Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman and cardinal with Aragonese and Italian origins, whose fight for power was a major inspiration for The Prince by Machiavelli. He was the son of his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei, he was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia. He was half-brother to children of unknown mothers. After entering the church and becoming a cardinal on his father's election to the Papacy, he became, after the death of his brother in 1498, the first person to resign a cardinalcy, he served as a condottiero for the King of France Louis XII around 1500 and occupied Milan and Naples during the Italian Wars. At the same time he carved out a state for himself in Central Italy, but after his father's death he was unable to retain power for long. According to Machiavelli this was not due to his own illness. Like many aspects of Cesare Borgia's life, the date of his birth is a subject of dispute, he was born in Rome—in either 1475 or 1476—the illegitimate son of Cardinal Roderic Llançol i de Borja known as "Rodrigo Borgia" Pope Alexander VI, his Italian mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei, about whom information is sparse.
The Borgia family came from the Kingdom of Valencia, rose to prominence during the mid-15th century. Cesare's father, Pope Alexander VI, was the first pope who recognized his children born out of wedlock. Stefano Infessura writes that Cardinal Borgia falsely claimed Cesare to be the legitimate son of another man—Domenico d'Arignano, the nominal husband of Vannozza dei Cattanei. More Pope Sixtus IV granted Cesare a release from the necessity of proving his birth in a papal bull of 1 October 1480. Cesare was groomed for a career in the Church. Following school in Perugia and Pisa, Cesare studied law at the Studium Urbis, he was made Bishop of Pamplona at the age of 15 and archbishop of Valencia at 17. In 1493, he had been appointed bishop of both Castres and Elne. In 1494, he received the title of abbot of the abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa. Along with his father's elevation to Pope, Cesare was made Cardinal at the age of 18. Alexander VI staked the hopes of the Borgia family on Cesare's brother Giovanni, made captain general of the military forces of the papacy.
Giovanni was assassinated in 1497 in mysterious circumstances. Several contemporaries suggested that Cesare might have been his killer, as Giovanni's disappearance could open to him a long-awaited military career and solve the jealousy over Sancha of Aragon, wife of Cesare's younger brother and mistress of both Cesare and Giovanni. Cesare's role in the act has never been clear. However, he had no definitive motive, as he was to be given a powerful secular position, whether or not his brother lived, it is more that Giovanni was killed as a result of a sexual liaison. On 17 August 1498, Cesare became the first person in history to resign the cardinalate. On the same day, Louis XII of France named Cesare Duke of Valentinois, this title, along with his former position as Cardinal of Valencia, explains the nickname "Valentino". Cesare's career was founded upon his father's ability to distribute patronage, along with his alliance with France, in the course of the Italian Wars. Louis XII invaded Italy in 1499: after Gian Giacomo Trivulzio had ousted its duke Ludovico Sforza, Cesare accompanied the king in his entrance into Milan.
At this point Alexander decided to profit from the favourable situation and carve out for Cesare a state of his own in northern Italy. To this end, he declared that all his vicars in Marche were deposed. Though in theory subject directly to the pope, these rulers had been independent or dependent on other states for generations. In the view of the citizens, these vicars were petty; when Cesare took power, he was viewed by the citizens as a great improvement. Cesare was appointed commander of the papal armies with a number of Italian mercenaries, supported by 300 cavalry and 4,000 Swiss infantry sent by the King of France. Alexander sent him to capture Forlì, ruled by Caterina Sforza. Despite being deprived of his French troops after the conquest of those two cities, Borgia returned to Rome to celebrate a triumph and to receive the title of Papal Gonfalonier from his father. In 1500 the creation of twelve new cardinals granted Alexander enough money for Cesare to hire the condottieri, Vitellozzo Vitelli, Gian Paolo Baglioni and Paolo Orsini, Oliverotto Euffreducci, who resumed his campaign in Romagna.
Giovanni Sforza, first husband of Cesare's sister Lucrezia, was soon ousted from Pesaro. In May 1501 the latter was created duke of Romagna. Hired by Florence, Cesare subsequently added the lordship of Piombino to his new lands. While his condottieri took over the siege of Piombino, Cesare commanded the French troops in the sieges of Naples and Capua, defended by Prospero and Fabrizio Colonna
Guido Cagnacci was an Italian painter from Santarcangelo di Romagna. Associated most with the Baroque period, his mature works are characterized by their use of chiaroscuro and their sensual subjects, he was influenced by the masters of the Bolognese School. Guido Cagnacci was born on 19 January 1601 in the small city of Santarcangelo di Romagna to Matteo Cagnacci, a tanner and furrier, Livia Serra, his mother came from the province of Cesena. Some documents suggest that the Cagnacci came from Castel Durante, but it is possible that they hailed from Rimini, where Matteo moved in 1618. Not much is known about Guido's early life or training as a painter, though he is characterized as an autodidact. According to Giovan Battista Costa, Cagnacci "had been given such marvelous talent from nature to become a painter that he began to practice this noble art all by himself and one could say without master." It was due to this precocious talent that Matteo Cagnacci decided to send his son away his birthplace for more formal training.
From 1617 to 1621, Matteo supported his son's education in Bologna, where he stayed with the nobleman Girolamo Leoni. He ostensibly paid for two trips to Rome, where he lodged with Guercino. Although the identity of his master during this early period remains uncertain, Ludovico Carracci and Guido Reni are popularly cited as the young artist's Bolognese teachers. Cagnacci worked in Rimini from 1627 to 1642. After that, he moved to work in Forlì, where he would have been able to observe the paintings of Melozzo. Prior to living in Forlì he had been in Rome, where he had come in contact with Guercino, Guido Reni and Simon Vouet, he may have had an apprenticeship with the elderly Ludovico Carracci in Bologna. His initial output includes many devotional subjects, but moving to Venice under the name of Guido or Guidobaldo Canlassi da Bologna, he renewed a friendship with Nicolas Regnier, dedicated himself to private salon paintings. These depicted sensuous naked women from thigh upwards, including Lucretia and Mary Magdalene.
This allies him to a strand of courtly painting, epitomized in Florence by Francesco Furini, Simone Pignoni and others. In 1649, he moved to Venice, where he took pupils, established a workshop, had considerable success. Although harshly criticized by the Venetian painters Pietro Liberi and Marco Boschini, his work found favor with collectors and gained great popularity through reproductive prints. In 1658, he traveled to Vienna, where he remained under patronage of the Emperor Leopold I, his life was tempestuous, as can be characterized by the 1628 episode of a failed elopement with an aristocratic widow. Some contemporaries describe him as eccentric, "unreliable and of doubtful morality", he is said to have enjoyed the company of female models dressed as men. He died in Vienna in 1663. Art historian Pier Giorgio Pasini says Cagnacci's art "was appreciated, as is demonstrated by contemporary eulogies and by the summons to Vienna to be court painter to Emperor Leopold I", his work remained popular in the 18th century, but subsequently fell into obscurity until reassessed by modern critics.
The artist's rediscovery began in 1959 with the Seicento Bolognese exhibition. Art historian Luisa Vertova says the inconsistent quality of Cagnacci's work is bewildering: "his compositions amount to little more than empirical juxtapositions in uncertain spaces, his backdrops... are rickety cardboard stage-flats", "puffy ears and uncouth hands are attached to torsos modelled with great sensibility to skin-surface, but his inventive capacity is rudimentary. In moments of inspiration this uncultivated painter succeeds in creating forceful images which are hard to forget." Gloria Fossi says his painting is "warm with the heightened tones of grazing light, rich in the play of shadows and colors." Saint Sisto pope, Museo di Saludecio e del Beato Amato, Rimini - Italy Procession of the Holy Sacrament Museo di Saludecio e del Beato Amato, Rimini - Italy Christ with Saints Joseph and Eligius Madonna with saints Andre Corsini Teresa and Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi Frescoes in Cappella della Madonna del Fuoco Allegory of spheral Astrology Glory of Saints Valerian and Mercurial Leopold I portrait Calling of Saint Matthew Allegorical Naked Figure The Death of Cleopatra Death of Cleopatra Death of Lucretia The Repentant Magdalene Selected works Media related to Guido Cagnacci at Wikimedia Commons
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Schwarzenbek is a town in the district of Lauenburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated 10 km northeast of Geesthacht, 35 km east of Hamburg. Schwarzenbeks' coat of arms shows a black wolf on a yellow field, beneath the wolf, the water symbolizes the river Schwarze Beke; the creek is eponymous for the city in the north of Germany. The "Schwarze Beke" springs southeast of Schwarzenbek at Gut Melusinenthal, goes through the Rülauer forest, a fruit plantation area, some grassland before the creek ends up in a pipe following the train tracks and anastomoses with the "Schwarze Au" which empties out in Aumühle in the "Bille" which anastomoses with a German main river the "Elbe"; the first known reference to a population around the "Schwarze Beke" was in the year 1291. The municipal law followed in 1953 given by the government of the state Schleswig-Holstein; the location made Schwarzenbek attractive for many people after that not only that but the transport connection the Hamburg with the "Deutsche Bahn" the most successful public transportation company in Germany.
Connection to Lübeck and Hamburg, main cities in the north of Germany, have been there early in Schwarzenbek's history. Schwarzenbek fraternized with cities all over Europe what gave it its name as "Europastadt". Aubenas in France, Sierre in Switzerland and Zelzate in Belgium fraternized with Schwarzenbek in the year of 1955. Two more cities in Europe followed in 1960 including Cesenatico in Italy and Delfzijl in the Netherlands. To show the inhabitants their fraternization to those cities the city named a district of Schwarzenbek Verbrüderungsring and named streets in that quarter after those cities in Europe. Schwarzenbek was the second city in Germany, awarded the Europapreis. Schwarzenbek's size grew tremendously the past years and didn't stop growing since. Schwarzenbek is the third largest city in district of Lauenburg one of the parishes in the state "Schleswig-Holstein" after Geesthacht and Mölln. Most of the inhabitants are commuter. Historical inhabitants are: Cesenatico, Italy Delfzijl, Netherlands Sierre, Swiss Zelzate, Belgium Aubenas, France Francis Erdmann, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, died in Schwarzenbek Official site Information about Schwarzenbek
Province of Forlì-Cesena
The province of Forlì-Cesena is a province in the Emilia–Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Forlì; the province has a population of 394,273 as of 2016 over an area of 2,378.4 square kilometres. It contains the provincial president is Davide Drei. Although located close to the independent Republic of San Marino, Forlì-Cesena does not share a land border with the sovereign state. Forlì was founded by the Roman consul Marcus Livius Salinator, it was connected to the Via Aemilia in 188 BCE. By the 12th century CE, it had become military garrison; the Holy See initiated a small attempt to rule Forlì in 1278, but the family of Ordelaffi led the city from 1315 until 1480. The city was governed by Girolamo Riario and his wife, Caterina Sforza. Spanish Pope Alexander VI ordered his son Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, to Forlì and other communes in the region; until the formation of the Kingdom of Italy, it remained under the rule of the Holy See. Cesena was first owned by the Romans until the fall of Rome, when it was taken by the Byzantine Empire.
Following this, it was owned by archbishops of Ravenna. During the period of issues between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the Holy See took over Cesena from the Ordelaffis. Antipope Clement VII's troops completely destroyed Cesena in 1377, the Pope gave the city to the House of Malatesta. After the House of Malatesta controlled the city from 1378 to 1465, the Holy See regained control of Cesena. Leonardo da Vinci designed the port Cesenatico, it remained under papal rule. In 1921, there was a rapid advance of the Fascist movement in the region triggered by issues connected with agrarian reform. Buildings belonging to the republicans and socialists were seized or burnt down by Italo Balbo, on July 29, he and his men moved throughout the provinces of Ravenna and Forlì, burning every socialist organisation headquarters in a night of terror, called the "column of fire"; this was a pivotal moment in the advance of Fascism in northern Italy. The province of Forlì-Cesena is one of nine provinces in the region of Emilia-Romagna in the northeast of Italy.
Along with that of Rimini, it is the most southerly of the provinces in the region and it abuts onto the Adriatic Sea for a short distance. The Province of Ravenna lies to the north and the Province of Mantua in Lombardy to the northwest. To the west lies the Metropolitan City of Florence in the region of Tuscany, the Province of Arezzo in Tuscany, lies to the south, the Province of Rimini lies to the southeast; the provincial capital is the city of Forlì, situated on the bank of the Montone river about 70 km southeast of Bologna. Beijing-Dongcheng District, since 2012 Official website Tourism portal for Provincia di Forlì-Cesena
Romagnol is a group of related dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the historical region of Romagna, today in the south-eastern part of Emilia-Romagna. The name itself is derived from the Lombard name for the region Romania, it is spoken outside the region in the neighboring province of Pesaro-Urbino and in the independent country of San Marino. It is classified as a threatened language, due to older generations having “neglected to pass on the dialect as a native tongue to the next generation”. While contemporaneous with modern Standard Italian, it is technically a member of the Gallo-Italic branch and more comparable to the “northern group” of Italian dialects; this includes the dialects Emilian, Ligurian and Piedmontese. It is sometimes considered a subdialect of a larger Emilian-Romagnol language, which encompasses a broad continuum of dialects spanning the region of Emilia-Romagna. West of Romagna, the Emilian language is spoken; the border with Emilian-speaking areas is the Sillaro river, which runs 25 km east from Bologna to the west of.
Emilian is spoken, to the east, in Imola, the language is Romagnol. In Emilia-Romagna, Emilian is spoken in all the rest of the region moving from the Sillaro river to the west, up to Piacenza; the Reno River is the dialect of Ferrara. Romagnol is spoken in some villages northwards of the Reno River, such as Argenta, Emilia–Romagna and Filo, where people of Romagnol origin live alongside people of Ferrarese origin. Ferrara goes into Emilian language territory. Outside Emilia-Romagna, Romagnol is spoken in the Republic of San Marino, in the Marecchia Valley, in the Conca Valley and in all of the Pesaro e Urbino province. Romagnol's first acknowledgement outside regional literature was in Dante Alighieri’s treatise De vulgari eloquentia, wherein Dante compares “the language of Romagna” to his native Tuscan dialect. In 1629, the author Adriano Banchieri wrote the treatise Discorso della lingua Bolognese, which countered Dante’s claim that the Tuscan dialect was better, arguing his belief that Bolognese was superior in “naturalness, softness and usefulness.”
Romagnol received more recognition. There is a large repertoire of folklore legends and fables in Romagnol, due to its role in local geopolitical history. Romagna’s geographic diversity was home to a variety of lifestyles and trade backgrounds, such as “the mountaineers of the Alps, the fisherman of the Adriatic, the farmers of the plains, the city folk,” which in turn, allowed for a large range of topics and themes present in the literature. Darker themes, such as poverty and pessimism, are known to be common subjects of Romagnol poetry and prose; the first appearance of a distinct Romagnol literary work is "Sonetto romagnolo" by Bernardino Catti, from Ravenna, printed 1502. It is written in a mixture of Romagnol; the first Romagnol poem dates back to the end of 16th century: E Pvlon matt. Cantlena aroica, a mock-heroic poem based on Orlando Furioso and written by an anonymous author from San Vittore di Cesena; the original poem comprised twelve cantos. The first Romagnol poet to win fame was the cleric Pietro Santoni.
He was the teacher of one of the most famous Italian poets of his time. In 1840 the first Romagnol-Italian Dictionary was published by Antonio Morri, printed in Faenza; the 20th century saw a flourishing of Romagnol literature. Theatrical plays and books of a high quality were produced; some of the best known Romagnol authors are: Raffaello Baldini, who won in 1988 the "Premio Viareggio" and in 1995 the "Premio Bagutta," known for long pessimistic poems and prose Tonino Guerra, wrote poems during his exile to WWII-era Germany, focusing on people of suffering and poverty Olindo Guerrini, with "Sonetti romagnoli" Aldo Spallicci, an antifascist exiled from Romagna. He wrote poems such as "Rumâgna" that were descriptive of Romagna Unlike Standard Italian, not all nouns end in a theme vowel. Masculine nouns lack theme vowels and feminine nouns terminate in "a." To form plurals, masculine nouns and adjectives undergo lexically-specified ablaut. In the case of feminine nouns and adjectives, "a" becomes "i" or deletes if after a consonant cluster or double consonant.
Though both languages derive their lexicon from Vulgar Latin, some words differ in gender. Italian and Romagnol share much of the same features. Both languages are SVO in simple sentences. Verbs are conjugated according to tense and person. Romagnol has 4 conjugations compared to Italian's 3: the 1st, êr. One marked difference in syntax between Romagnol and Italian is that pronouns are obligatory, some verbs in Romagnol use a reflexive construction where Italian uses an intransitive construction. Verbs that are impersonal in Romagnol use "avèr," in contrast with Italian which uses "essere." Though the subject is null, an expletive pronoun inserts itself in the specifier position, much like English's "it". Italian: è piovuto, It rained Romagnol: l'à piuvù, It rainedAdditionally, whereas Standard Italian and other Northern dialects omit the definite article before “singular names and names of relatives,” Romagnol
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is Roberto Genuin; the Order arose in 1525 when Matteo da Bascio, an Observant Franciscan friar native to the Italian region of Marche, said he had been inspired by God with the idea that the manner of life led by the friars of his day was not the one which their founder, St. Francis of Assisi, had envisaged, he sought to return to the primitive way of life of solitude and penance, as practiced by the founder of their Order. His religious superiors tried to suppress these innovations, Friar Matteo and his first companions were forced into hiding from Church authorities, who sought to arrest them for having abandoned their religious duties, they were given refuge by the Camaldolese monks, in gratitude for which they adopted the hood worn by that Order—which was the mark of a hermit in that region of Italy—and the practice of wearing a beard.
The popular name of their Order originates from this feature of their religious habit. In 1528, Friar Matteo obtained the approval of Pope Clement VII and was given permission to live as a hermit and to go about everywhere preaching to the poor; these permissions were not only for himself, but for all such as might join him in the attempt to restore the most literal observance possible of the Rule of St. Francis. Matteo and the original band were soon joined by others. Matteo and his companions were formed into a separate province, called the Hermit Friars Minor, as a branch of the Conventual Franciscans, but with a Vicar Provincial of their own, subject to the jurisdiction of the Minister General of the Conventuals; the Observants, the other branch of the Franciscan Order at that time, continued to oppose the movement. In 1529, they had four houses and held their first General Chapter, at which their particular rules were drawn up; the eremitical idea was abandoned, but the life was to be one of extreme austerity and poverty—in all things as near an approach to St Francis' ideals as was practicable.
Neither the monasteries nor the Province should possess anything, nor were any loopholes left for evading this law. No large provision against temporal wants should be made, the supplies in the house should never exceed what was necessary for a few days. Everything was to be obtained by begging, the friars were not allowed to touch money; the communities were to be small, eight being fixed as twelve as the limit. In furniture and clothing extreme simplicity was enjoined and the friars were discalced, required to go bare-footed—without sandals. Like the Observants, the Capuchins wore a brown habit, their form, was to be of the most simple form, i.e. only of a tunic, with the distinctive large, pointed hood reaching to the waist attached to it, girdled by the traditional woolen cord with three knots. By visual analogy, the Capuchin monkey and the cappuccino style of coffee are both named after the shade of brown used for their habit. Besides the canonical choral celebration of the Divine Office, a portion of, recited at midnight, there were two hours of private prayer daily.
The fasts and disciplines were frequent. The great external work was preaching and spiritual ministrations among the poor. In theology the Capuchins abandoned the Franciscan School of Scotus, returned to the earlier school of St. Bonaventure; the movement at the outset of its history underwent a series of severe blows. Two of the founders left it: Matteo Serafini of Bascio returning to the Observants, while his first companion, on being replaced in the office of Vicar Provincial, became so insubordinate that he had to be expelled from the Order. More scandalously, the third Vicar General, Bernardino Ochino, left the Catholic faith in 1543 after fleeing to Switzerland, where he was welcomed by John Calvin, became a Calvinist pastor in Zürich and married. Years claims that he had written in favor of polygamy and Unitarianism caused him to be exiled from that city and he fled again, first to Poland and to Moravia, where he died; as a result, the whole province came under the suspicion of heretical tendencies and the Pope resolved to suppress it.
He was dissuaded with difficulty. Despite earlier setbacks, the authorities were satisfied as to the soundness of the general body of Capuchin friars and the permission to preach was restored; the movement at once began to multiply and by the end of the 16th century the Capuchins had spread all over the Catholic parts of Europe, so that in 1619 they were freed from their dependence on the Conventual Franciscans and became an independent Order. They are said to have had at that time 1500 houses divided into fifty provinces, they were one of the chief tools in the Catholic Counter-reformation, the aim of the order being to work among the poor, impressing the minds of the common people by the poverty and austerity of their life, sometimes with sensationalist preaching, such as their use of the possessed Marthe Brossier to arouse Paris against the Huguenots. The activities of the Capuchins were not confined to Europe. From an early date they undertook missions to non-Catholics in America and Africa, a College was founded in Rome for the purpose of preparing their members for foreign missions.
Due to this strong missionary thrust, a large number of Capuchins have suffered martyrdom over the centuries. Activity in Europe and elsewhere continued until the close of the 18th century, when the number of Capuchin friars was estimated at 31,000; the crypt i