Chalon-sur-Saône is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department, it is the largest city in the department. Chalon-sur-Saône lies in the south of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of France, it is located on the Saône river, was once a busy port, acting as a distribution point for local wines which were sent up and down the Saône river and the Canal du Centre, opened in 1792. Though the site was a capital of the Aedui and objects of La Tène culture have been retrieved from the bed of the river here, the first mention of Cavillonum is found in Commentarii de Bello Gallico; the Roman city served as a river port and hub of road communications, of the Via Agrippa and side routes. In 354 AD the Roman Emperor, Constantius II stationed the Roman 7th Army in Chalon for an invasion against the brother kings and Vadomarius of the Alamanni. However, not having received supplies, the Roman troops revolted, were pacified by the grand chamberlain Eusebius with money.
In Late Antiquity the city had dwindled so much. Saint Marcellus of Chalons is said to have been martyred here in 179 AD. Chalon became one of the de facto capitals of the kingdom of Burgundy under Guntram, king from 561 to 592, who died here. Guntram promoted the cult of Saint Marcellus; the bishopric of Chalon-sur-Saône, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lyon, was established here in the same century, a Church Council was held here from 644–655. The see. Chalon in the 19th century is best known as the birthplace of photography, its most famous resident, Nicéphore Niépce has a lycée named after him. There is a museum which contains some early photography relics, located on the Quai des Messageries in the town, containing more than two million photographs and many old artefacts such as cameras and other equipment for old and modern photography. On display are Niépce's 1807 Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, plus his 1818 implementation of a dandy horse, for which he coined the word vélocipède.
Another famous resident is Dominique Vivant Denon, involved in the creation of the Louvre museum, converting the former royal palace into a museum after the French Revolution. St. Vincent's Cathedral on the Place Saint-Vincent, which has some elements dating from the eighth century and a neo-gothic nineteenth century façade; this city square has a number of cafés and a busy market on Fridays and Sundays. The primary industries are nuclear, plastics and mechanics; the Chamber of Commerce of Saône-et-Loire manages the École de Gestion et de Commerce de Chalon-sur-Saône, as well as the river port on the Saône. There are 2472 businesses: 764 stores, 454 retail services, 409 schools and health and social services, 378 wholesale services, 122 construction companies, 69 agricultural and alimentary businesses, 64 real estate businesses, 60 transportation business, 49 industries de biens intermédiaires, 35 industries de biens de consommations, 34 entreprises d'énergie, 33 industries de biens d'équipements et 1 industrie automobile.
The most important companies are Areva, Saint-Gobain, Cartonnerie Laurent, Carrefour 2000, Géant Casino, Comptoirs des Fers, Amazon and Le journal de Saône-et-Loire. Until the early 2000s, Kodak was the largest employer in town, their production site became the campus of Le Grand Chalon en Bourgogne in 2005. The Gare de Chalon-sur-Saône railway station offers connections with Paris, Dijon and several regional destinations; the station is located along the PLM mainline from Paris Gare de Lyon to Marseille-Saint-Charles, at kilometre post 382.150 from Paris. The primary national roads serving Chalon are the A6 autoroute from Paris to Lyon, the route nationale 73, from Chalon to Besançon and the route nationale 80, from Chalon to Montchanin; the city is located on the pan-European bicycle route the EuroVelo 6, which stretches from Saint-Nazaire on the Atlantic Ocean near Nantes to Constanta on the Black Sea. The closest major commercial airport is Lyon-Saint-Exupéry, located about 120 kilometres away.
The public transportation company STAC offers a bus network ZOOM, including a free bus in the center, lines to surrounding communities, services for handicapped riders. There exists a bike sharing scheme Réflex. An institute of research of the engineering school Arts et Métiers ParisTech was established in Chalon in 1997; this institute offers graduate and doctoral programs in the domain of virtual reality and image engineering. Every year in July, Chalon-sur-Saône hosts an international street artists festival, called Chalon dans la Rue. Over four days, artists from across Europe and beyond come to the streets of Chalon to perform for free, in music, acrobatics, etc. A program is made available by the town, so people know of the main groups performing, several newspapers report what performances are must-see and where and when to find them. Notable people associated with the city include: Joseph Touchemoulin, composer Dominique Vivant Denon, involved in creating the Louvre Roger Grosjean, double agent in World War II and a noted archaeologist in Corsica Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer of photography, took the earliest surviving photograph Jean Baptiste Félix Descuret and writer Omer Letorey, composer The Arboretum de Pézanin, one of the richest forest collect
Châlons Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Châlons-en-Champagne, France known as Châlons-sur-Marne. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Châlons and was consecrated in 1147 October 26, by Pope Eugene III. Jean-Jacques Arveuf-Fransquin designed the neo-Flamboyant organ case of Châlons Cathedral; the case was created by the cabinetmaker Etienne Gabriel Ventadour, housed the instrument made by John Abbey, who delivered the instrument in 1849. The cathedral is noted for its stained glass windows. Estrayez-Cabassolle, Abbé. Notice historique et descriptive sur la cathédrale de Châlons-sur-Marne. Châlons-sur-Marne: T.-J. Martin. Longnon, Auguste. Cartulaire du chapitre de l'église cathédrale de Châlons-sur-Marne. Paris: A. Picard et Fils. Lucot, Paul. Les verrières de la cathédrale de Chalons: en général et plus particulièrement les verrières des collatéraux. Chalons-sur-Marne: F. Thouille. Villes, Alain. La Cathédrale Saint-Etienne de Châlons-en-Champagne et sa place dans l'architecture médiévale.
Langres: D. Guéniot. ISBN 978-2-87825-226-2. Catholic Hierarchy: Diocese of Châlons Catholic Encyclopedia: Châlons-sur-Marne Unofficial Cathedral website
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history; when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title used was imperator a military honorific. Early Emperors used the title princeps. Emperors amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus and pontifex maximus; the legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate. The first emperors reigned alone; the Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. The first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, could not convincingly make the same claim. Nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, efforts were made to portray the emperors as leaders of a republic.
From Diocletian, whose tetrarchic reforms divided the position into one emperor in the West and one in the East, until the end of the Empire, emperors ruled in an monarchic style and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy, so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted. Elements of the republican institutional framework were preserved after the end of the Western Empire; the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century after multiple invasions of imperial territory by Germanic barbarian tribes. Romulus Augustulus is considered to be the last emperor of the West after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim recognized by the Eastern Empire to the title until his death in 480. Following Nepos' death, the Eastern Emperor Zeno abolished the division of the position and proclaimed himself as the sole Emperor of a reunited Roman Empire.
The Eastern imperial lineage continued to rule from Constantinople. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453; the "Byzantine" emperors from Heraclius in 629 and onwards adopted the title of basileus, which had meant king in Greek but became a title reserved for the Roman emperor and the ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. With the eventual hegemony of Christianity, the emperor came to be seen as God's chosen ruler, as well as a special protector and leader of the Christian Church on Earth, although in practice an emperor's authority on Church matters was subject to challenge. Due to the cultural rupture of the Turkish conquest, most western historians treat Constantine XI as the last meaningful claimant to the title Roman Emperor. From 1453, one of the titles used by the Ottoman Sultans was "Caesar of Rome", part of their titles until the Ottoman Empire ended in 1922.
A Byzantine group of claimant Roman emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461, though they had used a modified title since 1282. Eastern emperors in Constantinople had been recognized and accepted as Roman emperors both in the East, which they ruled, by the Papacy and Germanic kingdoms of the West until the deposition of Constantine VI and accession of Irene of Athens as Empress regnant in 797. Objecting to a woman ruling the Roman Empire in her own right and issues with the eastern clergy, the Papacy would create a rival lineage of Roman emperors in western Europe, the Holy Roman Emperors, which ruled the Holy Roman Empire for most of the period between 800 and 1806; these Emperors were never recognized as Roman emperors by the court in Constantinople. Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic, a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch and Cassius Dio.
However, the majority of Roman writers, including Josephus, Pliny the Younger and Appian, as well as most of the ordinary people of the Empire, thought of Julius Caesar as the first Emperor. At the end of the Roman Republic no new, no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power. Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator Julius Caesar had been an emperor, like several Roman generals before him. Instead, by the end of the civil wars in which Julius Caesar had led his armies, it became clear that there was no consensus to return to the old-style monarchy, but that the period when several officials, bestowed with equal power by the senate, would fight one another had come to an end. Julius Caesar, Augustus after him, accumulated offices and titles of the highest importance in the Republic, making the power attached to those offices permanent, preventing anyone with similar aspirations from accumulating or maintaining power for themselves. However, Julius Caesar, unlike those after
Johann Strauss II
Johann Strauss II known as Johann Strauss Jr. the Younger, the Son, Johann Baptist Strauss, son of Johann Strauss I, was an Austrian composer of light music dance music and operettas. He composed over 500 waltzes, polkas and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as "The Waltz King", was responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century. Strauss had two younger brothers and Eduard Strauss, who became composers of light music as well, although they were never as well known as their elder brother; some of Johann Strauss's most famous works include "The Blue Danube", "Kaiser-Walzer", "Tales from the Vienna Woods", the "Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka". Among his operettas, Die Fledermaus and Der Zigeunerbaron are the best known. Although the name Strauss can be found in reference books with "ß", Strauss himself wrote his name with a long "s" and a round "s", a replacement form for the Fraktur-ß used in antique manuscripts.
His family called him "Schani", derived from the Italian "Gianni", a diminutive of "Giovanni", the Italian equivalent of "Johann". Strauss was born into a Catholic family in St Ulrich near Vienna, Austria, on 25 October 1825, to the composer Johann Strauss I, his paternal great-grandfather was a Hungarian Jew – a fact which the Nazis, who lionised Strauss's music as "so German" tried to conceal. His father did not want him to become a musician but rather a banker. Strauss Junior studied the violin secretly as a child with the first violinist of his father's orchestra, Franz Amon; when his father discovered his son secretly practising on a violin one day, he gave him a severe whipping, saying that he was going to beat the music out of the boy. It seems that rather than trying to avoid a Strauss rivalry, the elder Strauss only wanted his son to escape the rigours of a musician's life, it was only when the father abandoned his family for a mistress, Emilie Trampusch, that the son was able to concentrate on a career as a composer with the support of his mother.
Strauss studied counterpoint and harmony with theorist Professor Joachim Hoffmann, who owned a private music school. His talents were recognized by composer Joseph Drechsler, who taught him exercises in harmony, it was during that time that he composed his only sacred work, the graduale Tu qui regis totum orbem. His other violin teacher, Anton Kollmann, the ballet répétiteur of the Vienna Court Opera wrote excellent testimonials for him. Armed with these, he approached the Viennese authorities to apply for a license to perform, he formed his small orchestra where he recruited his members at the Zur Stadt Belgrad tavern, where musicians seeking work could be hired easily. Johann Strauss I's influence over the local entertainment establishments meant that many of them were wary of offering the younger Strauss a contract for fear of angering the father. Strauss Jr. was able to persuade Dommayer's Casino in Hietzing, a suburb of Vienna, to allow him to perform. The elder Strauss, in anger at his son's disobedience, at that of the proprietor, refused to play again at Dommayer's Casino, the site of many of his earlier triumphs.
Strauss made his debut at Dommayer's in October 1844, where he performed some of his first works, such as the waltzes "Sinngedichte", Op. 1 and "Gunstwerber", Op. 4 and the polka "Herzenslust", Op. 3. Critics and the press were unanimous in their praise for Strauss's music. A critic for Der Wanderer commented. Despite the initial fanfare, Strauss found his early years as a composer difficult, but he soon won over audiences after accepting commissions to perform away from home; the first major appointment for the young composer was his award of the honorary position of "Kapellmeister of the 2nd Vienna Citizen's Regiment", left vacant following Joseph Lanner's death two years before. Vienna was wracked by the revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire and the intense rivalry between father and son became much more apparent. Johann Jr. decided to side with the revolutionaries. It was a decision, professionally disadvantageous, as the Austrian royalty twice denied him the much coveted'KK Hofballmusikdirektor' position, first designated for Johann I in recognition of his musical contributions.
Further, the younger Strauss was arrested by the Viennese authorities for publicly playing "La Marseillaise", but was acquitted. The elder Strauss remained loyal to the monarchy, composed his "Radetzky March", Op. 228, which would become one of his best-known compositions. When the elder Strauss died from scarlet fever in Vienna in 1849, the younger Strauss merged both their orchestras and engaged in further tours, he composed a number of patriotic marches dedicated to the Habsburg Emperor Franz Josef I, such as the "Kaiser Franz-Josef Marsch" Op. 67 and the "Kaiser Franz Josef Rettungs Jubel-Marsch" Op. 126 to ingratiate himself in the eyes of the new monarch, who ascended to the Austrian throne after the 1848 revolution. Strauss Jr. attained greater fame than his father and became one of the most popular waltz composers of the era, extensively touring Austria and Germany with his orchestra. He applied for the KK Hofballmusikdirektor position, which he attained in 1863, aft
Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was the emperor of the Gallic Empire from 271 to 274. He was the praeses of Gallia Aquitania, became emperor after the murder of Emperor Victorinus in 271, after receiving the support of Victorinus's mother Victoria. During his reign, he faced external pressure from Germanic raiders, who pillaged the eastern and northern parts of his empire, the Roman Empire, from which the Gallic Empire had seceded, he faced increasing internal pressure, which led him to declare his son, Tetricus II, caesar in 273 and co-emperor in 274, although this is debated. The Roman emperor Aurelian invaded in 273 or 274, which culminated in the Battle of Châlons, at which Tetricus surrendered. Whether this was the result of a secret agreement between Tetricus and Aurelian or necessary after his defeat is debated. Aurelian spared Tetricus, made him a senator and corrector of Lucania et Bruttii, he died of natural causes a few years after 274. The Gallic Empire is the historiographic name given to a state composed of the Roman provinces which made up Britannia and Gaul, which broke away from the Roman Empire during the reign of Emperor Gallienus.
Gallienus had become emperor after his father, Emperor Valerian, was captured by the Sassanids in 260. Gallienus was overwhelmed by numerous issues, including several usurpers, barbarian attacks in the Balkans and along the Rhine — one attack by the Franks pushed as far as Tarraco in Hispania; because Gallienus was unable to prevent the raids, Postumus, a military commander on the Rhine frontier, rose up and declared himself emperor. Postumus focused on defending the Gallic Empire, and, in the words of ancient Roman historian Eutropius:"restored the exhausted provinces through his enormous vigour and moderation." Gallienus attempted to invade the Gallic Empire twice, but was repulsed both times, forcing him to acquiesce in the secession. Although he was unable to conquer the Gallic Empire, Gallienus did ensure that the Roman Empire was defended. Postumus was killed by his own soldiers in 269 in Mogontiacum while putting down a revolt by the usurper Laelianus, because he refused to allow them to sack the city.
After the army killed Postumus, they elected an officer, as Gallic Emperor. While some ancient sources hold that Marius reigned for only two days before being killed by Victorinus, who had served as praetorian prefect under Postumus, the quantity of coins issued by Marius indicate that he must have served for a longer time, a period of three months. Victorinus declared himself emperor in mid-269 two days after killing Marius. Victorinus' rule was recognized by the provinces of Britannia and Gaul, but not by those of Hispania. Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus referred to as Tetricus I, was born in Gaul, at an unknown date, to a noble family. Little of his early life is known, however he had become a senator and occupied the post of praeses provinciae of Gallia Aquitania, a province in the south west of what is now France, by 271. In early 271, Emperor Victorinus was murdered in the city of Colonia by Attitianus, an officer in the Gallic army because he had seduced Attitianus' wife; because the motivation for his assassination was personal, rather than political, Victorinus' mother, was able to retain power within the empire.
The army proclaimed Tetricus as Gallic emperor in spring of the same year at Burdigala, although Tetricus was not present for the proclamation. The Gallic Empire mirrored the Roman imperial administrative traditions, as such Gallic emperors would adopt Roman regnal titles upon their accession; the Gallic Empire followed the Roman tradition of emperors appointing themselves as consul, with Tetricus appointing himself as consul in 271, 272, 273, 274. Tetricus was tribune from 271–274. Tetricus elevated his son, Tetricus II, as caesar in 273 to increase the legitimacy of his reign, by founding a dynasty; the unreliable Historia Augusta, in the biography of Emperor Aurelian, states that Tetricus elevated his son at an unspecified date, however neither of the ancient historians Aurelius Victor and Eutropius mention such an event. During Tetricus' reign, the main threats to the Gallic Empire came from the Roman Empire and Germanic tribes. Tetricus had to contend with dissent within the army and government.
Tetricus was recognized as emperor by all of Gaul — except Gallia Narbonensis, reconquered by the Placidianus, a general under Roman emperor Claudius Gothicus — and Brittania. He was not recognized by the province of Hispania, including Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis, — which had earlier refused to recognize Victorinus as emperor — along with the city of Argentoratum in Germania.
Attila called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns and Alans among others, in Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Eastern Roman Empires, he plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire, the success of which emboldened Attila to invade the West, he attempted to conquer Roman Gaul, crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. He subsequently was unable to take Rome, he planned for further campaigns against the Romans, but died in 453. After Attila's death, his close adviser, Ardaric of the Gepids, led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, after which the Hunnic Empire collapsed. There is no surviving first-hand account of Attila's appearance, but there is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus.
He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands, who in some way terrified all mankind by the dreadful rumors noised abroad concerning him. He was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes hither and thither, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body, he was indeed a lover of war, yet restrained in action, mighty in counsel, gracious to suppliants and lenient to those who were once received into his protection. Short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head. Many scholars have argued. Omeljan Pritsak considered Ἀττίλα a composite title-name which derived from Turkic *es, *t il, the suffix /a/.:444 The stressed back syllabic til assimilated the front member es, so it became *as.:444 It is a nominative, in form of attíl- with the meaning "the oceanic, universal ruler".:444 J. J. Mikkola connected it with Turkic āt.:216 As another Turkic possibility, H. Althof considered it was related to Turkish atli, or Turkish at and dil.:216 Maenchen-Helfen argues that Pritsak's derivation is "ingenious but for many reasons unacceptable",:387 while dismissing Mikkola's as "too farfetched to be taken seriously".:390 M. Snædal notes that none of these proposals has achieved wide acceptance.:215-216 Criticizing the proposals of finding Turkic or other etymologies for Attila, Doerfer notes that King George VI of England had a name of Greek origin, Süleyman the Magnificent had a name of Arabic origin, yet that does not make them Greeks or Arabs: it is therefore plausible that Attila would have a name not of Hunnic origin.:31-32 Historian Hyun Jin Kim, has argued that the Turkic etymology is "more probable".:30M.
Snædal, in a paper that rejects the Germanic derivation but notes the problems with the existing proposed Turkic etymologies, argues that Attila's name could have originated from Turkic-Mongolian at, adyy/agta and Turkish atli, meaning "possessor of geldings, provider of warhorses".:216-217 The historiography of Attila is faced with a major challenge, in that the only complete sources are written in Greek and Latin by the enemies of the Huns. Attila's contemporaries left many testimonials of his life, but only fragments of these remain.:25 Priscus was a Byzantine diplomat and historian who wrote in Greek, he was both a witness to and an actor in the story of Attila, as a member of the embassy of Theodosius II at the Hunnic court in 449. He was biased by his political position, but his writing is a major source for information on the life of Attila, he is the only person known to have recorded a physical description of him, he wrote a history of the late Roman Empire in eight books covering the period from 430 to 476.
Today we have only fragments of Priscus' work, but it was cited extensively by 6th-century historians Procopius and Jordanes,:413 in Jordanes' The Origin and Deeds of the Goths. It contains numerous references to Priscus's history, it is an important source of information about the Hunnic empire and its neighbors, he describes the Hunnic people for a century after Attila's death. Marcellinus Comes, a chancellor of Justinian during the same era describes the relations between the Huns and the Eastern Roman Empire.:30Numerous ecclesiastical writings contain useful but scattered information, sometimes difficult to authenticate or disto
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792; the first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform the French government in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, increase tolerance toward non-Catholics; the French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, opposed their implementation. Louis implemented deregulation of the grain market, advocated by his economic liberal minister Turgot, but it resulted in an increase in bread prices.
In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity. From 1776, Louis XVI supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, realised in the 1783 Treaty of Paris; the ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime. This led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. Discontent among the members of France's middle and lower classes resulted in strengthened opposition to the French aristocracy and to the absolute monarchy, of which Louis and his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, were viewed as representatives. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly. Louis XVI was initiated into masonic lodge Trois-Frères à l'Orient de la Cour. Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, his popularity deteriorated progressively.
His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention. The credibility of the king was undermined, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility. Despite his lack of popular approbation, Louis XVI did abolish the death penalty for deserters, as well as the labor tax, which had compelled the French lower classes to spend two weeks out of the year working on buildings and roads. In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of high treason, executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793, as a desacralized French citizen under the name of "Citizen Louis Capet," in reference to Hugh Capet, the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as Louis's family name.
Louis XVI was the only King of France to be executed, his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Both of his sons died before the Bourbon Restoration. Louis-Auguste de France, given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. One of seven children, he was the second surviving son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, thus the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort, Maria Leszczyńska, his mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. Louis-Auguste was overlooked by his parents who favored his older brother, duc de Bourgogne, regarded as bright and handsome but who died at the age of nine in 1761. Louis-Auguste, a strong and healthy boy but shy, excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history and astronomy and became fluent in Italian and English, he enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather and rough play with his younger brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence, Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois.
From an early age, Louis-Auguste was encouraged in another of his interests, seen as a useful pursuit for a child. Upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin, his mother never recovered from the loss of her husband and died on 13 March 1767 from tuberculosis. The strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon, "gouverneur des Enfants de France", from 1760 until his marriage in 1770, did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. Throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion and humanities, his instructors may have had a good hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he became. Abbé Berthier, his instructor, taught him that timidity was a value in strong monarchs, Abbé Soldini, his confessor, instructed him not to let people read his mind. On 16 May 1770, at the ag