The Cessna Airmaster, is a family of single-engined aircraft manufactured by the Cessna Aircraft Company. The Airmaster played an important role in the revitalization of Cessna in the 1930s after the crash of the aviation industry during the Great Depression. In the mid-1930s, nearing the end of the Great Depression, the American economy began to strengthen. Dwane Wallace decided to assist his uncle and cousin, Eldon Cessna, in building more modern airplanes for Cessna Aircraft; the design of the first Airmaster is credited to Wallace, the first flight of the C-34 model was in June 1935. Not long after introduction of the C-34, Clyde Cessna retired from the aircraft industry, leaving the company to his nephew; the original Airmaster, the C-34, evolved into more advanced versions of the Airmaster. The C-37 had improved landing gear and electric flaps; the C-38 had curved main gear legs and a landing flap under the fuselage. Changes common to both the C-37 and C-38 included wider fuselages and landing gear along with rubber engine mounts to hold the 145 hp Warner Super Scarab engine.
The final revisions of the C-34 were the C-165, of which 80 were built. On these models, the belly flaps added on the C-38 were removed and the overall length of the fuselage was increased; the only difference between the C-145 and C-165 was the engine horsepower, with the latter having an upgraded 165 hp Warner engine. It was with the beginning of World War II; the welded tubular fuselage, fabric-covered body, extensive woodwork, wooden wings and radial engines, all characteristic of 1930s-era aircraft technology, became too expensive and slow to produce. The old-style aircraft was replaced with aircraft constructed from aluminium with strut braced wings first seen in the Cessna 120; the design of the C-34 incorporates characteristics that were borrowed from previous models of Cessna Aircraft. These similarities include the high mounted cantilever wing and the narrow design of the cabin windows; the wings and tail surfaces were composed of wood while the fuselage was structured with steel tubing coupled with wooden stringers and formers.
Both C-145 and C-165 models were offered with floats. C-34 Four-seat light cabin aircraft, powered by a 145-hp Warner Super Scarab radial piston engine. C-37 the cabin was widened by 12.7 cm. It was fitted with electrically operated flaps. C-38 Fitted with wide landing gear with curved legs, plus a taller vertical tail and a landing flap under the fuselage. C-39 Original designation of the Cessna C-145. C-145 Powered by a 145-hp Warner Super Scarab radial piston engine. C-165 Powered by a 165-hp Warner Super Scarab radial piston engine. C-165D Powered by a 175-hp Warner Super Scarab radial piston engine. UC-77B Two Cessna C-34s were impressed into service with the USAAF during world War II. UC-77C One Cessna C-37 was impressed into service with the USAAF in 1942. UC-94 Three Cessna C-165s were impressed into service with the USAAF in 1942. AustraliaRoyal Australian Air Force FinlandFinnish Air Force United StatesUnited States Army Air Forces As of December 31, 2006 there are 69 aircraft in the FAA database with the listed Models being C-165, C-145, C-34, C-37, C-38.
Data from American Aircraft SpecificationsGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 3 passengers Length: 24 ft 10 in Wingspan: 33 ft 10 in Height: 7 ft 3 in Wing area: 180 sq ft Empty weight: 1,300 lb Gross weight: 2,220 lb Fuel capacity: 35 US gal Powerplant: 1 × Warner Super Scarab 7-cylinder radial engine, 145 hp Performance Maximum speed: 162 mph at sea level Cruise speed: 143 mph Stall speed: 47 mph Range: 550 mi Service ceiling: 18,900 ft Rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min Related lists List of aircraft of World War II Notes Bibliography Article on the Airmaster "Cessna's Past'Masters", May 1974 American Aircraft Modeler
The Cessna 120, 140, 140A, are single-engine, two-seat, conventional landing gear, light general aviation aircraft that were first produced in 1946 following the end of World War II. Production ended in 1951, was succeeded in 1959 by the Cessna 150, a similar two-seat trainer which introduced tricycle gear. Combined production of the 120, 140, 140A was 7,664 units in five years; the Cessna 140 was equipped with a Continental C-85-12 or C-85-12F horizontally opposed, air-cooled, four-cylinder piston engine of 85 hp. The Continental C-90-12F or C-90-14F of 90 hp was optional, as was the 108 hp Lycoming O-235-C1 engine, an aftermarket installation authorized in the type certificate; this model had fabric wings with metal control surfaces. The larger Cessna 170 was a four-seat 140 with a more powerful engine; the Cessna 120 was an economy version of the 140 produced at the same time. It lacked wing flaps; the rear-cabin "D" side windows and electrical system were optional. A 120 outfitted with every factory option would be nearly equivalent to a 140, but the International Cessna 120/140 Association believes that no 120s were built this way.
Despite this, many decades' worth of owner-added options have rendered many 120s indistinguishable from a 140 aside from the absence of wing flaps. The 120 was dropped from production upon introduction of the 140A in 1949. In 1949, Cessna introduced the 140A, a new variant with aluminum-covered wings and single wing struts instead of the fabric wing covering, dual "V" struts, jury struts fitted on earlier models. Standard engines were the Continental C-90-12F or C-90-14F of 90 hp, with the 85 hp Continental C-85-12, C-85-12F, or C-85-14F engines optional; the spring-steel gear had been swept 3 in forward on 120 and 140 models in late 1947 so wheel extenders were no longer necessary to counter nose-over tendencies during heavy application of brakes. Despite these improvements, sales of the 140 lineup faltered, the 140A comprised only seven percent of overall 120/140 production. Common modifications to the Cessna 120 and 140 include: "Metalized" wings, where the fabric is replaced with light-gauge sheet aluminum, eliminating the need to periodically replace the wing fabric.
The installation of landing gear extenders to reduce the tendency of the aircraft to nose over on application of heavy braking. These were factory-optional equipment. Installation of rear-cabin "D" side windows on 120s that were not so equipped. Installation of electrical systems on 120s that were not so equipped, allowing owners to install an electric starter, more sophisticated avionics and/or lights for night flying. Installation of a more powerful engine. A popular conversion today is to replace the original C-85 or C-90 with a 100 hp Continental O-200. A kit is available to install a Lycoming O-320 but this conversion is less prevalent due to a 100 lb weight penalty and a sharp increase in fuel consumption. Data from The Complete Guide to the Single-Engine Cessnas, AOPA Pilot, Aircraft Specification No. A-768. General characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 21 ft 6 in Wingspan: 33 ft 4 in Height: 6 ft 3 in Wing area: 159.3 sq ft Empty weight: 890 lb Gross weight: 1,450 lb Fuel capacity: 25 US gallons, of which 21 US gallons are useable Powerplant: 1 × Continental C-85 four cylinder, four stroke, horizontally opposed aircraft engine, 85 hp Propellers: 2-bladed SensenichPerformance Maximum speed: 125 mph Cruise speed: 105 mph Stall speed: 45 mph flaps down Never exceed speed: 140 mph Range: 450 mi Service ceiling: 15,500 ft Rate of climb: 680 ft/min Wing loading: 9.1 lb/sq ft Related development Cessna 150 Cessna 170Aircraft of comparable role and era Aeronca Chief ERCO Ercoupe Fleet Canuck Luscombe 8 Taylorcraft B Piper Vagabond AVweb's Cessna 120/140 Review, an extensive article on the history and features of the type
Cessna 182 Skylane
The Cessna 182 Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engined light airplane, built by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. It has the option of adding two child seats, installed in the baggage area. Introduced in 1956, the 182 has been produced in a number of variants, including a version with retractable landing gear, is the second most popular Cessna model, after the 172; the Cessna 182 was introduced in 1956 as a tricycle gear variant of the 180. In 1957, the 182A variant was introduced along with the name Skylane; as production continued models were improved with features such as a wider fuselage, swept tailfin with rear "omni-vision" window, enlarged baggage compartment, higher gross weights, landing gear changes, etc. The "restart" aircraft built after 1996 were different in many other details including a different engine, new seating design, etc. By mid-2013 Cessna planned to introduce the next model of the 182T, the JT-A, using the 227 hp SMA SR305-230 diesel engine running on Jet-A with a burn rate of 11 U.
S. gallons per hour and cruise at 155 kn. Cessna has no timeline for the JT-A and the diesel 172; the aspirated, avgas fueled 182 went out of production in 2012, but came back in 2015. Cessna 182s were built in Argentina by DINFIA, by Reims Aviation, France, as the F182; the Cessna 182 is an all-metal aircraft, although some parts – such as engine cowling nosebowl and wingtips – are made of fiberglass or thermoplastic material. Its wing has the same planform as the larger 205/206 series; the retractable gear R182 and TR182 were offered from 1978 to 1986, without and with engine turbocharging respectively. The model designation nomenclature differs from some other Cessna models with optional retractable gear. For instance the retractable version of the Cessna 172 was designated as the 172RG, whereas the retractable gear version of the Cessna 182 is the R182. Cessna gave the R182 the marketing name of "Skylane RG"; the R182 and TR182 offer 10-15% improvement in climb and cruise speeds over their fixed gear counterparts or, alternatively, 10-15% better fuel economy at the same speeds at the expense of increased maintenance costs and decreased gear robustness.
The 1978 R182 has a sea level climb rate of 1140 fpm and cruising speed at 7,500 feet of 156 KTAS at standard temperature. The landing gear retraction system in the Skylane RG uses hydraulic actuators powered by an electrically driven pump; the system includes a gear position warning that emits an intermittent tone through the cabin speaker when the gear is in the retracted position and either the throttle is reduced below 12" MAP or the flaps are extended beyond 20 degrees. In the event of a hydraulic pump failure, the landing gear may be lowered using a hand pump to pressurize the hydraulic system; the system does not, allow the landing gear to be manually retracted. 182 Initial production version with fixed landing gear, four-seat light aircraft, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,550 lb and certified on 2 March 1956. 182A Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 7 December 1956.
182B Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 22 August 1958. 182C Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 8 July 1959. 182D Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 14 June 1960. 182E Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 27 June 1961. 182F Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 1 August 1962. 182G Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 July 1963.
182H Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 17 September 1964. 182J Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 20 October 1965. 182K Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 3 August 1966. 182L Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 28 July 1967. 182M Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 September 1968. There was an experimental version of this model with a full cantilever wing. 182N Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R or O-470-S piston engine, gross weight 2,950 l
The Cessna Model EC-2 was a 1930s American two-seat tourer built by the Cessna Aircraft Company. Cessna Aircraft was suffering in the depression and downturn in the economy following the Wall Street crash. Eldon Cessna, the son of Clyde Cessna designed a low-cost, cheap-to-operate aircraft to meet the new conditions; the Model EC-2 was powered by an Aeronca 30 hp E-107A engine. It did not go into production and the lone prototype crashed years when a student stalled it with an instructor; as a first step in the project, a single-seat version the Model EC-1 was developed as an ongoing evolution of the Cessna CG-2 Primary Glider, using small engines. The record keeping of Cessna is confused, as far as the question of more than one of the EC-2 being produced. Photographic evidence so far indicates only one was produced, N403W; the plane has picked up the nickname "the Baby Cessna." The color was red with a creme side stripe. Related development Cessna EC-1 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Orbis Publishing
A full authority digital engine control is a system consisting of a digital computer, called an "electronic engine controller" or "engine control unit", its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance. FADECs have been produced for both piston engines and jet engines; the goal of any engine control system is to allow the engine to perform at maximum efficiency for a given condition. Engine control systems consisted of simple mechanical linkages connected physically to the engine. By moving these levers the pilot or the flight engineer could control fuel flow, power output, many other engine parameters; the Kommandogerät mechanical/hydraulic engine control unit for Germany's BMW 801 piston aviation radial engine of World War II was just one notable example of this in its stages of development. This mechanical engine control was progressively replaced first by analog electronic engine control and digital engine control. Analog electronic control varies an electrical signal to communicate the desired engine settings.
The system was an evident improvement over mechanical control but had its drawbacks, including common electronic noise interference and reliability issues. Full authority analogue control was used in the 1960s and introduced as a component of the Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593 engine of the supersonic transport aircraft Concorde. However, the more critical inlet control was digital on the production aircraft. Digital electronic control followed. In 1968 Rolls-Royce and Elliott Automation, in conjunction with the National Gas Turbine Establishment, worked on a digital engine control system that completed several hundred hours of operation on a Rolls-Royce Olympus Mk 320. In the 1970s, NASA and Pratt and Whitney experimented with their first experimental FADEC, first flown on an F-111 fitted with a modified Pratt & Whitney TF30 left engine; the experiments led to Pratt & Whitney F100 and Pratt & Whitney PW2000 being the first military and civil engines fitted with FADEC, the Pratt & Whitney PW4000 as the first commercial "dual FADEC" engine.
The first FADEC in service was the Rolls-Royce Pegasus engine developed for the Harrier II by Dowty and Smiths Industries Controls. True full authority digital engine controls have no form of manual override available, placing full authority over the operating parameters of the engine in the hands of the computer. If a total FADEC failure occurs, the engine fails. If the engine is controlled digitally and electronically but allows for manual override, it is considered an EEC or ECU. An EEC, though a component of a FADEC, is not by itself FADEC; when standing alone, the EEC makes all of the decisions. FADEC works by receiving multiple input variables of the current flight condition including air density, throttle lever position, engine temperatures, engine pressures, many other parameters; the inputs analyzed up to 70 times per second. Engine operating parameters such as fuel flow, stator vane position, air bleed valve position, others are computed from this data and applied as appropriate. FADEC controls engine starting and restarting.
The FADEC's basic purpose is to provide optimum engine efficiency for a given flight condition. FADEC not only provides for efficient engine operation, it allows the manufacturer to program engine limitations and receive engine health and maintenance reports. For example, to avoid exceeding a certain engine temperature, the FADEC can be programmed to automatically take the necessary measures without pilot intervention. With the operation of the engines so relying on automation, safety is a great concern. Redundancy is provided in more separate but identical digital channels; each channel may provide all engine functions without restriction. FADEC monitors a variety of data coming from the engine subsystems and related aircraft systems, providing for fault tolerant engine control. Engine control problems causing loss of thrust on up to three engines have been cited as causal in the crash of an Airbus A400M aircraft at Seville Spain on 9 May 2015. Airbus Chief Strategy Officer Marwan Lahoud confirmed on 29 May that incorrectly installed engine control software caused the fatal crash.
"There are no structural defects, but we have a serious quality problem in the final assembly." A typical civilian transport aircraft flight may illustrate the function of a FADEC. The flight crew first enters flight data such as wind conditions, runway length, or cruise altitude, into the flight management system; the FMS uses this data to calculate power settings for different phases of the flight. At takeoff, the flight crew advances the throttle to a predetermined setting, or opts for an auto-throttle takeoff if available; the FADECs now apply the calculated takeoff thrust setting by sending an electronic signal to the engines. This procedure can be repeated for any other phase of flight. In flight, small changes in operation are made to maintain efficiency. Maximum thrust is available for emergency situations if the throttle is advanced to full, but limitations can’t be exceeded. Better fuel efficiency Automatic engine protection against out-of-tolerance operations Safer as the multiple channel FADEC computer provides redundancy in case of failure Care-free engine handling, with guaranteed thrust settings Ability to use single engine type for wide thrust requirements by just reprogramming the FADECs Provides semi-automatic engine starting Better systems integration with engine and aircraft systems Can
The Cessna CR-3 was a follow on racing aircraft to the Cessna CR-2 that raced in the 1932 National Air Races. The CR-3 was ordered by air racer Johnny Livingston in response to the performance he saw when competing against the Cessna CR-2 in the 1932 National Air Races; the CR-3 was of shoulder-wing design. The CR-3 was a mid-wing radial engined taildragger racer with manual retractable landing gear and a tail skid; the propeller was from a clipped wing Monocoupe racer #14. The tail surface was designed to be neutral, without downforce in flight; the elevators experienced significant vibration in test flights without the wing root fairings installed. The CR-3 lasted 61 days, winning every event it competed in: Omaha Air Races at Omaha, June 17, 1933: First place. Minneapolis Air Races and Minneapolis, June 24, 1933: First place. American Air Races at Chicago, July 1, 1933: The CR-3 first raced against Cessna CR-2 at these races; the CR-3 won the Baby Ruth Trophy at a speed of 201.42 mph. It set a world speed record for aircraft with engines of under 500-cubic-inches′ capacity at 237.4 mph.
Aero Digest Trophy race, July 4, 1933: First place. En route to an airshow in August 1933, the CR-3 experienced a failure of both the tail skid and a landing gear weld that would not allow the gear to lock. Livingston bailed out over Columbus and the CR-3 was destroyed in its ensuing crash. Data from Sport AviationGeneral characteristics Length: 17 ft Wingspan: 18 ft 5 in Height: 4 ft 6 in Empty weight: 750 lb Powerplant: 1 × Warner Super Scarab Radial, 145 hp Performance Maximum speed: 222 kn.