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Ceviche

Ceviche cebiche, seviche, or sebiche, is a seafood dish that originated in Peru made from fresh raw fish cured in citrus juices, such as lemon or lime, spiced with ají, chili peppers or other seasonings including chopped onions and coriander. Because the dish is not cooked with heat, it must be prepared and consumed fresh to minimize the risk of food poisoning. Ceviche is accompanied by side dishes that complement its flavours, such as sweet potato, corn, avocado, or cooking banana; the dish is popular in the Pacific coastal regions of Latin America. Though the origin of ceviche is hotly debated, in Peru it is considered a national dish. Though archeological records suggest that something resembling ceviche may have been consumed in Peru nearly two thousand years ago, the dominant position Lima held through four centuries as the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru allowed for popular dishes such as ceviche to be brought to other Spanish colonies in the region, in time they became a part of local cuisine by incorporating regional flavors and styles.

Ceviche is now a popular international dish prepared in a variety of ways throughout the Americas, reaching the United States in the 1980s. The greatest variety of ceviches are found in Ecuador, Colombia and Peru, but other distinctly unique styles can be found in coastal Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, the United States, Mexico and several other nations; the origin of the name of the dish is disputed. One hypothesis suggests the common Spanish word for the dish, has its origin in the Latin word cibus, which translates to English as "food" Another hypothesis, supported by the Royal Spanish Academy, is that ceviche has the same etymology as escabeche, which derives from Mozarabic izkebêch, in turn descending from Andalusian Arabic assukkabáǧ, which derives from Classical Arabic sakbāj, it is from the unattested Middle Persian *sikbāg, from sik and *bāg, which yielded the Persian word sekbā. Further hypotheses base the origin of the term on escabeche, Spanish for pickle, or it is a variation of the word siwichi, the traditional Quechua name for the dish.

The name of the dish may be spelled variously as cebiche, seviche or sebiche, but the more common spelling in Peru is ceviche, with v, an alternative spelling accepted by the Royal Spanish Academy, the official institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language in Spain. Despite this, other local terms, such as cerbiche and serviche, are still used as variations to name the dish. Various explanations of ceviche's origin exist. According to some historic sources from Peru, ceviche originated among the Moche, a coastal civilization that began to flourish in the area of current-day northern Peru nearly 2000 years ago; the Moche used the fermented juice from the local banana passionfruit. Recent investigations further show that during the Inca Empire, fish was marinated with chicha, an Andean fermented beverage. Different chronicles report that along the Peruvian coast prior to the arrival of Europeans, fish was consumed with salt and ají. Furthermore, this theory proposes that the natives switched to the citrus fruits brought by the Spanish colonists but that the main ingredients of the plate remained the same.

In Ecuador, ceviche may have had its origins among its coastal civilizations since both Peru and Ecuador have shared cultural heritages and a large variety of fish and shellfish. The ancient kinilaw dish of the Philippines is remarkably similar to ceviche and is another possible origin, it is the origin agreed upon in Mexico. Since Peru was part of the Spanish-era trade route of the Manila Galleons. Citrus fruits, which are not indigenous to the Americas, are native to the Philippines. Kinilaw has numerous variations in the Philippines and has been attested from archaeological records from the 10th to the 13th century AD, it was introduced to Guam, situated along the route of the Manila Galleons. The invention of the dish is attributed to places ranging from Central America to the Polynesian islands in the South Pacific; the Spanish, who brought citrus fruits such as lime from Europe, may have brought the dish from Spain, where ìt may have had roots in Moorish cuisine. Most historians agree that ceviche originated during colonial times in the area of present-day Peru.

They propose that the predecessor to the dish was brought to Peru by Moorish women from Granada who accompanied the Spaniards and that this dish evolved into what nowadays is considered ceviche. The Peruvian chef Gastón Acurio further explains that the dominant position that Lima held throughout four centuries as the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru allowed for popular dishes such as ceviche to be brought to other Spanish colonies in the region and to become a part of local cuisine by incorporating regional flavors and styles. Other notable chefs who support the Peruvian origin of the dish include the Chilean Christopher Carpentier and the Spaniard Ferran Adrià, who in an interview stated, "Cebiche was born in Peru, so the authentic and genuine is Peruvian." Ceviche is marinated in a citrus-based mixture, with lemons and limes being the most used. In addition to adding flavor, the citric acid causes the proteins in the seafood to become denatured, appearing to be cooked. Traditional-style ceviche was marinated for about three hours.

Modern-style

Freak Out! (Teenage Bottlerocket album)

Freak Out! is the fifth album by Teenage Bottlerocket. It was released on July 2012 on Fat Wreck Chords; the band began work on the album in February 2012 at The Blasting Room with engineer Andrew Berlin, who co-produced the album with the band, finished in April. Two of the songs, "Mutilate Me" and "Punk House of Horror", were released on the 2011 "'Mutilate Me" EP. Another song, "Headbanger", was recorded by Sack, a band which featured TBR members Kody Templeman, Ray Carlisle and Brandon Carlisle; the band shot a music video for "Headbanger". Teenage BottlerocketRay Carlisle - Vocals/Guitar Kody Templeman - Vocals/Guitar Miguel Chen - Bass guitar Brandon Carlisle - DrumsArtworkDawn Wilson - PhotographyProductionAndrew Berlin - Producer, Mastering, mixing

Gerre Hancock

Gerre Edward Hancock was an American organist and composer. Hancock was Professor of Sacred Music at the University of Texas at Austin, he died of cardiac arrest in Austin, Texas, on Saturday, January 21, 2012. Hancock was born in Texas, he received his Bachelor of Music degree from the University of Texas at Austin and his Master of Sacred Music degree from Union Theological Seminary in New York, from which he received the Unitas Distinguished Alumnus Award. A recipient of a Rotary Foundation Fellowship, he studied in Paris at the Sorbonne and during this time was a finalist at the ARD International Music Competition. Hancock served as Organist at Second Baptist Church in Texas. Hancock studied organ with E. William Doty, Robert Baker, Jean Langlais, Marie-Claire Alain, improvisation with Nadia Boulanger and Searle Wright. A Fellow of the American Guild of Organists, Hancock was a member of its National Council and was a founder and past president of the Association of Anglican Musicians, he served on the faculty of The Juilliard School in New York City and taught improvisation on a visiting basis at the Institute of Sacred Music, Yale University in New Haven, CT, The Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York.

In 1981, he was appointed a Fellow of the Royal School of Church Music and in 1995 was appointed a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists. Hancock received honorary Doctor of Music degrees from the Nashotah House Seminary and The University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee. In May 2004 he was awarded the Doctor of Divinity degree from The General Theological Seminary in New York, he is listed in “Who’s Who in America,” and his biography appears in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition. In 2004 he was honored in a ceremony at Lambeth Palace in London where he was presented the Medal of the Cross of St. Augustine by the Archbishop of Canterbury. In May 2009, Hancock was made Doctor of Music at Westminster Choir College in Princeton, NJ. In June 2010, Hancock was presented the International Performer of the Year Award by the New York City Chapter of the American Guild of Organists; this is viewed by many as the most distinguished award that the American Guild of Organists bestows upon its colleagues.

A featured recitalist and lecturer at numerous regional conventions of the American Guild of Organists and at national conventions of the Guild in Philadelphia, Boston, Washington DC, Detroit and New York City, Hancock represented the AGO as recitalist at the Centenary Anniversary of the Royal College of Organists in London. Hancock was heard in recital in many cities throughout the United States and worldwide. On occasion he performed in duo recitals with Judith Hancock, his compositions for organ and chorus are performed. He recorded for Gothic Records, Decca/Argo, Koch International and Priory Records, both as a conductor of The St. Thomas Choir and as a soloist. Air: a prelude for organ Fantasy on "Divinum Mysterium" A paraphrase of "St. Elizabeth" Prelude on "Hyfrydol" Prelude and fugue on "Union Seminary" Prelude on "Slane" Fanfare on "Antioch" A meditation on "Draw us in the spirit’s tether" Variations on "Coronation" An Evocation of "Urbs beata Jerusalem" Variations on "Palm Beach" Toccata Variations on "Ora Labora" A Laredo fanfare Holy week Gerre Hancock: Improvising: how to master the art.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. The organ music of Gerre Hancock. Todd Wilson and Kevin Kwan, Organists. Organs at St. Thomas Church, New York. Richmond, VA: Raven Records, 2014. 2 CDs

Christopher West

Christopher West is a Catholic author and speaker, best known for his work on Pope John Paul II’s series of audience addresses entitled Theology of the Body. West has been delivering lectures since 1997 on topics such as Christian anthropology, the Creed, sacraments, marriage and family life, he has spoken on national radio and on television. He is a cofounder of the Theology of the Body Institute, which offers graduate level courses and other training programs on the Theology of the Body, he is Senior Lecturer of Theology and Christian Anthropology at the Institute, his week-long courses there draw students from around the world. He and his wife, reside in Lancaster County and have five children. West graduated from Lancaster Catholic High School in 1988, he received a Bachelor of Arts in Anthropology in 1992 from the University of Maryland. In 1996 he was certified as an Instructor of Marriage Preparation from the Archdiocese of Washington, D. C. In 1997, he obtained a Master of Theological Studies at the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family at The Catholic University of America, became a Certified Catechist by the Archdiocese of Denver Catechetical School.

He has received an honorary doctorate from DeSales University. Cecilia LeChevallier, Marriage Preparation and Natural Family Planning, Diocese of Camden, NJ commented that "Christopher West is able to synthesize the Theology of the Body in an understandable and exciting way that gets people excited about it and excited about living it."Charles J. Chaput, O. F. M. Cap. Archbishop of Philadelphia says that "Christopher West’s keen grasp of John Paul II’s Theology of the Body and his ability to make it accessible to others is changing lives, strengthening marriages, renewing people’s faith in the Church across the country and internationally." More he said: "I’ve known and respected Christopher for many years. He served with good effect on my staff in Denver early in my tenure there. He’s done a wonderful job translating John Paul II’s Theology of the Body into popular practice."Theologian David L. Schindler charged that West promotes a "pansexualist tendency" that ties all important human and supernatural activity back to sex without making necessary distinctions.

Moral theologian Dr. Janet Smith defended West, saying his work is "completely sound" and that she found Schindler's response "puzzling." Smith, in her response to Schindler's critique, says that Schindler "provides a list of his objections to West’s theology without citing one text to substantiate his charges... As it stands, I do not find that his concerns correspond with what I have read in West’s work or heard in his lectures." Dr. Alice von Hildebrand, widow of Catholic theologian Dietrich von Hildebrand, has said West's approach has become too self-assured, she criticized his presentations as irreverent and insensitive to the "tremendous dangers" of concupiscence. Theologian Michael Waldstein, who wrote the definitive translation of The Theology of the Body, addressed Schindler’s remarks in an essay published on InsideCatholic.com. Waldstein said that Schindler’s essay was a "blanket negative statement" that made "sweeping accusations" against a position he did not recognize as West’s.

Justin Cardinal Rigali, Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia, Kevin Rhoades, Bishop of Fort Wayne-South Bend, issued a joint statement in support of West's work. They said, "We are convinced that John Paul II's Theology of the Body is a treasure for the Church, indeed a gift of the Holy Spirit for our time. Yet, its scholarly language needs to be'translated' into more accessible categories if the average person is to benefit from it. To do this is the specific mission of the Theology of the Body Institute, we believe that Christopher West, the Institute's popular lecturer and spokesman, has been given a particular charism to carry out this mission. With great skill as a presenter, with keen insight as a thinker, with profound reverence for the mystery of human sexuality, he has been able to reach thousands in our sexually wounded culture with the Gospel of salvation in Christ."Bishop Ronald Gainer of West's hometown Roman Catholic Diocese of Harrisburg, wrote, in his Letter of Good Standing: "Through his careful and thorough study of the teachings of Saint John Paul, Mr. West makes a unique contribution by his amazing gift of translating the profound truths of the Theology of the Body into language, precise and understandable to every reader and listener.

His gift of teaching is faithful to the theological and spiritual legacy of our late Holy Father, now a canonized saint."As his Diocesan Bishop, I eagerly express my deep respect for Mr. West and I recommend him as one who lives faithfully the message he so communicates. I am confident that, as countless others have, you will discover rich catechetical treasures through his ministry, The Cor Project, which exists to help men and women across the globe learn and share the teachings of Saint John Paul Il’s Theology of the Body."West responded to many of the critiques, acknowledging that "so long as we are on earth, we will always have to battle with concupiscence" and conceding "In some of my earliest lectures and tapes, I confess that I did not emphasize this important point enough." However, he continues with the rhetorical question, taken from Veritatis Splendor 103, "Of which man are we speaking?" and discusses the teaching of John Paul II that " has given us the possibility of realizing the entire truth of our being.

Sołtan argument

The Sołtan argument is an astrophysical theory outlined in 1982 by Polish astronomer Andrzej Sołtan. It maintains that if quasars were powered by accretion onto a supermassive black hole such supermassive black holes must exist in our local universe as "dead" quasars; as early as 1969, Donald Lynden-Bell wrote a paper suggesting that "dead quasars" were found at the center of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies by arguing that given the quasar-number counts, luminosities and the efficiency of accretion into a "Schwarzschild throat" through the last stable circular orbit 1010 quasars existed in the observable universe. This number density of "dead quasars" was attributed by Lynden-Bell to high mass-to-light ratio objects found at the center of galaxies; this is the Sołtan argument, though the direct connection between black hole masses and quasar luminosity functions is missing. In the paper, Lynden-Bell suggests some radical ideas that are now integrated into modern understanding of astrophysics including the model that accretion disks are supported by magnetic fields, that extragalactic cosmic rays are accelerated in them, he estimates to within an order of magnitude the masses of several of the closest supermassive black holes including the ones in the Milky Way, M31, M32, M81, M82, M87, NGC 4151.

Thirteen years Sołtan explicitly showed that the luminosity of quasars was due to the accretion rate of mass onto black holes given by: L = ϵ M ˙ c 2 where ϵ is the efficiency factor M ˙ is the time rate of mass falling into the black hole c is the speed of lightGiven the number of observed quasars at various redshifts, he was able to derive an integrated energy density due to quasar output. Since observers on Earth are flux limited, there are always more quasars that exist than are observed and thus the energy density he derived is a lower bound, he obtained the value of 10−10 ergs per cubic meter. Sołtan calculated the mass density of accreted material as it is directly related to the energy density of quasar light, he derived a value of 1014 solar masses per cubic Gigaparsec. This mass would be discretely distributed. At this time, evidence was accumulating that supermassive black holes were found at the center of large galaxies, which are distributed on the order of a megaparsec apart from each other.

This argument therefore made a reasonable case that supermassive black holes were at one time ultraluminous quasars. The first quantitative estimates of the mass density in supermassive black holes were 5-10 times higher than Sołtan's estimate; this discrepancy was resolved in 2000 via the discovery of the M-sigma relation, which showed that most of the previously-published black hole masses were in error. As of 2008, the best constraints for the supermassive black hole mass per cubic megaparsec in the local universe derived from the Sołtan argument is between 2 - 5 x 105 solar masses; this value is consistent with observations of the mass of local supermassive black holes. Supermassive black holes M-sigma relation

Arthur Edward Cumming

Brigadier Arthur Edward Cumming VC OBE MC was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He attended Karachi Grammar School. Cumming was 45 years old, a lieutenant colonel commanding the 2/12th Frontier Force Regiment, in the Indian Army during World War II. Lt. Col Cumming and his battalion were defending an airfield during the Battle of Malaya when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC. On 3 January 1942 near Kuantan, the Japanese made a furious attack on the battalion and a strong enemy force penetrated the position. Lieutenant Colonel Cumming, with a small party of men led a counter-attack and although all his men became casualties and he, had two bayonet wounds in the stomach he managed to restore the situation sufficiently for the major portion of the battalion and its vehicles to be withdrawn, he drove in a carrier, under heavy fire, collecting isolated detachments of his men and was again wounded.

His gallant actions helped the brigade to withdraw safely. Cumming was one of a small number of officers and men who were ordered to be evacuated from Singapore before the island was surrendered on 15 February 1942. Cumming commanded a battalion of the 9th Jat Regiment before his promotion to brigadier and command of the 63rd Indian Brigade during the Burma Campaign. From 1944 to his retirement in 1947 Brigadier Cumming was in command of the Dehra Dun District in India, his VC is on display at Chelsea. Japanese Invasion of Malaya British VCs of World War 2 Monuments to Courage The Register of the Victoria Cross National Army Museum Location of grave and VC medal Arthur Edward Cumming at Find a Grave