SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced by specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. There is about 125mL of CSF at any one time, about 500 mL is generated every day. CSF acts as a cushion or buffer, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. CSF serves a vital function in the cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. CSF occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord, it fills the ventricles of the brain and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. There is a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid; the ependymal cells of the choroid plexuses have multiple motile cilia on their apical surfaces that beat to move the CSF through the ventricles.

A sample of CSF can be taken via lumbar puncture. This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges. Although noted by Hippocrates, it was only in the 18th century that Emanuel Swedenborg was credited with its rediscovery, as late as 1914 Harvey Cushing demonstrated CSF was secreted by the choroid plexus. There is about 125–150 mL of CSF at any one time; this CSF circulates within the ventricular system of the brain. The ventricles are a series of cavities filled with CSF; the majority of CSF is produced from within the two lateral ventricles. From here, CSF passes through the interventricular foramina to the third ventricle the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle. From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space through four openings – the central canal of the spinal cord, the median aperture, the two lateral apertures. CSF is present within the subarachnoid space, which covers the brain, spinal cord, stretches below the end of the spinal cord to the sacrum.

There is a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear making the cerebrospinal fluid continuous with the perilymph in 93% of people. CSF moves in a single outward direction from the ventricles, but multidirectionally in the subarachnoid space. Fluid movement is pulsatile, matching the pressure waves generated in blood vessels by the beating of the heart; some authors dispute this, posing that there is no unidirectional CSF circulation, but cardiac cycle-dependent bi-directional systolic-diastolic to-and-from cranio-spinal CSF movements. CSF is derived from blood plasma and is similar to it, except that CSF is nearly protein-free compared with plasma and has some different electrolyte levels. Due to the way it is produced, CSF has a higher chloride level than plasma, an equivalent sodium level. CSF contains 0.3% plasma proteins, or 15 to 40 mg/dL, depending on sampling site. In general, globular proteins and albumin are in lower concentration in ventricular CSF compared to lumbar or cisternal fluid.

This continuous flow into the venous system dilutes the concentration of larger, lipid-insoluble molecules penetrating the brain and CSF. CSF is free of red blood cells, at most contains only a few white blood cells. Any white blood cell count higher. CSF contains nucleic acids, in particular cell-free DNA. At around the third week of development, the embryo is a three-layered disc, covered with ectoderm and endoderm. A tube-like formation develops in the midline, called the notochord; the notochord releases extracellular molecules that affect the transformation of the overlying ectoderm into nervous tissue. The neural tube, forming from the ectoderm, contains CSF prior to the development of the choroid plexuses; the open neuropores of the neural tube close after the first month of development, CSF pressure increases. As the brain develops, by the fourth week of embryological development three swellings have formed within the embryo around the canal, near where the head will develop; these swellings represent different components of the central nervous system: the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon.

Subarachnoid spaces are first evident around the 32nd day of development near the rhombencephalon. At this time, the first choroid plexus can be seen, found in the fourth ventricle, although the time at which they first secrete CSF is not yet known; the developing forebrain surrounds the neural cord. As the forebrain develops, the neural cord within it becomes a ventricle forming the lateral ventricles. Along the inner surface of both ventricles, the ventricular wall remains thin, a choroid plexus develops and releasing CSF. CSF fills the neural canal. Arachnoid villi are formed around the 35th week of development, with arachnoid granulations noted around the 39th, continuing developing until 18 months of age; the subcommissural organ secretes SCO-spondin, which forms Reissner's fiber within CSF assisting movement through the cerebral aqueduct. It disappears during early development. CSF serves several purposes: Buoyancy: The actual mass of the human brain is about 1400–1500 grams; the brain therefore exists in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight, which would cut off blood supply and kill neurons in the lower sections without CSF.

Protection: CSF protects the brain tissu

Nitish Roy

Nitish Roy is an Indian film art director, production designer, costume designer in Hindi cinema and a Bengali Film Director, known for his work with art cinema directors, Shyam Benegal, Mrinal Sen and Govind Nihlani, Hindi mainstream cinema, directors like Rajkumar Santoshi, as well as international directors like Mira Nair and Gurinder Chadha. His work for Oscar winning Hollywood blockbuster Gladiator fetched international fame for him. Beside art direction, production design and film direction he is an internationally acclaimed architect who has created several film cities such has Ramoji Film City Innovative Film city,Prayag Film City and several theme parks, amusement parks, museum not only in India but in countries like Singapore etc; as production designer/ art directorKharij Mandi Party Khandhar Trikaal Tasveer Apni Apni Genesis New Delhi Times Ek Pal Aghaat Susman Tamas Bharat Ek Khoj Salaam Bombay! Parinda Drishti Ghayal Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda Nightfall Pukar Gladiator Lajja 23rd March 1931: Shaheed Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara Fanaa Bride and Prejudice Halla Bol Good Luck!

Praktan As DirectorAk poshla brishti Tobu mone rekho Jamai no 1 Heartbeat - Hindi Gosainbaganer Bhoot - Director Jole Jongole Mahakash Kando - Director Tadanto 2015) Buddhu Bhutum -Director 1983: National Film Award for Best Art Direction: Kharij 1984: National Film Award for Best Art Direction: Mandi 1991: National Film Award for Best Art Direction: Lekin 1991: Filmfare Best Art Direction Award: Ghayal Official website Nitish Roy on IMDb

Hong Deok-young

Hong Deok-Young was a South Korean football manager and former football player. He was one of the first South Koreans to be capped for their country at international level, he was the goalkeeper of the South Korea national team who appeared at the 1954 World Cup. After retiring, he was an international football referee from 1957 to 1967. In life, Hong went blind due to complication of diabetes mellitus, which had an impact on his eyesight during his professional years, requiring him to wear glasses on the pitch, he died on September 13, 2005. Hong started his football career at Bosung College, before joining Korea University, where he played as a defender; when the Korean FA put together a national team in 1946, he made the cut as a goalkeeper. On April 11, 1947, South Korea arrived in Shanghai, where they played five fixtures against the Shanghai amateur football team. Hong participated in these games. Hong was South Korea's goalkeeper at the 1948 Summer Olympics. Six years he was in goal as South Korea appeared at their first World Cup, in Switzerland.

The experience was not a happy one for the Koreans, who lost their two matches 9–0 to Hungary's famous "Magic Magyars" and 7–0 to Turkey. The 16 goals is still the record for the most goals conceded by one goalkeeper in a World Cup Finals tournament. After Hong retired, he became a referee, officiated from 1957 to 1967, he managed the Korea University team. From 1969 onwards, he managed a now-defunct amateur side, for eight years. In 1971, he was appointed manager of the South Korean national team. Hong was part of the executive committee of the Korean FA in 1960, 1962, 1967, 1972–1974, he was the vice-president of the FA from 1985 to 1986, a member of the 2002 FIFA World Cup organising committee. In 1974, Hong received a special award from FIFA for services to refereeing, he was inducted into the Korean football Hall of Fame in 2005. FIFA Player Record