Bernard Jean Étienne Arnault is a French business magnate, an investor, art collector. Arnault is the chairman and chief executive officer of LVMH, the world's largest luxury-goods company, he is the richest person in Europe and the fourth-richest person in the world according to Forbes magazine, with a net worth of $88.1 billion, as of April 2019. In April 2018, he became the richest person in fashion. After graduating from the Lycée Maxence Van Der Meersch in Roubaix, Arnault was admitted to the École Polytechnique in Palaiseau, from which he graduated with an engineering degree in 1971, his father, Jean Leon Arnault, a graduate of École Centrale Paris, was a manufacturer and the owner of the civil engineering company, Ferret-Savinel. After graduation, Arnault joined his father's company, in 1971. In 1976, he convinced his father to liquidate the construction division of the company for 40 million French francs and to change the focus of the company to real estate. Using the name Férinel, the new company developed a specialty in holiday accommodation.
Named the Director of Company Development in 1974, he became the CEO in 1977. In 1979, he succeeded his father as president of the company. In 1984, with the help of Antoine Bernheim, a senior partner of Lazard Frères, Arnault acquired the Financière Agache, a luxury goods company, he became the CEO of Financière Agache and subsequently took control of Boussac Saint-Frères, a textile company in turmoil. Boussac owned Christian Dior, the department store Le Bon Marché, the retail shop Conforama, the diapers manufacturer Peaudouce, he sold nearly all the company's assets, keeping only the prestigious Christian Dior brand and Le Bon Marché department store. In 1987, shortly after the creation of LVMH, the brand new luxury group resulting from the merger between two companies, Arnault mediated a conflict between Alain Chevalier, Moët Hennessy's CEO, Henri Racamier, president of Louis Vuitton; the new group held property rights to Dior perfumes that Arnault believed should be incorporated into Dior Couture.
In July 1988, Arnault provided $1.5 billion to form a holding company with Guinness that held 24% of LVMH's shares. In response to rumors that the Louis Vuitton group was buying LVMH's stock to form a "blocking minority", Arnault spent $600 million to buy 13.5% more of LVMH, making him LVMH's largest shareholder. In January 1989, he spent another $500 million to gain control of a total of 43.5% of LVMH's shares and 35% of its voting rights, thus reaching the "blocking minority" that he needed to stop the dismantlement of the LVMH group. On 13 January 1989, he was unanimously elected chairman of the executive management board. Since Arnault led the company through an ambitious development plan, transforming it into one of the largest luxury groups in the world, alongside Swiss luxury giant Richemont and French-based Kering. In eleven years, the market value of LVMH has multiplied by at least fifteen, while the sales and profit rose by 500%, he promoted decisions towards decentralizing the group's brands.
As a result of these measures, the brands are now viewed as independent firms with their own history. Arnault's professional decisions support the idea that LVMH has "shared advantages" such as having the strong brands that help finance those that are still developing; the portfolio of major luxury brands has a history of stability, thus its solidity allows for new acquisitions and group development. It is because of this strategy. In July 1988, Arnault acquired Céline. In 1993, LVMH acquired Kenzo. In the same year, Arnault bought out the French economic newspaper La Tribune; the company never achieved the desired success, despite his 150 million euro investment, he sold it in November 2007 in order to buy a different French economic newspaper, Les Échos, for 240 million euros. In 1994, LVMH acquired the perfume firm Guerlain. In 1996, Arnault bought out Loewe, followed by Marc Jacobs and Sephora in 1997; these brands were integrated into the group: Thomas Pink in 1999, Emilio Pucci in 2000 and Fendi, DKNY and La Samaritaine in 2001.
In the 1990s, Arnault decided to develop a centre in New York to manage LVMH's presence in the United States. He chose Christian de Portzamparc to supervise this project; the result was the LVMH Tower that opened in December 1999. From 2010 until 2013, Arnault was a member of the Board of Advisors of the Malaysian 1MDB fund. From 1998 to 2001, Arnault invested in a variety of web companies such as Boo.com and Zebank through his holding Europatweb. Groupe Arnault invested in Netflix in 1999. In 2007, Blue Capital announced that Arnault owns jointly with the California property firm Colony Capital acquired 10.69% of France's largest supermarket retailer and the world's second-largest food distributor Carrefour. In 2008, he bought Princess Yachts for 253 million euros, he subsequently took control of Royal van Lent for an identical sum. Arnault's collection includes work by Picasso, Yves Klein, Henry Moore, Andy Warhol, he was instrumental in establishing LVMH as a major patron of art in France. The LVMH Young Fashion Designer was created as an international competition open to students from fine-arts schools.
Every year, the winner is awarded a grant to support the creation of the designer's own label and with a year of mentorship. From 1999 to 2003, he owned Phillips de Pury & Company, an art auction house, bought out the first French auctioneer, Tajan. In 2006, Arnault started the building project of the Louis Vuitton Foundation. Dedicated to creation and contemporary art, the building was designed by the architect Frank Gehry; the Foundation's grand
David Hyde Pierce
David Hyde Pierce is an American actor and director. He is best known for playing psychiatrist Dr. Niles Crane on the NBC sitcom Frasier, for which he won four Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series during the show's run. Pierce has played supporting roles in many films, including Little Man Tate, The Fisher King, Sleepless in Seattle, A Bug's Life, Oliver Stone's Nixon. Pierce has had a successful career on stage, his Broadway roles include Sir Robin in Spamalot, Vanya in Vanya and Sonia and Masha and Spike and Horace Vandergelder in Hello Dolly. He won the 2007 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical for his performance in Curtains. In 2015, he directed the Broadway musical It Shoulda Been You. Pierce was born David Pierce in New York, his father, George Hyde Pierce, was an aspiring actor, his mother, Laura Marie, was an insurance agent. He added his middle name "Hyde" to avoid confusion with another actor named David Pierce; as a child, Pierce played organ at the local Bethesda Episcopal Church.
While attending Yale, Pierce performed in and directed student productions, appearing in the Yale Gilbert & Sullivan Society's production of H. M. S. Pinafore, he directed the Gilbert & Sullivan Society's operetta Princess Ida. Among other productions Pierce appeared in at Yale were Waiting for Godot, Saint Joan, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. After his graduation, Pierce moved to New York City, where during the 1980s and early 1990s he was employed in various jobs, such as selling ties at Bloomingdale's and working as a security guard, while pursuing an acting career and studying at Michael Howard Studios. During this period he played Laertes in a popular off-Broadway production of Hamlet and made his Broadway debut in 1982 in Christopher Durang's Beyond Therapy. Pierce's first big television break came in the early 1990s with Norman Lear's political comedy, The Powers That Be, in which Pierce played Theodore, a Congressman. Despite positive reviews from critics, the show was canceled after a brief run.
In part due to his close physical resemblance to Kelsey Grammer, the producers of the Cheers spin-off Frasier created the role of Niles Crane for him. Although prior to Frasier going into production, Pierce had petitioned the Screen Actors Guild to change his billing to David Pierce, the name he had used on the stage, the use of his middle name in the show's credits helped reinforce the actor's and the character's "snooty" image. For his work on Frasier, Pierce was nominated for a Best Supporting Actor Emmy a record eleven consecutive years, winning in 1995, 1998, 1999 and 2004. Pierce appeared alongside Jodie Foster in Little Man Tate, with Anthony Hopkins in Oliver Stone's Nixon, with Ewan McGregor in Down With Love, he provided the voice for Doctor Doppler in Disney's 42nd animated feature, Treasure Planet, Slim, a stick insect in Pixar's A Bug's Life and Abe Sapien in Guillermo del Toro's Hellboy. In his role in Sleepless in Seattle, Pierce played the brother of Meg Ryan's character, a professor at Johns Hopkins University.
The movie was released three months before the start of Frasier. In 2001, he starred in the cult 1981-set summer camp comedy Wet Hot American Summer, as the befuddled astrophysicist, Prof. Henry Newman. In 2005, Pierce joined others in the stage production of Spamalot. In August and September 2006, he starred as Lieutenant Frank Cioffi in Curtains, a new Kander and Ebb musical staged at the Ahmanson Theatre in Los Angeles. In March 2007, Curtains opened on Broadway and on June 10, 2007, Pierce won the Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical at the 61st Tony Awards for his performance. In his acceptance speech, Pierce said the first words he spoke on a Broadway stage were, "I'm sorry, I'm going to have to ask you to leave."On November 19, 2007, Pierce was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts Degree from Niagara University in Lewiston, New York. In 1999 he was awarded an Honorary Degree from Skidmore College, located in his native Saratoga Springs. In 2010, Pierce appeared in a revival of David Hirson's play La Bête directed by Matthew Warchus.
The production debuted on London's West End before moving to New York. In 2010, Pierce had his first starring film role as Warwick Wilson in the dark comedy/psychological thriller The Perfect Host. Pierce directed the Broadway production of the musical It Shoulda Been You. In 2015 he directed the Manhattan Theater Club production of David Lindsay-Abaire's play Ripcord Off-Broadway at City Center. Pierce appeared in the Off-Broadway limited engagement of A Life by Adam Bock; the play premiered at the Peter Jay Sharp Theater on October 24, 2016, directed by Anne Kaufman, closed on November 27. Pierce co-starred with Bette Midler in the Broadway revival of Hello, Dolly!. The musical opened on April 2017 at the Shubert Theatre; the show was a critical and box office hit. Pierce himself received a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performance. Pierce received a 2017 Drama League award nomination for Hello, Dolly! and A Life. Pierce is known for his distinctive voice and, like his Frasier co-star, Kelsey Grammer, is called upon to provide voice work.
His notable roles include the narrator of the movie The Mating Habits of the Earthbound Human in 1999, walking stick insect Slim in A Bug's Life, Doctor Delbert Doppler in Disney's film Treasure Planet, the amphibian Abe Sapien in Hellboy. Pierce refused credit for his Hellboy role because he felt it was the performance of Doug Jones, not his own voice, which brought the character of Abe Sapien to life, he was the voice for a cold pill, in the animated comedy Osmosis Jones. In a deliberate
Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
Second wine or second label is a term associated with Bordeaux wine to refer to a second label wine made from cuvee not selected for use in the Grand vin or first label. In some cases a third wine or fourth wine is produced. Depending on the house winemaking style, individual plots of a vineyard may be selected those of the youngest vines, fermented separately, with the best performing barrels being chosen for the house's top wine and the other barrels being bottled under a separate label and sold for a lower price than the Grand vin. In less favorable vintages, an estate may choose to release only a second label wine rather than to release a smaller than normal quantity of its Grand vin or a wine that would not be consistent with past vintages under that name; the practice has its roots in the 18th century but became more commercially prominent in the 1980s when consumers discovered these wines as a more affordable way to drink the product of a First growth or classified Bordeaux estate without paying the premium for the estate's label and classification.
The opposite phenomenon, of only releasing a top wine in exceptional years is seen in Iberia in "Gran Reserva" reserve wine and vintage port. From the producer's point of view, a second wine allows the winery to use a stricter selection for its Grand Vin, while still capitalising on its name and distribution channels in selling the second wine, which will be much more profitable than selling off lesser wine "anonymously" to be used in e.g. negociant bulk bottlings. The practice of establishing a second wine began in the 18th century as way for Bordeaux winemakers to be more selective of the wine going into their estate label wine without wasting the remaining wine. According to records, Château Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande shipped its "second wine" of the 1874 vintage to the 1891 Exposition française in Moscow, although La Réserve de la Comtesse would not be for sale to the public until 1973. Château Brane-Cantenac may have had a second label some time in the 18th century according to Decanter, but more evidently, Château Léoville-Las Cases first produced its Clos du Marquis in 1904, Château Margaux followed with Pavillon Rouge produced from 1908.
Château Mouton Rothschild released the poor 1927 vintage named Carruades de Mouton, followed in 1930 by Mouton Cadet as a second label, selling wine from previous difficult harvests considered unfit as château Grand vin vintage at reduced prices to successful response. The estate has since expanded with more labels pushing Mouton Cadet further down its portfolio, with Le Petit Mouton de Mouton Rothschild the estate's second wine and Mouton Cadet evolving into its own brand with a distinctly different marketing strategy. In the drive to higher quality that has taken place in recent decades, additional Bordeaux châteaux have added second wine. With the increased market competition since the 1980s, estates became more selective in the assemblage stage, making greater parts of the production disposed to be either sold off in bulk, or blended into second wine. Having a second wine is a part of the recipe prescribed by Michel Rolland and similar wine-making consultants; as an example, Château Kirwan, a Third Growth in Margaux, added their second wine Les Charmes de Kirwan in 1993, after Rolland was brought in.
In many ways the production of a second wine mirrors the production of estate's Grand vin being made from the same vineyard, with the same blend of grapes and by the same winemaker. Some selection takes place after harvest, when plots that are underperforming or are planted with younger vines will be earmarked for the second wine, which means that they receive a "cheaper" treatment with a lower percentage of new barrels. Additional selection will be done after the barrel aging when the winemaker will isolate the best performing barrels that most reflects the house style of the estate label with the remaining wine being bottled under second or third and fourth labels; the second wine may have some hints and characteristics of the estate wine but is less polished and structured than the estate wine. An estate will promote its second wines and most wine labels will not mention the parent estate because of the desire to keep the estate associated with its Grand vin. However, some high end producers market their second wine as a "wine for earlier consumption" rather than "a lesser wine".
Second wines do not have the word "château" in their name, but they sport some other part of their winery's name to add name recognition. The second wines of classified growths, since they are different wines, are not themselves part of the 1855 classification or other classifications, they are, entitled to use the same appellation as the Grand Vin, as they originate from the same terroir. As an example, Les Forts de Latour is an AOC Pauillac just like Château Latour, but is not a First Growth or any other kind of classified growth. Reserve wine Vintage port
Belgians are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe. As Belgium is a multinational state, this connection may be residential, historical, or cultural rather than ethnic; the majority of Belgians, belong to two distinct ethnic groups or communities native to the country, i.e. its historical regions: Flemings in Flanders, who speak Dutch and Walloons in Wallonia who speak French or Walloon. There is a substantial Belgian diaspora, which has settled in the United States, Canada and Netherlands; the 1830 revolution led to the establishment of an independent country under a provisional government and a national congress. The name "Belgium" was adopted for the country, the word being derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that, before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples; the Latin name was revived in 1790 by the short-lived United Belgian States, created after a revolution against Austrian rule took place in 1789.
Since no adjective equivalent to "Belgian" existed at the time, the French noun "Belgique" was adopted as both noun and adjective. From the sixteenth century, the Low Countries" or "Netherlands", were referred to as'Belgica' in Latin, as was the Dutch Republic. Belgians are a nationality or citizen group, by jus soli known as birthright citizenship, are not a homogeneous ethnic group. Belgians are made up of two main ethnic groups; these sometimes competing ethnic and linguistic priorities are governed by constitutionally designated "regions or communities", depending on the constitutional realm of the topic, a complex and uniquely Belgian political construct. Since many Belgians are at least bilingual, or trilingual, it is common for business and family networks to include members of the various ethnic groups composing Belgium; the Brussels-Capital Region occupies a unique political and cultural position since geographically and linguistically it is a bilingual enclave within the unilingual Flemish Region.
Since the founding of the Kingdom of Belgium in 1830, the city of Brussels has transformed from being entirely Dutch-speaking into a multilingual city with French as the majority language and lingua franca, a process, labelled the Frenchification of Brussels". Since the independence of Belgium in 1830, the constitutional title of the Belgian head of state is the "King of the Belgians" rather than the "King of Belgium". Within Belgium the Flemish, about 60% of the population, form a distinguishable group, set apart by their language and customs. However, when compared to the Netherlands most of these cultural and linguistic boundaries fade, as the Flemish share the same language, similar or identical customs and traditional religion with the Dutch. However, the popular perception of being a single polity varies depending on subject matter and personal background. Flemings will identify themselves as being Dutch and vice versa on a national level. Walloons are a French-speaking people. Walloons are a distinctive community within Belgium, important historical and anthropological criteria bind Walloons to the French people.
More the term refers to the inhabitants of the Walloon Region. They may speak regional languages such as Walloon. Though three-quarters of Belgium's French speakers live in Wallonia, it is important to note that French-speaking residents of Brussels tend not to identify as Walloons; the German-speaking Community of Belgium is one of the three constitutionally recognized federal communities of Belgium. Covering an area of less than 1,000 km2 within the province of Liège in Wallonia, it includes nine of the eleven municipalities of the so-called East Cantons and the local population numbers over 73,000 — less than 1% of the national total. Bordering the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the area has its own parliament and government at Eupen; the German-speaking community is composed of the German-speaking parts of the lands that were annexed in 1920 from Germany. In addition, in contemporary Belgium there are some other German-speaking areas that belonged to Belgium before 1920, but they are not considered part of the German-speaking community in Belgium: Bleiberg-Welkenraat-Baelen in Northeastern province of Liège and Arelerland.
However, in these localities, the German language is endangered due to the adoption of French. Roman Catholicism has traditionally been Belgium's majority religion, with 65% of the Belgians declaring themselves to be Catholics. However, by 2004, nationwide Sunday church attendance was only about 4 to 8%. A 2006 inquiry in Flanders, long considered more religious than the Brussels or Wallonia regions in Belgium, showed 55% of its inhabitants calling themselves religious, while 36% said that they believed that God created the world. Belgium had a population of 10,839,905 people on 1 January 2010, an increase of 601,000 in comparison to 2000 (10,239,085
Cru is "a vineyard or group of vineyards one of recognized quality". It is a French wine term, traditionally translated as "growth", as it was the past participle of the verb "croître"; as a wine term it is connected to terroir in the sense of an "extent of terrain having a certain physical homogeneity... considered from the point of view of the nature of the soil as communicating a particular character to its produce, notably to wine". It may thus be defined as: "Terroir as a place of production" or an "Ensemble of terrains considered from the point of view of what grows there, from a particular cultivation." More cru is used to indicate a named and defined vineyard or ensemble of vineyards and the vines "which grow on a reputed terroir. The term is used to refer to the wine produced from such vines; the term cru is used within classifications of French wine. By implication, a wine that displays the name of its cru on its wine label is supposed to exhibit the typical characteristics of this cru.
The terms Premier Cru, Grand Cru, etc. are translated into English as First Growth, Great Growth, etc.. Premier cru is a French language wine term corresponding to "First Growth", which can be used to refer to classified vineyards and wines, with different meanings in different wine regions: For Bordeaux wine, the term is applied to classified wineries: In the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Premier cru or Premier cru classé is the highest level of five within the "Grand cru classé" designation for red wines from the Médoc and Graves, the second-highest of three in Sauternes where the highest is Premier Cru Supérieur; these wines are referred to as First Growths in English. In the Classification of Saint-Émilion wine, the highest level is Premier grand cru classé A and the second-highest Premier grand cru classé B; the term Saint-Émilion Grand cru refers to wineries or wines below the overall Grand cru classé level, is integrated within the appellation rules. For Burgundy wine, the term is applied to classified vineyards, with Premier cru being the second-highest classification level, below that of Grand cru and above the basic village AOCs.
For Burgundy wines, the terms Premier Cru or 1er Cru are kept rather than being translated into English. Grand cru is a regional wine classification that designates a vineyard known for its favorable reputation in producing wine. Although used to describe grapes, wine or cognac, the term is not technically a classification of wine quality per se, but is intended to indicate the potential of the vineyard or terroir, it is the highest level of classification of Appellation d'origine contrôlée wines from Burgundy or Alsace. The same term is applied to Châteaux in Saint-Émilion, although in that region it has a different meaning and does not represent the top tier of classification. In Burgundy the level below grand cru is known as premier cru, sometimes written as 1er cru. Early Burgundian wine history is distinctly marked by the work of the Cistercians with the Catholic Church being the principal vineyard owner for most of the Middle Ages. Receiving land and vineyards as tithes, endowments and as exchanges for indulgences the monks were able to studiously observe the quality of wines from individual plots and over time began to isolate those areas that would produce wine of similar aroma, body and vigor and designate them as crus.
Following the success of the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Jules Lavalle developed an informal classification of vineyards of the Côte d'Or in his book History and Statistics of the Côte d'Or. In 1861, Lavalle's classification was formalized by the Beaune Committee of Agriculture; the designations of grand cru and premier cru were developed and expanded on in the 1930s with the creation of the AOC system. Alsace Grand Cru AOC Cru Bourgeois Grand cru List of Burgundy Grand Crus List of Chablis crus Regional wine classification Route des Grands Crus Schoenenbourg
Figeac is a commune in the Lot department in south-western France. Figeac is a sub-prefecture of the department. Figeac is on the via Podiensis, a major hiking medieval pilgrimage trail, part of the Way of St. James. Today, as a part of France's system of trails it is labelled the GR 65. Jean-François Champollion, the first translator of Egyptian hieroglyphics, was born in Figeac, where there is a Champollion Museum. On the "Place des écritures" is a giant copy of the Rosetta stone, by Joseph Kosuth; the German film historian Lotte H Eisner hid from the Nazis in Figeac during World War II. The actor Charles Boyer was born in Figeac. Louis Malle's 1974 film, Lacombe Lucien, was filmed in Figeac. Communes of the Lot department Figeac website Tourist office Picture of the Place des Ecritures Explore the local area Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Figeac". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press