The Cessna 310 is an American four-to-six-seat, low-wing, twin-engine monoplane produced by Cessna between 1954 and 1980. It was the first twin-engine aircraft that Cessna put into production after World War II; the 310 first flew on January 3, 1953, with deliveries starting in late 1954. The sleek modern lines of the new twin were backed up by innovative features such as engine exhaust thrust augmenter tubes and the storage of all fuel in tip tanks in early models. In 1964, the engine exhaust was changed to flow under the wing instead of the augmenter tubes, which were considered to be noisy. Typical of Cessna model naming conventions, a letter was added after the model number to identify changes to the original design over the years; the first significant upgrade to the 310 series was the 310C in 1959, which introduced more powerful 260 hp Continental IO-470-D engines. In 1960 the 310D featured swept-back vertical tail surfaces. An extra cabin window was added with the 310F; the turbocharged 320 Skyknight was developed from the 310F.
Equipped with TSIO-470-B engines and featuring an extra cabin window on each side, it was in production between 1961 and 1969, when it was replaced by the similar Turbo 310. The 310G was certified in 1961 and introduced the canted wingtip fuel tanks found on the majority of the Cessna twin-engine product line, marketed as "stabila-tip" tanks by Cessna, because they were meant to aid stability in flight. A single side window replaced the rear two windows on the 310K, with optional three-blade propellers being introduced as well. Subsequent developments included the 310Q and turbocharged T310Q with a redesigned rear cabin featuring a skylight window, the final 310R and T310R, identifiable by a lengthened nose containing a baggage compartment. Production ended in 1980. Over the years there were several modifications to the 310 to improve performance. Noted aircraft engineer Jack Riley produced two variants, The Riley Rocket 310 and the Riley Turbostream 310. Riley replaced the standard Continental 310 hp engines with 350 hp Lycoming TIO-540 engines.
These turbocharged intercooled engines were installed with three-blade Hartzell propellers in a counter-rotating configuration to further increase performance and single-engine safety. At 5,400 lb. gross weight the aircraft had a weight to power ratio of 7.71 lb. per horsepower. This resulted in a cruising speed of 260 knots at 18,000 feet and a 3,000 foot-per-minute rate of climb; the Cessna 310 was a common charter aircraft for the many air taxi firms that sprang up in the general aviation boom that followed World War II. The advantages of the Cessna 310 over its contemporaries, such as the Piper PA-23, were its speed, operating costs and aftermarket modifications, such as the Robertson STOL kits that made it popular worldwide for its bush flying characteristics, it could use short runways, while at the same time carrying a large useful load of 2,000 lb. or more, at speeds that were high for a twin engine piston aircraft. In 1957, the United States Air Force selected the Cessna 310 for service as a light utility aircraft for transport and administrative support.
The USAF purchased 160 unmodified 310A aircraft with the designation L-27A and unofficially nicknamed Blue Canoe changed to U-3A in 1962. An additional 36 upgraded 310 designated L-27B were delivered in 1960–61. A USAF study after one year of operational service found the U-3A had direct operating costs of less than $12 an hour; the U-3 saw active service in a support role when the USAF deployed aircraft to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, where they were used on courier flights between air bases. Some USAF aircraft were transferred to the U. S. Army and U. S. Navy and the type continued in United States military service into the mid-1970s. 310 Initial production variant, powered by two 240 hp Continental O-470-B or O-470-M engines with carburetors, with maximum takeoff weight of 4,600 pounds. 310A Military version of the 310 for the United States Air Force, designated L-27A and U-3A. 310B Model produced in 1958, with new instrument panel, O-470-M engines and maximum takeoff weight of 4,700 pounds.
310C Model produced in 1959, with 260 hp Continental IO-470-D fuel-injected engines and maximum takeoff weight increased to 4,830 pounds. Unit cost $59,950 in 1959 310D First model with other minor detail changes. 310E Military version of the 310F, designated the L-27B and U-3B. 310F Model produced in 1961, with extra cabin window each side, pointed nose and other minor changes. 310G First model with canted slimline tip tanks and optional six-seat cabin, with maximum takeoff weight increased to 4,990 pounds and detail changes, 156 built in 1962. 310H Model produced in 1963 with maximum takeoff weight increased to 5,100 pounds and enlarged cabin interior. E310H Version of 310H with the 4,990-pound maximum takeoff weight of the 310G. 310I First model with baggage compartments in rear of engine nacelles, Continental IO-470-U engines and minor detail changes. 31
Hückelhoven-Baal station is in the Hückelhoven district of Baal in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia on the Aachen–Mönchengladbach railway. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 5 station. With its construction as an interchange station on two levels, it became important as a hub for passenger services, but in recent years it has lost this significance due to the closure of the adjacent section of the Jülich–Dalheim railway. Meanwhile, the passenger station has been reclassified as a halt and it was renamed as Hückelhoven-Baal in 2002. Baal freight yard still exists. In 1852, was the Aachen–Mönchengladbach line was opened by the former Aachen-Düsseldorf-Ruhrort Railway Company and Baal station was at the 41.6 kilometre point, serving passengers and freight. This station was equipped with an entrance building, a ramp for handling freight, a small turntable and a small transfer table; the station is still commemorated at its original location by the street named Am Alten Bahnhof and the retaining wall of its old foundations.
Today the Baal freight yard is still located at the site of the old station, along with the dispatcher’s signal box and the junction to the connecting curve to Ratheim, which have not been used since 2007. In 1911, the passenger station was relocated to the west for the opening of the Julich–Dalheim railway. In order to serve the two railways, a “tower station” was built; the line to Dalheim was connected directly by a link at Baal freight yard/Baal West to the Aachen–Mönchengladbach line, important for freight from the Sophia-Jacoba colliery. Passenger services between Jülich and Baal were thinned out in the 1960s so that only a few trains remained in the timetable among the many bus services. In addition car-ownership was growing; the consequent decline in ridership prompted Deutsche Bundesbahn to close passenger services between Jülich and Baal on 29 September 1968. The dismantling of the tracks between Baal and Linnich began in 1974; the still open line between Baal and Dalheim was relatively well used by the population because of the so-called “round service” on the Mönchengladbach–Rheydt–Rheindahlen–Wegberg–Dalheim–Wassenberg–Ratheim–Hückelhoven–Baal –Erkelenz–Rheydt–Mönchengladbach route.
However, in the 1970s, the timetable was thinned to a few trains a day on the northern section from Baal to Dalheim. The service was abolished and replaced by buses operated by Deutsche Bundesbahn on a route running parallel to the old rail service and the last passenger train ran with a wreath provided by the town of Baal towards Dalheim and Mönchengladbach on 27 September 1980. Located at the site of the former tower station there is now only a simple station; the entry signal to the freight yard from the direction of Aachen is located a few metres behind the platform. The station, located in the zone of the Aachener Verkehrsverbund, is used by about 2,000 passengers per day; because Baal had become part of the municipality of Hückelhoven in 1972, it renamed Hückelhoven-Baal station in 2002. The station is to be rebuilt by the town. On the site of the former low-level station there is a bus top with two bays, which still has a sign with the name of Baal Bahnhof, a parking area; the station is served by the following services: Until 2007, the freight yard was an important traffic hub despite the closure of the Sophia-Jacoba colliery on 27 March 1997.
It continued to be used by Deutsche Bahn coal trains on Mondays and Wednesdays between Baal freight yard and the Ratheim mine train station because SJ-Brikett- und Extracitfabrik GmbH continued to produce briquettes from anthracite at the old colliery site in Hückelhoven. Following the closure of the briquette factory in September 2007, the line between Baal and Ratheim was closed on 1 October 2007. Since the freight yard has only been used to allow overtaking. Josef Lennartz. Schienenwege im Rheinischen Grenzland. 6, Museumsschriften des Kreises Heinsberg. Frank Körfer. "Die Baaler Bahnhöfe". 1100 Jahre Baal. Jülich. Pp. 112–114
Moothedath Panjan Ramachandran is an Indian businessman from Thrissur - Kerala in India. He is the founder and Managing Director of Jyothy Laboratories. In 1971, he started working as an accountant while getting a post graduation in financial management in Mumbai. Since his childhood, Ramachandran had washed his own clothes but was dissatisfied with fabric whiteners results. One day he got a chemical industry journal that talked about “purple-colored dyes helping textile makers get the most brilliant shades of white.” The phrase ignited an idea. Ramachandran experimented in his kitchen for a year–boiling and testing–until he was pleased with the results. In 1983, a brother lent him 5,000 rupees to set up a makeshift factory on family land in Kerala, he named his firm Jyothy after his first daughter. In the first year, sales totaled 40,000 rupees and profits were $23