Willem van Mieris
Willem van Mieris was an 18th-century painter from the Northern Netherlands. Willem van Mieris was a painter and etcher active in Leiden, he was born in Leiden and studied under his father Frans van Mieris the Elder, a successful genre painter. Willem had a reasonably successful career, being supported by a few patrons who commissioned and collected various of his works, his oeuvre consists of genre and portraiture, with some landscape painting, as well as some sculptures. Van Mieris’ style was that of the fijnschilders, his genre works later in his career, depicted scenes from upper-class society. At age 19, Van Mieris took over the family workshop after his father died in 1681, aged 45, he had finished his training in the family studio and it would take another two years before he entered the Leiden painters’ guild in 1685. He set out to uphold his father's reputation as a Leiden fijnschilder; the Leiden fine painters produced a small scale of genre paintings or portraits with high attention to detail, made popular by Frans’ master Gerrit Dou. Frans’ superb skills as a painter rubbed off on his son and his influence can be seen in technique, subject matter, style.
He finished. One year in 1684, he married his wife Agneta Chapman, whom he used as his model. Besides genre and portrait painting, Van Mieris was a skilled landscape painter and draughtsman, he acted as headman and once as dean of the Leiden Guild of St. Luke in 1693. A year in 1694, he founded a drawing academy in Leiden together with the painters Jacob Toorenvliet and Carel de Moor, which he and de Moor directed until 1736. At that time, Van Mieris stopped working as an artist because he became blind and no dated work passes the 1730s. Van Mieris was born in a family of Dutch painters. Not only his father, but his brother and son had a background in art. Jan van Mieris studied under his father Frans the Elder, as well as under Gerard de Lairesse, to become a genre and portrait painter. Willem's son, Frans van Mieris the Younger, was a pupil of his father, he worked as a genre painter and writer, was considered a distinguished antiquary, who published works of merit on numismatics and history. Such a family background in art, good relationships with wealthy collectors and patrons, apprenticeships with successful 17th-century masters seems to have made the choice of profession easier in families such as the Van Mierises.
Willem and Frans II, all direct descendants of the famous seventeenth century fine painter Frans I van Mieris, were bound for prestigious positions in the city, resulting in steady income from the commissions from affluent citizens. The fijnschilders, whose activity was concentrated in Leiden, included many of the most popular painters of the time, such as Gerard Dou and Willem's father: needless to say, the latter had a decisive influence in shaping young Willem's style. In fact, Frans van Mieris was among the most famous Dutch painters of the late 17th century, his popularity crossing the Netherlands’ border time and again: he was esteemed by both Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Archduke Leopold of Palatinate, to become Emperor Leopold I, his paintings are elegant genre scenes, but they show us the main features of the fijnschilders’ conception of painting: in scenes representing trivial subjects, the Leiden painters strove for absolute perfection in rendering details and refining features in order to achieve absolute elegance.
Willem van Mieris, having been introduced to, trained in, painting by his father, could not but be influenced by the fijnschilders’ ideas becoming a member of the second generation of Leiden fine painters. However, Willem van Mieris soon parted ways with Frans. In fact, although he still focused on genre painting, his works depict scenes taken from the life of the upper class, when the protagonists belong to the low spheres of the society, they look much more elegant and refined than their real-life counterparts; this is due to the influence exerted on Willem van Mieris by Gerard de Lairesse, whose Groot Schilderboek, published in 1707, marked the transition from the 17th to the 18th century in Dutch art. In his extensive treatise, de Lairesse stated that the aim of genre painters should no longer be representing the human figure as it is, but as it ought to be according to the classical canons of beauty. More de Lairesse claimed it was necessary to ennoble genre painting, in order to take it to the same level of excellence and public admiration awarded to history painting.
To achieve this purpose, the Amsterdam art theoretician proposed that the human protagonists of genre painting, no matter which social class they belonged to, be represented after classical antiquity sculptures, with their unsurpassable perfection and proportion. De Lairesse's views fascinated Van Mieris after he had the opportunity to experiment directly with classicizing figures thanks to the sculptures of the Flemish artist Francis van Bossuit, who had lived and worked in Italy and took inspiration from classical antiquity sculpture for his works. Van Mieris drew many illustrations after Bossuit's sculptures, borrowed some of their poses for his paintings. Another distinctive feature of van Mieris's oeuvre is the repetition of certain figures and p
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, other elements that are distinct from artistic style. The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών and γράφειν. A secondary meaning is the production of religious images, called "icons", in the Byzantine and Orthodox Christian tradition. In art history, "an iconography" may mean a particular depiction of a subject in terms of the content of the image, such as the number of figures used, their placing and gestures; the term is used in many academic fields other than art history, for example semiotics and media studies, in general usage, for the content of images, the typical depiction in images of a subject, related senses. Sometimes distinctions have been made between iconology and iconography, although the definitions, so the distinction made, varies; when referring to movies, genres are recognizable through their iconography, motifs that become associated with a specific genre through repetition.
Early Western writers who took special note of the content of images include Giorgio Vasari, whose Ragionamenti, interpreting the paintings in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, reassuringly demonstrates that such works were difficult to understand for well-informed contemporaries. Lesser known, though it had informed poets and sculptors for over two centuries after its 1593 publication, was Cesare Ripa's emblem book Iconologia. Gian Pietro Bellori, a 17th-century biographer of artists of his own time and analyses, not always many works. Lessing's study of the classical figure Amor with an inverted torch was an early attempt to use a study of a type of image to explain the culture it originated in, rather than the other way round. Iconography as an academic art historical discipline developed in the nineteenth-century in the works of scholars such as Adolphe Napoleon Didron, Anton Heinrich Springer, Émile Mâle all specialists in Christian religious art, the main focus of study in this period, in which French scholars were prominent.
They looked back to earlier attempts to classify and organise subjects encyclopedically like Cesare Ripa and Anne Claude Philippe de Caylus's Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, grècques, romaines et gauloises as guides to understanding works of art, both religious and profane, in a more scientific manner than the popular aesthetic approach of the time. These early contributions paved the way for encyclopedias and other publications useful in identifying the content of art. Mâle's l'Art religieux du XIIIe siècle en France translated into English as The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century has remained continuously in print. In the early-twentieth century Germany, Aby Warburg and his followers Fritz Saxl and Erwin Panofsky elaborated the practice of identification and classification of motifs in images to using iconography as a means to understanding meaning. Panofsky codified an influential approach to iconography in his 1939 Studies in Iconology, where he defined it as "the branch of the history of art which concerns itself with the subject matter or meaning of works of art, as opposed to form," although the distinction he and other scholars drew between particular definitions of "iconography" and "iconology", has not been accepted, though it is still used by some writers.
In the United States, to which Panofsky immigrated in 1931, students such as Frederick Hartt, Meyer Schapiro continued under his influence in the discipline. In an influential article of 1942, Introduction to an "Iconography of Mediaeval Architecture", Richard Krautheimer, a specialist on early medieval churches and another German émigré, extended iconographical analysis to architectural forms; the period from 1940 can be seen as one where iconography was prominent in art history. Whereas most icongraphical scholarship remains dense and specialized, some analyses began to attract a much wider audience, for example Panofsky's theory that the writing on the rear wall in the Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck turned the painting into the record of a marriage contract. Holbein's The Ambassadors has been the subject of books for a general market with new theories as to its iconography, the best-sellers of Dan Brown include theories, disowned by most art historians, on the iconography of works by Leonardo da Vinci.
Technological advances allowed the building-up of huge collections of photographs, with an iconographic arrangement or index, which include those of the Warburg Institute and the Index of Medieval Art at Princeton. These are now being digitised and made available online on a restricted basis. With the arrival of computing, the Iconclass system, a complex way of classifying the content of images, with 28,000 classification types, 14,000 keywords, was developed in the Netherlands as a standard classification for recording collections, with the idea of assembling huge databases that will allow the retrieval of images featuring particular details, subjects or other common factors. For example, the Iconclass code "71H7131" is for the subject of "Bathsheba with David's letter", whereas "71" is th
Bureau du Roi
The Bureau du Roi known as Louis XV's roll-top secretary, is the richly ornamented royal cylinder desk, constructed at the end of Louis XV's reign, is now again in the Palace of Versailles. The Bureau du Roi was started in 1760, when the commission was formally announced, its first designer was the master cabinet maker of the royal arsenal. The first step in its construction was the fabrication of an detailed miniature model in wax; the full scale desk was finished in 1769 by his successor, Jean Henri Riesener, who had married Oeben's widow. Made for the new Cabinet du Roi at the Palace of Versailles, it was transferred to the Louvre Museum in Paris after the French Revolution, but has been returned to the Palace of Versailles in the 20th century where it stands again in the room where it was standing before the Revolution, i.e. the Cabinet intérieur du Petit Appartement, the famous study room where kings Louis XV and Louis XVI carried out their daily work, where King Louis XVI decided to support the American insurgents in 1777.
Secret diplomatic papers were kept inside the secretary's secret drawers, whose only key the king always carried with him. The desk is covered with intricate marquetry of a wide variety of fine woods. In an oval reserve at the center of its'public' side, away from the king himself, is the marquetry head of Silence, with forefinger to lips, a reminder of the discretion required in the king's business. Gilt-bronze moldings of plaques, miniature busts and vases integral scrolling gilt-bronze candle stands, further adorn the surfaces of the desk; the original design was to have a miniature bust of Louis XV on top, but it was replaced by Minerva after his death in 1770. Riesener executed a simplified second version of the Bureau du Roi for Pierre-Gaspard-Marie Grimod, comte d'Orsay, his copy was the first of a number of replicas that were produced from the 1870s onwards by leading cabinetmakers in Paris, including four examples by François Linke. Brunhammer, Yvonne. Meubles et ensembles, époque Louis XVI.
Paris, Éditions Charles Massin, 1965. Pages 59, 60, 61, 65. Grande encyclopédie illustrée des meubles. Paris: Flammarion, 1980. Page 118. Histoire du mobilier. Paris: Editions Atlas, 1979. Pages 105, 106, 107, 144. Henry VIII's writing desk List of desk forms and types Resolute desk
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print; the block is cut along the wood grain. The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller, leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks; the art of carving the woodcut can be called "xylography", but this is used in English for images alone, although that and "xylographic" are used in connection with block books, which are small books containing text and images in the same block. They became popular in Europe during the latter half of the 15th century. A single-sheet woodcut is a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration.
Since it's origins in China, the practice of woodcut has spread across the world from Europe, to other parts of Asia, to Latin America. In both Europe and the Far East, traditionally the artist only designed the woodcut, the block-carving was left to specialist craftsmen, called block-cutters, or Formschneider in Germany, some of whom became well-known in their own right. Among these, the best-known are the 16th-century Hieronymus Andreae, Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran workshops and operated as printers and publishers; the formschneider in turn handed the block on to specialist printers. There were further specialists; this is why woodcuts are sometimes described by museums or books as "designed by" rather than "by" an artist. The division of labour had the advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the medium easily, without needing to learn the use of woodworking tools. There were various methods of transferring the artist's drawn design onto the block for the cutter to follow.
Either the drawing would be made directly onto the block, or a drawing on paper was glued to the block. Either way, the artist's drawing was destroyed during the cutting process. Other methods were used, including tracing. In both Europe and the Far East in the early 20th century, some artists began to do the whole process themselves. In Japan, this movement was called sōsaku-hanga, as opposed to shin-hanga, a movement that retained traditional methods. In the West, many artists used the easier technique of linocut instead. Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print; as a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the block and bring it into firm and contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print. In Europe, a variety of woods including boxwood and several nut and fruit woods like pear or cherry were used. There are three methods of printing to consider: Stamping: Used for many fabrics and most early European woodcuts; these were printed by putting the paper/fabric on a table or other flat surface with the block on top, pressing or hammering the back of the block.
Rubbing: Apparently the most common method for Far Eastern printing on paper at all times. Used for European woodcuts and block-books in the fifteenth century, widely for cloth. Used for many Western woodcuts from about 1910 to the present; the block goes face up with the paper or fabric on top. The back is rubbed with a "hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton". A traditional Japanese tool used for this is called a baren. In Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were used to help hold the woodblock still and to apply proper pressure in the printing process; this was helpful once multiple colors were introduced and had to be applied with precision atop previous ink layers. Printing in a press: presses only seem to have been used in Asia in recent times. Printing-presses were used from about 1480 for European prints and block-books, before that for woodcut book illustrations. Simple weighted presses may have been used in Europe before the print-press, but firm evidence is lacking.
A deceased Abbess of Mechelen in 1465 had "unum instrumentum ad imprintendum scripturas et ymagines... cum 14 aliis lapideis printis"—"an instrument for printing texts and pictures... with 14 stones for printing". This is too early to be a Gutenberg-type printing press in that location. Main articles Old master print for Europe, Woodblock printing in Japan for Japan, Lubok for Russia Woodcut originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper; the earliest woodblock printed fragments to survive are from China, from the Han dynasty, are of silk printed with flowers in three colours. "In the 13th century the Chinese technique of blockprinting was transmitted to Europe." Paper arrived in Europe from China via al-Andalus later, was being manufactured in Italy by the end of the thirteenth century, in Burgundy and Germany by the end of the fourteenth. In Europe, woodcut is the oldest technique used for old master prints, developing about 1400, by using, on paper, existing techniques for printing.
One of the more ancient woodcuts on paper that can be seen today is The Fire Madonna, in the Cat
Artus Quellinus the Elder
Artus Quellinus known as Artus Quellijn, Artus Quellinus I or Artus Quellinus the Elder was a Flemish sculptor. He is regarded as the most important representative of the Baroque in sculpture in the Southern Netherlands, his work had a major influence on the development of sculpture in Northern Europe. Artus Quellinus, he was the son of Elisabeth van Uden. His brothers became prominent artists: Erasmus was a painter and Hubertus was an engraver and painter, his sister Cornelia married the sculptor Pieter Verbrugghen the Elder. Artus Quellinus received his first training from his father. In the period from 1635 to 1639 he trained in Rome in the studio of his compatriot François Duquesnoy, he spent time in Lyon together with the Flemish painter Laureys Franck and was in contact there with the Dutch engraver Nicolaas van Helt Stockade and the Dutch painter Jan Asselijn. He returned to Antwerp in 1639 and became member of the local Guild of Saint Luke in 1640-41. In 1640 he married Marguerite Verdussen.
He worked in Amsterdam in the years 1646 and 1647 and spent time in Sweden. He won commissions in Amsterdam and, from 1650 onwards, worked for fifteen years on the new city hall together with the lead architect Jacob van Campen. Now called the Royal Palace on the Dam, this construction project, in particular the marble decorations he and his workshop produced, became an example for other buildings in Amsterdam; the team of sculptors that Artus supervised during his work on the Amsterdam city hall included many sculptors who would become leading sculptors in their own right such as his cousin Artus Quellinus II, Rombout Verhulst, Bartholomeus Eggers and Gabriël Grupello and also Grinling Gibbons. He returned to work in Antwerp in 1658 and remained active in this city until his death, his many pupils included his cousin Artus Quellinus II, Martin Deurweerders, Grinling Gibbons, Gabriël Grupello, Pieter Verbrugghen I, Lodewijk Willemsens, Jackes Janssen. Many of these students would become leading sculptors in their own right who would help spread the late Baroque style across Europe.
Artus Quellinus brought the classicizing Baroque style of François Duquesnoy to his native Antwerp on his return from Rome in 1639. He thus introduced into Flemish sculpture the Baroque style developed by François Duquesnoy, based on classical sculpture; this style was less expressive than the Baroque style of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, the main competitor of François Duquesnoy in Rome. Another influence on his work that mitigated Dusquesnoy’s clacissistic tendencies was the realism of Johannes van Mildert and Lucas Faydherbe, two sculptors who had worked with Peter Paul Rubens; as Artus Quellinus I worked on monumental commissions, most of his work is to be found in situ with as principal locations the cities of Brussels and Amsterdam. Artus Quellinus I produced small-scale sculptures such as ivory-carvings, his work on the city hall of Amsterdam was influential. It was popularised by his brother Hubertus, who engraved many of his works in the city hall and published a book of these together with 30 architectural drawings by van Campen in 1665.
One particular feature of the city hall, the so-called vierschaar or tribunal, reflected the fashion of the period and, in particular, the ideals of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio and his pupils Vincenzo Scamozzi and Cesare Ripa. In the Dutch Republic Artus Quellinus I was further noted for funerary monuments and portrait busts, his monumental tomb for Otto Christoph von Sparr, Generalfeldmarschall of Brandenburg-Prussia, in the St. Mary's Church, Berlin had an important influence on the development of tomb sculpture in Northern Germany. Another tomb monument he made in Germany was that for Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp in Schleswig Cathedral. Artus Quellinus I made an important contribution to Dutch portrait sculpture through a series of portraits of leading citizens such as the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, their wives and, in particular, a bust of the Grand Pensionary of Holland, Johan de Witt; the portraits combine the classical style with late Baroque devices such as the inclusion of the arms of the sitter.
His sculptures were so popular in Amsterdam that the leading Dutch writers Joost van den Vondel and Jan Vos dedicated poems to his work. His oeuvre after his return to Antwerp in 1658 is less well known; the most important piece is undoubtedly the half-length marble portrait bust of Luis de Benavides Carrillo, Marquis of Caracena, the Governor of the Southern Netherlands, with its realistically sculpted facial features and free flowing hair. Media related to Artus Quellinus I at Wikimedia Commons
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only; the term is used in the entertainment business in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, restricted to contexts like criticism. Wiktionary defines the noun ` artist'. A person who makes and creates art as an occupation. A person, skilled at some activity. A person whose trade or profession requires a knowledge of design, painting, etc; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist": A learned person or Master of Arts One who pursues a practical science, traditionally medicine, alchemy, chemistry A follower of a pursuit in which skill comes by study or practice A follower of a manual art, such as a mechanic One who makes their craft a fine art One who cultivates one of the fine arts – traditionally the arts presided over by the muses The Greek word "techně" translated as "art," implies mastery of any sort of craft.
The adjectival Latin form of the word, "technicus", became the source of the English words technique, technical. In Greek culture each of the nine Muses oversaw a different field of human creation: Calliope: chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry Clio: muse of history Erato: muse of love or erotic poetry and marriage songs Euterpe: muse of music and lyric poetry Melpomene: muse of tragedy Polyhymnia or Polymnia: muse of sacred song, lyric and rhetoric Terpsichore: muse of choral song and dance Thalia: muse of comedy and bucolic poetry Urania: muse of astronomyNo muse was identified with the visual arts of painting and sculpture. In ancient Greece sculptors and painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour; the word art derives from the Latin "ars", although defined means "skill method" or "technique" conveys a connotation of beauty. During the Middle Ages the word artist existed in some countries such as Italy, but the meaning was something resembling craftsman, while the word artesan was still unknown.
An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the activity field. In this period some "artisanal" products were much more precious and expensive than paintings or sculptures; the first division into major and minor arts dates back at least to the works of Leon Battista Alberti: De re aedificatoria, De statua, De pictura, which focused on the importance of the intellectual skills of the artist rather than the manual skills. With the Academies in Europe the gap between fine and applied arts was set. Many contemporary definitions of "artist" and "art" are contingent on culture, resisting aesthetic prescription, in much the same way that the features constituting beauty and the beautiful cannot be standardized without corruption into kitsch. Artist is a descriptive term applied to a person. An artist may be defined unofficially as "a person who expresses him- or herself through a medium"; the word is used in a qualitative sense of, a person creative in, innovative in, or adept at, an artistic practice.
Most the term describes those who create within a context of the fine arts or'high culture', activities such as drawing, sculpture, dancing, filmmaking, new media and music—people who use imagination, talent, or skill to create works that may be judged to have an aesthetic value. Art historians and critics define artists as those who produce art within a recognized or recognizable discipline. Contrasting terms for skilled workers in media in the applied arts or decorative arts include artisan and specialized terms such as potter, goldsmith or glassblower. Fine arts artists such as painters succeeded in the Renaissance in raising their status similar to these workers, to a decisively higher level; the term may be used loosely or metaphorically to denote skilled people in any non-"art" activities, as well— law, mechanics, or mathematics, for example. Discussions on the subject focus on the differences among "artist" and "technician", "entertainer" and "artisan", "fine art" and "applied art", or what constitutes art and what does not.
The French word artiste has been imported into the English language. Use of the word "artiste" can be a pejorative term; the English word'artiste' has thus a narrower range of meaning than the word'artiste' in French. In Living with Art, Mark Getlein proposes six activities, services or functions of contemporary artists: Create places for some human purpose. Create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects. Record and commemorate. Give tangible form to the unknown. Give tangible form to feelings. Refresh our vision and help see the world in new ways. After looking at years of data on
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves