins Spencer Charters as Grandpa George Ernest as Sidney Higgins Lois Ranson as Betty Higgins Polly Moran as Ella Jones Paul Hurst as Slats O'Dell Pierre Watkin as Alfred Wilcox Alan Ladd as Don Wilcox Harry Woods as Guy Markwell Claire Carleton as Tilly Jeff Corey as Henry Trotter Petticoat Politics at IMDb

Big Bay, Michigan

Big Bay is an unincorporated community in Marquette County of the U. S. state of Michigan. It is a census-designated place for statistical purposes and does not have any legal status as an incorporated municipality; as of the 2000 census, the CDP population was 265. The community is located within Powell Township near the shore of "Big Bay" on Lake Superior. Although the Big Bay community is served by the Marquette ZIP code 49855, the Big Bay post office with ZIP code 49808, serves a much larger area to the west and south of the community and CDP, including portions of Powell Township as well as Ishpeming, Champion and Ely townships. Big Bay was established in 1875 by people involved in the lumber industry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 5.9 square miles, of which 3.8 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 265 people, 129 households, 86 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 69.2 per square mile.

There were 300 housing units at an average density of 78.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.23% White, 2.26% Native American, 1.51% from two or more races. There were 129 households out of which 15.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.7% were married couples living together, 3.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.47. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 15.1% under the age of 18, 3.4% from 18 to 24, 20.4% from 25 to 44, 37.7% from 45 to 64, 23.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $34,750, the median income for a family was $42,708. Males had a median income of $35,417 versus $24,375 for females.

The per capita income for the CDP was $18,620. About 7.9% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 4.6% of those sixty five or over. Big Bay's "claim to fame" is the filming of Anatomy of a Murder in 1959. Filming took place at the Thunder Bay Inn, the Big Bay Lighthouse Bed and Breakfast, the Lumberjack Tavern, Perkins Park Campground, various other locales. Bay Cliff Health Camp is located in Big Bay, it is a non-profit wellness camp for children and adults with physical disabilities. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Big Bay has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Romig, Walter. Michigan Place Names: The History of the Founding and the Naming of More Than Five Thousand Past and Present Michigan Communities. Great Lakes Books Series. Detroit, Michigan: Wayne State University Press.

ISBN 0-8143-1838-X. ISBN 978-0814318386