United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
A prefect in Romania represents the Government in each of the country's 41 counties, as well as the Municipality of Bucharest. The office traces its origin to the ispravnici who held office in the Danubian Principalities before these united in 1859. Two laws of 1864 introduced the office of prefect into the new Romanian state, modelled on the French equivalent. Another law was enacted in 1872, while an 1883 law reduced the prefect's role to executing Government decisions; the office was strengthened by law in 1892. The 1925 law for administrative unity regarded the prefect as the representative of the central authorities, with power to control local officials. Named by royal decree following a recommendation of the Interior Minister, the prefect, aside from fulfilling general conditions for civil servants, had to be at least thirty years of age and to have completed a state-recognised university. Prefects in office for at least a year were exempt. A 1929 law was the first to distinguish between appointed and elected local authorities.
The prefect was no longer the head of the county administration, but the "representative of the government", charged with exercising "control and supervision over all local authorities". The central authorities named him; the law created a new institution, the county administrative commission, the prefect was its president. In 1936, a law was adopted enhancing the prefect's powers: he was now head of the county administration, supervising all cultural institutions and public services, he was chief of police and of the gendarmerie. In 1938, following the imposition of a royal dictatorship by King Carol II, the counties' administrative autonomy was abolished in favour of the larger ţinuturi; the prefect, named by royal decree, became a career bureaucrat, able to name mayors of rural and non-resident urban communes and to designate ex officio members of the town councils. Under the dictatorship, prefects were active-duty military officers with the rank of colonel or higher. From 1940 to 1944, during the Ion Antonescu dictatorship and based on a decree-law of September 1940, the prefect was restored as a public functionary, with the counties again having their own juridical personality and budget.
The prefect's role as representative of the Government was brought back. The new prefects were named on September 20, in forty-five counties, they belonged to the Iron Guard; this formed part of the movement's strategy of gaining control over government offices and using them for repressive purposes under the National Legionary State regime. In 1949, early in the Communist regime, the prefecture was transformed into a "provisional committee"; the following September, when the counties were abolished, the office of prefect was done away with. Following the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a 1990 law brought back the prefecture as an "organ of state administration with general competences", composed of one prefect, two deputy prefects, one secretary and seven members; the law specified. The office—one that represented the Government locally and headed devolved public services of ministries and other agencies—was enshrined in the constitution passed by referendum in December 1991, as well as by a law that year and in 2001.
Further legislative reform began with the 2004 Law on the Prefect. This de-politicised the office of prefect and deputy prefect, making them high public functionaries who occupy their positions through competitive selection, it changed the office of general secretary into that of deputy prefect, so that each prefect was assisted by two deputy prefects, a number cut to one in 2010. The main attributes of prefects are defined at Article 123 of the Constitution of Romania: The Government names one prefect in each county and in the Municipality of Bucharest; the prefect is the representative of the Government at the local level and heads the devolved public services of the ministries and of the other organs of the central public administration in the administrative-territorial units. The prefect's attributes are defined through organic law. Between prefects, on the one hand, local councils and town halls, as well as county councils and their presidents, on the other hand, no subordinate relations exist.
The prefect may challenge, before an administrative court, an act of the county council, or a local council or of a mayor, in the event he considers the act illegal. The act thus challenged is suspended de jure. Section 4 of this article was added in 2003; the prefect's role is further defined by a 2004 law, modified by decrees in 2004 and 2005, by a law in 2006. Among the roles of the office is to ensure that laws are followed; the principles that are supposed to guide the prefect are legality and objectivity.
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Cahul County (Romania)
Cahul County was a county of the Kingdom of Romania, in the historical region of Bessarabia, the successor of Cahul County. The county was located in the eastern part of Greater Romania, in the southwestern part of Bessarabia. Cahul County was bordered by the counties of Cetatea Albă and Tighina to the east, Lăpușna to the north, County and Covurlui to the west, Ismail to the south, its territory underwent changes in the north, where one third of Plasa Cantemir was for some time part of Fălciu County, in the south, where the communes of Brînza, Colibași, Văleni, Vulcănești were left in Cahul County, while the communes of Valea-Stejarului, Grecenii-Burlăcenilor, Bulgărica were part of Ismail County. Plasa Dragoş-Voda, headquartered at Albota was renamed Plasa Mihai Viteazu, its territory is part of the Republic of Moldova, corresponding to the districts Cahul, Leova and the Vulcănești district from Gagauzia. The county was administratively divided into five districts: Plasa Cantemir, headquartered at Leova Plasa Ioan Voevod, headquartered at Cahul Plasa Ștefan cel Mare, headquartered at Baimaclia Plasa Traian, headquartered at Taraclia Plasa Mihai Viteazul, headquartered at Albota At the end of the Crimean War, by the Treaty of Paris, the South Bessarabia was returned by the Russian Empire to Moldavia.
Southern Bessarabia was administratively organized into 3 counties: Cahul and Ismail, it was part of Moldavia and, after 1859, part of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia until 1878, when by the Treaty of Berlin all three counties were ceded back to the Russian Empire in exchange for Northern Dobruja. With the Union of Bessarabia with Romania in 1918, Cahul County returned to Romania, being formally re-established in 1925. After the 1938 Administrative and Constitutional Reform, this county merged with the counties of Brăila, Covurlui, Fălciu, Putna, Râmnicu Sărat, Tecuci and Tutova to form Ținutul Dunării; the area of the county was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 and became part of the Moldavian SSR. The area returned to Romanian administration following the Axis Powers' invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1941. A military administration was established and the region's Jewish population was either executed on the spot or deported to Transnistria, where further numbers were killed.
As the Soviet Union's offensive pushed the Axis powers back, the area again was under Soviet control. On September 12, 1944, Romania signed the Moscow Armistice with the Allies; the Armistice, as well as the subsequent peace treaty of 1947, confirmed the Soviet-Romanian border as it was on January 1, 1941. The area of the county, along with the rest of the Moldavian SSR, became part of the independent country of Moldova. According to the census data of 1930, the county's population was 196,693, of which 51.2% were ethnic Romanians, 17.9% Gagauz, 14.5% Bulgarians, 7.5% Russians, 4.4% Germans, 2.3% Jews, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view 92.1% of the population was Eastern Orthodox, 4.3% Lutheran, 2.3% Jewish, as well as other minorities. In the year 1930, the county's urban population was 17,909, of which 50.5% were ethnic Romanians, 19.6% Russians, 17.5% Jews, 1.3% Ukrainians, 1.3% Bulgarians, as well as other minorities. From a religious point of view, the urban population consisted of 76.5% Eastern Orthodox, 17.5% Jewish, 4.7% Old-Style Orthodox, 0.7% Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities.
Cahul District Cahul County
The Gagauzes are a Turkic people living in southern Moldova, southwestern Ukraine, northeastern Bulgaria, Brazil, the United States and Canada. The Gagauz are Eastern Orthodox Christians. Today Gagauz people outside Moldova live in the Ukrainian regions of Odessa and Zaporizhia, as well as in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Greece, Brazil, Belarus, Latvia, Georgia and the Russian region of Kabardino-Balkaria. There are nearly 20,000 descendants of Gagauzians living in the Balkan country of Bulgaria, as well as upwards of 3,000 living in the United States of America and Canada; the Encyclopedia of World Cultures lists the ethnonym of the Gagauz as "Turkish" and "Turkish speaking Bulgars". Astrid Menz writes this about the etymology: Older ethnographic works such as Pees and Jireček —both covering the Gagauz in Bulgaria—mention that only their neighbors used the ethnonym Gagauz as an insult; the Gagauz themselves did not use this self-designation. Both Pees and Jireček mention that the Gagauz in Bulgaria tended to register either as Greek because of their religion or as Bulgarian because of the newly emerging concept of nationalism.
According to Pees informants from Moldova, the Gagauz there called themselves Hıristiyan-Bulgar, Gagauz was used only as a nickname. The etymology of the ethnonym Gagauz is as unclear as their history; as noted above, they are not mentioned—at least not under that name—in any historical sources before their immigration into Bessarabia. Therefore, we have no older versions of this ethnonym. This, combined with the report that the Gagauz felt offended when called by this name, makes the etymology somewhat dubious; the Gagauz language belongs to the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages, which includes the Azerbaijani and Turkmen languages. The Gagauz language is close to the Balkan Turkish dialects spoken in Greece, northeastern Bulgaria, in the Kumanovo and Bitola areas of the Republic of Macedonia; the Balkan Turkic languages, including Gagauz, are a typologically interesting case, because they are related to Turkish and at the same time contain a North-Turkic element besides the main South-Turkic element.
The modern Gagauz language has two dialects: southern. The vast majority of Gagauz are Eastern Orthodox Christians; the traditional economy centered on animal husbandry and agriculture that combined grain and market gardening with viticulture. In the recent past, despite the cultural similarity of the Gagauz to the Bulgars of Bessarabia, there were important differences between them: the Bulgars were peasant farmers; the staple food is grain, in many varieties. A series of family holidays and rituals was connected with the baking of wheat bread, both leavened loaves and unleavened flatcakes; the favorite dish was a layered pie stuffed with sheep's milk cheese and soaked with sour cream before baking. Other delicacies were pies with crumbled pumpkin and sweet pies made with the first milk of a cow that had just calved; the traditional ritual dish called kurban combined bulgar wheat porridge with a slaughtered ram and is further evidence of the origins of the Gagauz in both the Balkan world and the steppe-pastoral complex.
Peppered meat sauces are important: one combines onion and finely granulated porridge, while another is tomato-based. A red house wine is served with supper. Head cheese is an indispensable component of holiday meals. Toward the end of the 19th century, in good weather, a Gagauz woman's costume consisted of a canvas shirt, a sleeveless dress, a smock, a large black kerchief. In winter, they donned a dress with sleeves, a cloth jacket, a sleeveless fur coat. Required features of female dress were earrings, beads, among wealthy Gagauz, a necklace of gold coins. "So many of their decorations are hung about," wrote a pre-Revolutionary researcher, "that they cover the entire breast down to the waist." Traditional male clothing included a shirt, cloth pants, a wide red sash or belt, a hat. The winter cap was made of Karakul sheep wool; the shepherd's costume was the usual shirt combined with sheepskin pants with the fleece turned in, a sleeveless fur coat, a short sheepskin jacket, the latter sometimes decorated with red-on-green stitching.
The origin of the Gagauzes is obscure. In the beginning of the 20th century, Bulgarian historian M. Dimitrov counts 19 different theories about their origin. A few decades the Gagauz ethnologist M. N. Guboglo increases the number to 21. In some of those theories the Gagauz people are presented as descendants of the Bulgars, the Cumans-Kipchaks or a clan of Seljuk Turks or as linguistically Turkified Bulgarians; the fact that their confession is Eastern Orthodox Christianity may suggest that their ancestors lived in the Balkans prior to the Ottoman conquest in the late 14th century. According to the Seljuk theory, supported by the Polish orientalist Tadeusz Jan Kowalski, the Gagauz descended from the Seljuk Turks who in the 13th century followed the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Kaykaus II and settled in the Dobruja region of the medieval Second Bulgarian Empire. There they mixed with other Turkic peoples such as Pechenegs, Uz and Cumans who came from the Ru
Kingdom of Romania
The Kingdom of Romania was a constitutional monarchy at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It existed from 1881, when prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was crowned as King Carol I of Romania, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Romanian parliament proclaimed Romania a socialist republic. From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities under a single prince to an autonomous principality with a Hohenzollern monarchy; the country gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire during the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, when it received Northern Dobruja in exchange for the southern part of Bessarabia. The kingdom's territory during the reign of King Carol I, between 14 March 1881 and 27 September 1914 is sometimes referred as the Romanian Old Kingdom, to distinguish it from "Greater Romania", which included the provinces that became part of the state after World War I. With the exception of the southern halves of Bukovina and Transylvania, these territories were ceded to neighboring countries in 1940, under the pressure of Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union.
Following a disastrous World War II campaign on the side of the Axis powers and name change, Romania joined the Allies in 1944, recovering Northern Transylvania. The influence of the neighboring Soviet Union and the policies followed by Communist-dominated coalition governments led to the abolition of the monarchy, with Romania becoming a People's Republic on the last day of 1947; the 1859 ascendancy of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as prince of both Moldavia and Wallachia under the nominal suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire united an identifiably Romanian nation under a single ruler. On 5 February 1862 the two principalities were formally united to form the Principality of Romania, with Bucharest as its capital. On 23 February 1866 a so-called Monstrous coalition, composed of Conservatives and radical Liberals, forced Cuza to abdicate; the German prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was appointed as Prince of Romania, in a move to assure German backing to unity and future independence. He adopted the Romanian spelling of his name and his descendants would rule Romania until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1947.
Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 and acquired Dobruja, although it was forced to surrender southern Bessarabia to Russia. On 15 March 1881, as an assertion of full sovereignty, the Romanian parliament raised the country to the status of a kingdom, Carol was crowned as king on 10 May; the new state, squeezed between the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, Russian Empires, with Slavic populations on its southwestern and northeastern borders, the Black Sea due east, Hungarian neighbors on its western and northwestern borders, looked to the West France, for its cultural and administrative models. Abstaining from the Initial Balkan War against the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Romania entered the Second Balkan War in June 1913 against the Tsardom of Bulgaria. 330,000 Romanian troops moved into Bulgaria. One army occupied Southern Dobrudja and another moved into northern Bulgaria to threaten Sofia, helping to bring an end to the war.
Romania thus acquired the ethnically-mixed territory of Southern Dobrudja, which it had desired for years. In 1916 Romania entered World War I on the Entente side. Romania engaged in a conflict against Bulgaria but as a result Bulgarian forces, after a series of successful battles, regained Dobruja, ceded from Bulgaria by the treaty of Bucharest and the Berlin congress. Although the Romanian forces did not fare well militarily, by the end of the war the Austrian and Russian empires were gone; the Romanian Old Kingdom is a colloquial term referring to the territory covered by the first independent Romanian nation state, composed of the Danubian Principalities — Wallachia and Moldavia. It was achieved when, under the auspices of the Treaty of Paris, the ad hoc Divans of both countries - which were under Imperial Ottoman suzerainty at the time - voted for Alexander Ioan Cuza as their prince, thus achieving a de facto unification; the region itself is defined by the result of that political act, followed by the inclusion of Northern Dobruja in 1878, the proclamation of the Kingdom of Romania in 1881, the annexation of Southern Dobruja in 1913.
The term came into use after World War I, when the Old Kingdom was opposed to Greater Romania, which included Transylvania, Banat and Bukovina. Nowadays, the term has a historical relevance, is otherwise used as a common term for all regions in Romania included in both the Old Kingdom and present-day borders. Romania delayed in entering World War I, but declared war on the Central Powers in 1916; the Romanian military campaign ended in stalemate when the Central Powers crushed the country's offensive into Transylvania and occupied Wallachia and Dobruja, including Bucharest and the strategically important oil fields, by the end of 1916. In 1917, despite fierce Romanian resistance at Mărăşeşti, due to Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolu
Ismail County was a county of Romania, in Bessarabia, with the capital city at Ismail. The county was located in the eastern part of Greater Romania, in the south of the historical region of Bessarabia, north of the Chilia branch of the Danube; the county neighboured the counties of Cetatea-Albă and Cahul to the north, Covurlui to the west, Tulcea to the south and the Black Sea to the south-east. Today, the territory of the former county is in Ukraine, with a smaller part in the west belonging to Moldova; the county comprised four districts: Plasa Bolgrad, headquartered at Bolgrad Plasa Chilia Nouă, headquartered at Chilia Nouă Plasa Fântâna Zânelor, headquartered at Fântâna-Zânelor Plasa Reni, headquartered at ReniThere were five cities in the county: Ismail, Chilia Nouă, Vâlcov. According to the Romanian census of 1930 the population of Ismail County was 225,509, of which 31.9% were ethnic Romanians, 29.7% Russians, 19.2% Bulgarians, 6.9% Gagauz, 4.7% Ukrainians, 2.8% Jews, as well as other minorities.
From the religious point of view, the county population consisted of 87.9% Eastern Orthodox, 7.6% Old Rite Orthodox, 2.9% Jewish, as well as other minorities. According to the Romanian census of 1930 the urban population of Ismail County was 75,860, of which 44.7% were ethnic Russians, 24.6% Romanians, 12.4% Bulgarians, 8.1% Jews, 5.0% Ukrainians, 0.7% Greeks, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population consisted of 80.7% Eastern Orthodox, 9.3% Old Rite Orthodox, 8.2% Jewish, 0.7% Roman Catholic, as well as other minorities. At the end of the Crimean War, by the Treaty of Paris, the South Bessarabia was returned by the Russian Empire to Moldavia. Southern Bessarabia was administratively organized into 3 counties: Cahul and Ismail, it was part of Moldavia and, after 1859, part of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia until 1878, when by the Treaty of Berlin all three counties were ceded back to the Russian Empire in exchange for Northern Dobruja.
After the Union of Bessarabia with Romania in 1918, Ismail County returned to Romania, being formally re-established in 1925. After the 1938 Administrative and Constitutional Reform, this county merged with the counties of Brăila, Covurlui, Fălciu, Putna, Râmnicu Sărat, Tecuci and Tutova to form Ținutul Dunării; the area county of the county was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 and became part of the Moldavian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR. The area returned to Romanian administration following the Axis Powers' invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1941. A military administration was established and the region's Jewish population was either executed on the spot or deported to Transnistria, where further numbers were killed; as the Soviet Union's offensive pushed the Axis powers back, the area again was under Soviet control. On September 12, 1944, Romania signed the Moscow Armistice with the Allies; the Armistice, as well as the subsequent peace treaty of 1947, confirmed the Soviet-Romanian border as it was on January 1, 1941.
The areas of the county, along with the rest of the Moldavian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR, became part of the independent countries of Moldova and Ukraine, respectively. Ismail County on memoria.ro