SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ceuta

Ceuta is a Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa. Bordered by Morocco, it lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa and, along with Melilla, one of two populated Spanish territories on mainland Africa, it was part of province of Cádiz until 14 March 1995. On that date Statutes of Autonomy were passed for both Melilla. Ceuta, like Melilla and the Canary Islands, was classified as a free port before Spain joined the European Union, its population consists of Christians and small minorities of Sephardic Jews and ethnic Sindhi Hindus. Spanish is the official language. Darija Arabic is spoken by the 40–50% of the population who are of Moroccan origin; the name Abyla has been said to have been a Punic name for Jebel Musa, the southern Pillar of Hercules. The name of the mountain was in fact Habenna or ʾAbin-ḥīq, in reference to the nearby Bay of Benzú; the name was hellenized variously as Ápini, Abýla, Abýlē, Ablýx, Abílē Stḗlē and in Latin as Mount Abyla or the Pillar of Abyla.

The settlement below Jebel Musa was renamed for the seven hills around the site, collectively referred to as the "Seven Brothers". In particular, the Roman stronghold at the site took the name "Fort at the Seven Brothers"; this was shortened to Septem or Septum or Septa. These clipped forms continued as Berber Sebta and Arabic Sabtan or Sabtah, which themselves became Ceuta in Portuguese and Spanish. Controlling access between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar is an important military and commercial chokepoint; the Phoenicians realized the narrow isthmus joining the Peninsula of Almina to the African mainland makes Ceuta eminently defensible and established an outpost there in the early 1st millennium BC. The Greek geographers record it by variations of "Abyla", the ancient name of nearby Jebel Musa. Beside Calpe, the other Pillar of Hercules now known as the Rock of Gibraltar, the Phoenicians established Kart at what is now San Roque, Spain. Other good anchorages nearby became Phoenician and Carthaginian ports at what are now Tangiers and Cadiz.

After Carthage's destruction in the Punic Wars, most of northwest Africa was left to the Roman client states of Numidia and—around Abyla—Mauretania. Punic culture continued to thrive in what the Romans knew as "Septem". After the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC, Caesar and his heirs began annexing north Africa directly as Roman provinces but, as late as Augustus, most of Septem's Berber residents continued to speak and write in Punic. Caligula assassinated the Mauretanian king Ptolemy in AD 40 and seized his kingdom, which Claudius organized in 42, placing Septem in the province of Tingitana and raising it to the level of a colony, it subsequently romanized and thrived into the late 3rd century, trading with Roman Spain and becoming well known for its salted fish. Roads connected it overland with Volubilis. Under Theodosius I in the late 4th century, Septem still had 10,000 inhabitants, nearly all Christian citizens speaking Latin and African Romance. Vandals invited by Count Boniface as protection against the empress dowager, crossed the strait near Tingis around 425 and swiftly overran Roman North Africa.

Their king Gaiseric focused his attention on the rich lands around Carthage. When Justinian decided to reconquer the Vandal lands, his victorious general Belisarius continued along the coast, making Septem an outpost of the Byzantine Empire around 533. Unlike the Roman administration, the Byzantines did not push far into hinterland and made the more defensible Septem their regional capital in place of Tingis. Epidemics, less capable successors, overstretched supply lines forced a retrenchment and left Septem isolated, it is that its count was obliged to pay homage to the Visigoth Kingdom in Spain in the early 7th century. There are no reliable contemporary accounts of the end of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb around 710. Instead, the rapid Muslim conquest of Spain produced romances concerning Count Julian of Septem and his betrayal of Christendom in revenge for the dishonor that befell his daughter at King Roderick's court. With Julian's encouragement and instructions, the Berber convert and freedman Tariq ibn Ziyad took his garrison from Tangiers across the strait and overran the Spanish so swiftly that both he and his master Musa bin Nusayr fell afoul of a jealous caliph, who stripped them of their wealth and titles.

After the death of Julian, sometimes described as a king of the Ghomara Berbers, Berber converts to Islam took direct control of what they called Sebta. It was destroyed during their great revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate around 740. Sebta subsequently remained a small village of Muslims and Christians surrounded by ruins until its resettlement in the 9th century by Mâjakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived Banu Isam dynasty, his great-grandson allied his tribe with the Idrisids, but Banu Isam rule ended in 931 when he abdicated in favor of Abd ar-Rahman III, the Umayyad caliph of Cordoba

Burke Brook

Burke Brook is a small stream in Toronto, Ontario. It is part of a major river that feeds into Lake Ontario; the north end of the river ends around Glenview Senior Public School. Burke Brooke used to start near Downsview Airport; the stream went down in a southeast direction where it meets the beginning of the stream today. After that the stream follows the current course; the total length of the stream was 9 kilometres, with 6 kilometres being tributaries. Havergal Stream runs through the property of Havergal School; the start of the stream is feed by nearby springs. The Havergal Stream them proceeds to meet the North Toronto Storm Trunk Sewer at the edge of the property; the water of the stream is flowed out into the North Toronto Storm Trunk Sewer, were the sewer meets the Burke Brooke. Havergal Stream use to start under the intersection of Old Orchard Grover and Barse Street by the Baycrest Hospital; the length of the river was 1.5 kilometres. The river let its source and proceed in a south-south-east direction to the Current Grounds of Havergal School, where nowadays it pops ups from the ground.

The stream went to where the current North Toronto Storm Trunk Sewer is and them meet the Burke Brooke a little east of there. The North Toronto Storm Trunk Sewer is a storm sewer location in North York, Ontario; the sewer has two sections: one starts at Lawrence Avenue and follows the old Burke Brooke, the other starts at Douglass Avenue and Bathurst Street. The North Toronto Storm Trunk Sewer was a Metro project installed during the 70s. Similar to other sewers build it was made to help reduce sewage along the planned route for the Spadina expressway, it was made to allow particle sewage separation in boroughs served by smaller sewage plants and to open up more land for development. The sewer links up with the North York Storm Trunk Sewer by Douglass Avenue and Bathurst Street; the North Toronto Storm Trunk Sewer meets the Burke Brooke where it starts near Glenview Senior Public School The Burke Brooke use to have a total of 6 kilometres of tributary streams. Blythwood Stream, which started by Glengowan Road and Strathgowan and at Saint Leonards Avenue and Saint Ives Avenue.

It is the closest tributary to the Don River. The two section merged at Fidelia Avenue; the stream followed a course running just east of Blythdale Road parallel until it meet Burke Brook. The length of the stream was around 1 kilometre. Lawrence Park Stream with merged with the McDougall Stream By the Locke Library between Lawrence and Lympstone; the length of the lawrence park stream was 6 kilometres and the McDougall Stream was 1 kilometre. The Lawrence Park Stream started by Wilson Avenue and Avenue Road, the headed to the point where it meet the McDougall Stream it continued on to meet the Burke Brooke by Young Street and Saint Edmurds Drive; the McDougall stream started Just north of the Blythwood Stream and curved until the place Where it meet the Lawrence Park Stream. Parks are in order from east to west. Sunnybrook Park is a major park in Toronto, it is home to the Sunnybrook Stables, dog parks, many sport fields. There are many bike and walking paths, with a few car-accessible roads scattered throughout.

The park is known for its cricket. The Burke Brook Ravine is a ravine that stretches to Bayview Avenue; the ravine has no trail connection to Bayview Avenue but is still accessible from Bayview Avenue via a few steep slopes. Sunnydene Park is a small park just to the west of Bayview Avenue; the park is near Sherwood Park and the maps included it as part of Sherwood Park Sherwood Park is a park in Toronto. It contains a city maintenance building, a water park, a playground, washrooms, it contains 2 paths to the right of the Burke Brook. It contains a dog-off-leash park to the south-east north of the Mount Hope Catholic Cemetery and west of Sunnydene Park. To the north of the park is Blythwood Road and the Blythwood Ravine. A road leads west out of the park to Sherwood Avenue. Blythwood Ravine Park is a ravine between Alexander Muir Memorial Gardens and Blythwood Road, it has entrances and the end of Strathgowan Avenue and Glengowan Road. The park is quite skinny and acts as a connector park between Sherwood park and Alexander Muir Memorial Gardens/ Yonge Street.

This park is between Blythwood Ravine Yonge Street. It contains the tennis courts of the Lawrence Park Tennis Club and the fields of the Lawrence Park Lawn Bowling and Croquet Club; the main attraction of the park is the song The Maple Leaf Forever, an unofficial anthem of Canada, printed on a stone wall with stairs connected to the fields and gardens of the park. The park was located on the west side of Yonge Street across from the Mount Pleasant Cemetery to celebrate the Toronto centennial celebrations. To build the Yonge Subway the TTC paid over $100,000 to move the park, including the stone wall, to its current location in Lawrence Park. In Duplex Parkette, Burke Brook is underground in some pipes. Glenview Parkette is two islands with pathways running through them. Chatsworth is a ravine between duplex Avenue and Glenview Senior Public School with a path running to Cheritan Avenue, it has a bridge in the middle moving the path from south of the river to north of the river. In order from east to west: Bayview Avenue - No traffic/pedestrian lights Blythwood Road - Pedestrian crossing lights Mount Pleasant Road - path goes under a bridge Yonge Street - No traffi

Honda VFR750F

The Honda VFR750F is a motorcycle produced by Honda from 1986 to 1997. Intended as a sports bike to compete with the Suzuki GSX-R750 and Yamaha FZ750 it was reassigned to a sports tourer with its replacement in racing by the Honda VFR750R followed by the introduction of the more rounded 1990 VFR750FL, it was faired and Honda claimed 104 hp from the liquid-cooled double overhead cam V4 four-stroke engine. All generations of VFR750F since 1990 had an Elf-designed pro-arm single-sided rear swingarm, since 1986 had durable, gear-driven cams; the original VFR750F was first introduced to journalists after the 1985 Bol d'Or, launched at Jerez, Spain. Introduced for 1986 as a complete redesign of the VF700/750F models in order to address some of the camshaft and bearing problems that had become associated with the first-generation Honda V4 engines, to improve Honda's negative image concerning this engine. Compared to the VF750F, the new VFR750F had greater power output, lighter weight, a lower centre of gravity, a wider front tyre, a shorter wheelbase gear driven cams and six rather than five gears.

"Tariff buster" 700 cc versions of the first-generation bike were available alongside 750 cc versions in the US market, due to the tax laws in place at the time that penalised large-displacement imported motorcycles. In the Japanese domestic market there were other VFR750F variants: VFR750P - A police-specification model with its own distinctive model number was restricted to 77 ps and fitted with a five-speed gearbox, modified main stand, gear indicator, uprated alternator, crash bars, higher handlebars, modified speedometer; this bike was not offered for sale to the general public. VFR750K - Not to be confused with the VFR750FK, this bikini faired training version of the VFR750F, again with its own distinctive model number, was restricted to 77 ps; the oil cooler was removed and it was fitted with a modified main stand and gear indicator. This bike was offered for sale to the general public. Although not designed as a race bike, in 1986 British racer Ron Haslam took a standard VFR750F to third place in a soaked Transatlantic Challenge race at Donington Park, UK.

A special VFR750F called the'6X', a 135 hp@13000RPM 188 mph full HRC prototype using RVF cycle parts and containing titanium valves, magnesium cases and flat-slide carburettors, weighing 165 kg, less than the factory RVF, first ridden by Wayne Gardner at a Suzuka test against TT F1 machinery. Wayne broke his four-stroke lap record by 1.5 seconds. Six examples of the'6X' were built, 4 for the Domestic Championships and two for the American Championships; the VFR'6X' was raced at the Isle of Man TT by Geoff Johnson, coming in 2nd to Joey Dunlop in both the F1 and Senior TT. In the US Fred Merkel and Wayne Rainey contested the 1986 AMA Camel Pro Championship, which at the time had both Superbike and F1 races but only one championship, with the best finish of the day counting. Merkel just rode in the Superbike. Merkel won two races and Rainey seven. For 1987 Merkel's bike was passed to Bubba Shobert who took 3rd place in 1987, being beaten by Wayne Rainey and Kevin Schwantz; the points he earned during the 1987 season gained him victory in the AMA Grand National.

In 1988 Shobert won three of the seven races to win the AMA superbike championship. The engine developed in the 6X became the basis for the factory racer, the VFR750R. A race kit was available for the 1986-87 VFR from HRC for US$4,000, this including a titanium exhaust and was known as the VFR750RK; the VFR750F models all used 748 cc 16-valve gear driven DOHC liquid-cooled 90° V4 engines with carburettor-based air/fuel induction. The engine was made of cast aluminium alloy with the crankcase being divided horizontally, VFR750P and VFR750K models use different crankcases with the lower casing being modified to allow for the gear position indicator in place of the neutral switch. On all the VFR750 models the gear drive for the cams was between the cylinders. Lubrication was via a wet sump with a dual-rotor oil pump; the transmission was a 6-speed, with a constant-mesh, wet multi-plate clutch and chain drive to the rear wheel with the exception of the 5-speed VFR750P which had a spacer in place of one of the gears.

The VFR750F uses a 180° crankshaft, instead of the 360° crankshaft used in the VF and VFR750R. In comparison to the VF750 every component had weight shaved off it, each connecting rod lost 90 g, rocker arms 6 g, intake valve 0.5 g, exhaust valves 1.5 g, pistons 20 g, piston rings 1.3 g per set, valve springs 17 g each. The V4 engine has proven itself reliable, with few known faults; the gear-driven camshaft system removed any lingering concerns about cam-chain maintenance, which had dogged the VF-series of Honda V4 engines. Valve adjustment on first-generation VFR750Fs was by screw and locknut, which changed in 1990 to shim-under-bucket, along with the valve-clearance inspection interval to 16,000 mi. However, RC36 engines have been known to reach well over 50,000 mi without any need to adjust the valve clearances; the 1986 VFR750F used what Honda call a diamond type frame, this is because the engine is "set" in the frame like a precious stone is set in jewellery. This design of frame is now referred to as a twin spar.

The 1986 VFR750F frame uses the engine as a stressed member and has a cast aluminium heads