Cerebro is a fictional device appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The device is used by the X-Men to detect humans mutants, it was created by Professor X and Magneto, was enhanced by Dr. Hank McCoy; the current version of Cerebro is 7.0 Cerebro first appeared in X-Men #7. Cerebro first appeared in X-Men #7. Professor Jeffrey J. Kripal, in his 2011 book Mutants and Mystics: Science Fiction, Superhero Comics, the Paranormal, calls Cerebro "a piece of psychotronics" and describes it as "a spiderlike, Kirby-esque system of machines and wires that transmitted extrasensory data into Professor Xavier's private desk in another room". Kripal notes that Cerebro made multiple subsequent central appearances, including Giant-Size X-Men #1, where Cerebro senses and locates a supermutant across the globe, resulting in the recreation of the X-Men team. Cerebro amplifies the brainwaves of the user. In the case of telepaths, it enables the user to detect traces of others worldwide able to distinguish between humans and mutants.

Depictions of its inherent strength have been inconsistent. It is not clear whether it finds mutants by the power signature they send out when they use their powers or by the presence of the X-gene in their body. Using Cerebro can be dangerous, telepaths without well-trained, disciplined minds put themselves at great risk when attempting to use it; this is due to the psychic feedback. As the device enhances natural psychic ability, users who are unprepared for the sheer enormity of this increased psychic input can be and overwhelmed, resulting in insanity, permanent brain damage or death; the one exception has been Magneto, said to have minor or latent telepathic abilities as well as experience amplifying his mental powers with mechanical devices of his own design. Kitty Pryde once upgraded Cerebro; this was during the time that Professor Xavier was with the Shi'ar and Rachel Summers had just left the team. Kitty was able to track Nightcrawler; the only characters to use Cerebro on a frequent basis are Professor X, Jean Grey, Emma Frost and the Stepford Cuckoos.

However, Rachel Summers, Danielle Moonstar and Ruth Aldine have used it. After the device was upgraded to Cerebra, Cassandra Nova used it in order to exchange minds with Xavier; the Stepford Cuckoos once utilized the machine to amplify their combined ability, with only one of them directly connected to the machine, but all of them experiencing its interaction due to their psychic rapport. The strain of mentally halting a riot during Open Day killed Sophie, the Stepford Cuckoo, hooked up to Cerebra. Sophie was both inexperienced at using Cerebra and was high on the mutant-enhancing drug "Kick"; the now remaining three Cuckoos demonstrated that they were capable of using Cerebra with relative ease in Phoenix: Endsong. Some mutants have learned to shield themselves from Cerebro via their own telepathic ability. Magneto can shield himself from the device through use of minimal telepathic powers, it would soon become apparent as to just what and how Cerebro was meant to be used. X utilized this function to resurrect the mutant strike team lost while battling the Orchis Group by withholding their hard copied mind's, their anima, onto home grown clone bodies.

Cerebro was a device similar to a computer, built into a desk in Xavier's office. This early version of Cerebro operated on punched cards, did not require a user to interface with it. A prototype version of Cerebro named Cyberno was used by Xavier to track down Cyclops in the "Origins of the X-Men" back-up story in X-Men Volume 1 #40. In the first published appearance of Cerebro, X-Men Volume 1 #7, Professor X left the X-Men on a secret mission and left Cerebro to the new team leader, who used it to keep track of known evil mutants and to find new evil mutants; the device warned the X-Men of the impending threat posed by the non-mutant Juggernaut prior to that character's first appearance. The device was upgraded to the larger and more familiar telepathy-based technology with its interface helmet; when the human-Sentinel gestalt Bastion stole Cerebro from the X-Mansion, Cerebro was hybridized with Bastion's programming via nanotechnology. The resulting entity, a self-aware form of Cerebro, created two minions, Cerebrites Alpha and Beta, through which it would act without exposing itself.

It used its Danger Room-derived records of the powers of the X-Men and the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants to create its own team of imposter "X-Men" whose mem

Pietro Ranzano

Pietro Ranzano was an Italian Dominican friar, historian and scholar, best known for his work, De primordiis et progressu felicis Urbis Panormi, a history of the city of Palermo from its beginnings up until the contemporary period in which Ranzano was writing. The composition is influenced to some extent by humanistic conceptions of historical research, offers glimpses into the world view of a Sicilian intellectual of the Renaissance period on Jews and Jewish culture, as well as Sicily’s past. Ranzano would study Latin at the school of humanist Antonio Cassarino, who at the time was a teacher of young children in Palermo. Like other scholars of his era, he would study at various institutions which were headed by various masters such as Pietro Aretino in Florence, Tommaso Pontano in Perguia, Vitaliano Borromeo and Pietro Candido Decembro in Milan and Pavia. Ranzano would go on to join the Dominican Order at the age of sixteen and by the time he was twenty-eight, he had become Provincial of the Dominicans in Sicily.

Around the year 1464, Ranzano would be appointed papal nuncio in the kingdom of Sicily and he would be entrusted with the organization of the crusade against the Turks in conjunction with preaching and collecting funds for the aforementioned crusade. While in Palermo, Ranzano taught at the Dominican College. Ranzano’s personality and education influenced his work, creating a particular mixture of secular and religious learning that arguably can be perceived as the hallmark of Sicilian humanism. Pietro Ranzano’s works were popular in the time in which they were written. However, his account of Palermo’s history served as a model for Sicilian historians; the composition was written in first person and it includes various personal earmarks such as Ranzano illustrating his own ideas and spending a great deal of time on his search for ancient sources and his efforts to pursue his story by all possible means. The writing utilizes foundation legends which epitomize the way in which narratives on the origins of cities were formulated.

Ranzano’s investigations with regards to attempting to learn of the origins of Palermo, place him in the context of the prevailing quest in the Renaissance era for sources and his quest would lead him to an inscription which he would assume to be "Chaldean" characters which were inscribed on a tower which stood above the Porta Patitelli in Palermo. The inscription would be discovered to be a forgery therefore rendering Ranzano’s deduction that the city of Palermo originated from the Chaldeans as erroneous. However, the writing he composed is still important as it gives an insight as to the views held by Sicilian intellectual elite’s near the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Sicily. If looking at Ranzano’s writings of the Jews on the surface, one would conclude that it presents an image of positive relations between Jews and Christians in Palermo. However, looking deeper into his descriptions reveals that he perceives local Jews as holding an ancestral memory of the Chaldean inscription but not having historical evidence to back up their ‘memories’ of the past.

In contrast, a Pisan Jew, Isaac Guglielmo, who owned the book which the local Jews where referring to and showed it to Ranzano. Correlating with Augustinian tradition, Ranzano would perceive the Jews as custodians of the past who could corroborate the writings in the inscription. In 1488 he was sent to Hungary, to the court of Matthias Corvinus as the envoy of the Kingdom of Naples; the queen, Beatrice of Naples commissioned him to write a history of Hungary. Pietro Ranzano has finished the work in a year under the title Epithoma rerum Hungarorum; the heroic history treated the Hungarians as the direct descendants of the Huns and the king as the second Attila. Ranzano’s History of Palermo remains the only Sicilian historical account which takes a significant look at the Jews as well as Jewish culture; the composition offers a look at Jews and Christians with regard to cultural encounters in fifteenth-century Sicily. The story of Palermo exhibits many of the facets of the Renaissance culture of that period.

In addition, the history illustrates the sophistication of an area, at a cultural crossroads between Italy and the Hispanic world along with facing adversity with regard to various ethnic groups presence. Ranzano’s death in 1492 marks the end of an era, that being of multicultural Sicily as that year would coincide with expulsion of the Jews from Sicily. Zeldes, Nadia. 2006. "The Last Multi-Cultural Encounter in Medieval Sicily: A Dominican Scholar, an Arabic Inscription, a Jewish Legend." Mediterranean Historical Review 21: 159-91. 160. Zeldes, Nadia. 2006. "The Last Multi-Cultural Encounter in Medieval Sicily: A Dominican Scholar, an Arabic Inscription, a Jewish Legend." Mediterranean Historical Review 21: 159-91. 160. Birkenmajer, Alexander. Notes and Correspondence. Abbé A. Rome. Pp. 440–449. JSTOR 225260 Daniels, John & Daniels, Christian; the Origin of the Sugarcane Roller Mill. Technology and Culture, Vol. 29, No. 3. Pp. 493–535. JSTOR 3105272 Reynolds, Beatrice R. Latin Historiography: A Survey, 1400-1600.

Studies in the Renaissance, Vol. 2. Pp. 7–66. JSTOR 2856959

Torba, Bodrum

Torba is a sea-side village near Bodrum in the Mugla Province, Turkey. Torba is located 6 km northeast of the resort town, Bodrum; the hillsides are clad in pine forests. The shoreline is dotted with cafes and open-air restaurants, specializing in catch-of-the-day seafood, lamb kebabs and traditional mezes. Despite some recent upmarket developments, the village has retained a rural ambience; because of its close proximity to Bodrum town, Torba is popular with day-trippers who come for a swim, a stroll along the idyllic shoreline or a candle-lit dinner on the beach. Hotels and all-inclusive resorts are there as well; some of the fish in Torba Bay include gilt-head bream. Other marine life include dolphins or the rare Mediterranean monk seal. Profile of Torba at