Rideau Street is a major street in downtown Ottawa, Ontario and one of Ottawa's oldest and most famous streets running from Wellington Street in the west to Montreal Road in the east where it connects to the Vanier district. Rideau Street is home to the Château Laurier, the CF Rideau Centre and the Government Conference Centre. Along with Wellington Street and Sussex Drive it was among the first streets in Ottawa to be host to businesses; the Plaza Bridge by the Rideau Canal is at its westmost point and the Cummings Bridge is at its eastmost point. For many years, Rideau Street was one of Ottawa's primary retail thoroughfares, containing department stores such as Freimans, Ogilvy's, Caplan's and Metropolitan. In November 1979 mayor Marion Dewar examined a plan to create what became the'Rideau Street Bus Mall.' Sidewalks from Sussex to Dalhousie were enclosed in a continuous glass-and-steel structure. The heated mall was expected to allow pedestrians to shop in comfort year-round. However, the structure had an unanticipated downside, in that it attracted large numbers of homeless and late-night drinkers.
Many establishments along the affected stretch of Rideau Street failed as a result. The decision was made to tear the shelters down, in the end the cost for dismantling them was as much as the $6.5 million incurred in their construction. Although the local department stores are gone, Rideau Street still features The Bay department store, the Rideau Centre shopping mall, the street is adjacent to shops of the Byward Market; the street had been designated Highway 17B before the Ontario government discontinued it in 1998. To the north of Rideau, east of King Edward Avenue is the traditional Lower Town district of Ottawa, a residential area which in the past was predominantly Francophone, but now has one of Ottawa's largest immigrant populations, notably including many Francophone Africans and Somalis. North of Rideau and west of King Edward is the commercial Byward Market area. To the south of Rideau Street is the Sandy Hill neighbourhood, with its mix of embassies, older houses, low- and high-rise apartment buildings, student housing.
A section of Rideau Street was closed to all traffic from June 8 to July 2, 2016 after it collapsed in the vicinity of excavations being made for the Rideau station of the Confederation Line. That year on October 2, a much smaller sinkhole opened in the same area as the June 8 sinkhole. Due to the sinkholes, Rideau Street was closed to regular traffic from Sussex to Dalhousie until further notice. Only buses, construction vehicles, delivery vehicles were permitted. 2014 sinkhole Rideau Street Chapel Sussex Drive Wallis House Wellington Street
ByWard Market is a district in Lower Town located east of the government and business district, surrounding the market buildings and open-air market on George, York, ByWard and William streets. The district is bordered on the west by Sussex Drive and Mackenzie Avenue, on the east by Cumberland Street, it stretches northwards to Cathcart Street. The name refers to the old'By Ward' of the City of Ottawa; the district comprises the main commercial part of the historic Lower Town area of Ottawa. According to the Canada 2011 Census, the population of the area was 3,063; the market itself is regulated by a City of Ottawa municipal services corporation named Marchés d'Ottawa Markets, which operates the smaller west-end Parkdale Market. The corporation is run by a nine member board of directors; the market building is open year-round, open-air stalls are operated in the warmer months offering fresh produce and flowers. Traditionally, the ByWard Market area has been a focal point for Ottawa's French and Irish communities.
The large Catholic community supported Notre Dame Cathedral, one of the largest and oldest Roman Catholic churches in Ottawa. The shape of the cathedral was taken into account in the design of the National Gallery of Canada, built across Sussex Drive; the ByWard Market has been an area of fluid change, adapting to the cosmopolitan nature of downtown Ottawa, as well as trends in Canadian society as a whole. A multitude of restaurants and specialty food stores have sprouted around the market area, making this neighbourhood one of the liveliest in Ottawa outside of normal business hours. A four-block area around the market provides the most dense concentration of eating places and nightclubs in the National Capital Region; the areas beyond this zone offer boutiques and restaurants in abundance, are frequented by a considerable number of buskers. Having acquired a reputation as the city's premier bar district, Byward Market is thronged at night with university students and other young adults. Over the years the city has developed a series of five small, human-scale, open air courtyards east of Sussex Drive, stretching from Saint Patrick Street to George Street.
These cobblestone courtyards are filled with flowers, park benches and sculptures. Several of the houses surrounding them are historic buildings. At the other extreme on the west side of Sussex Drive is the United States Embassy; the building's design, by noted architect David Childs, was somewhat controversial in Ottawa. Others complained; the neighbourhood is today markedly heterogeneous, being visited by a mix of young professionals, many families and some homeless people. At one time, the area had a serious prostitution problem, remedied by a controversial rerouting of traffic through much of the residential area; the area is English-speaking but there exists a significant francophone population as well. The Market is located in close proximity to the downtown, to the Rideau Centre shopping mall, to Parliament Hill and to a number of foreign embassies. In 1826, Lieutenant Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers was sent from England to oversee the construction of the Rideau canal system, designed to connect the Ottawa River to Kingston, on the St. Lawrence River.
It was out of this massive project that the small community of Bytown grew into a flourishing commercial and economic centre. Colonel By prepared plans for two village sites: one on the west side of the Rideau canal, known as Upper Town; the land was surveyed. Both villages were divided into building lots; the Village of Lower Town was bounded by the Rideau River and Sussex and Rideau Streets. This town plan included an area designated as a commercial section within the block bounded by George, Sussex and King Streets. Lt.-Col By designed George and York Streets 132 feet wide in order to leave room for a proposed market building and courthouse, to leave room for the flow of the By Wash. Most of the Lower Town site was covered with swampland. Excess water from the canal was released through a sluice gate; this became known as the By Wash and emptied into the Rideau River. From the beginning Bytown was divided, not only physically by the canal but ethnically and economically. Upper Town was settled by officers and professionals, most of whom were Protestants and Anglicans of English or Scottish descent.
On the other hand, Lower Town was settled by labourers who had come to Bytown seeking employment during the building of the canal. These inhabitants were Catholic Irish immigrants and French Canadians. In 1827, the two towns were connected along Rideau Street by Sappers Bridge, which spanned the canal. In 1827, Colonel By used 160 pounds of revenue from property rents to build a market building with a courthouse behind it on George Street; this was the original market building, large for the time, constructed of timber with dovetailed corners, a veranda on each side, an attached weighing machine. This building served both as a centre for market activities, as a public hall for political and religious meetings. In the 1830s, Lower Town enjoyed a period of rapid commercial growth. Stores of every description, hotels and industrial buildings sprang up all ar
R. B. Bennett
Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, was a Canadian lawyer and politician. He served as the 11th prime minister of Canada, in office from 1930 to 1935, he led the Conservative Party from 1927 to 1938. Bennett was born in Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick, grew up in nearby Hopewell Cape, he studied law at Dalhousie University, graduating in 1893, in 1897 moved to Calgary to establish a law firm in partnership with James Lougheed. Bennett served in the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories from 1898 to 1905, in the Alberta Legislature from 1909 to 1911, he was the inaugural leader of the Alberta Conservative Party from 1905, resigning upon his election to the House of Commons in 1911. From 1920 to 1921, Bennett was Minister of Justice under Arthur Meighen, he served as Minister of Finance in Meighen's second government in 1926, which lasted just a month. Meighen resigned the Conservative Party's leadership after its defeat at the 1926 election, with Bennett elected as his replacement.
Bennett became prime minister after the 1930 election, where the Conservatives won a landslide victory over Mackenzie King's Liberal Party. He was the first prime minister to represent a constituency in Alberta; the main difficulty during Bennett's prime ministership was the Great Depression. He and his party tried to combat the crisis with laissez-faire policies, but these were ineffective. However, over time Bennett's government became interventionist, attempting to replicate the popular "New Deal" enacted by Franklin Roosevelt to the south; this about-face prompted a split within Conservative ranks, was regarded by the general public as evidence of incompetence. Bennett suffered a landslide defeat at the 1935 election, with Mackenzie King returning for a third term. Bennett remained leader of the Conservative Party until 1938, he was created Viscount Bennett, the only Canadian prime minister to be honoured with elevation to the peerage. Bennett's prime ministership is regarded as a failure by historians, although he left lasting legacies in the form of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the Bank of Canada.
Bennett was born on 3 July 1870, when his mother, Henrietta Stiles, was visiting at her parents' home in Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick, Canada. He was the eldest of six children, grew up nearby at the Bay of Fundy home of his father, Henry John Bennett, in Hopewell Cape, the shire town of Albert County a town of 1,800 people, his father descended from English ancestors. His great-great-grandfather, Zadock Bennett, migrated from New London, Connecticut, to Nova Scotia c. 1760, before the American Revolution, as one of the New England Planters who took the lands forcibly removed from the deported Acadians during the Great Upheaval. R. B. Bennett's family was poor, subsisting on the produce of a small farm, his early days inculcated a lifelong habit of thrift. The driving force in his family was his mother, she passed this faith and the Protestant ethic on to her son. Bennett's father does not appear to have been a good provider for his family, though the reason is unclear, he tried to develop some gypsum deposits.
The Bennetts had been a prosperous family, operating a shipyard in Hopewell Cape, but the change to steam-powered vessels in the mid-19th century meant the gradual winding down of their business. However, the household was a literate one, they were strong Conservatives. Educated in the local school, Bennett was a good student, but something of a loner. In addition to his Protestant faith, Bennett grew up with an abiding love of the British Empire at its apogee. A small legacy his mother received opened the doors for him to attend the Normal school in Fredericton, where he trained to be a teacher. One day, while Bennett was crossing the Miramichi River on the ferry boat, a well-dressed lad about nine years younger came over to him and struck up a conversation; this was the beginning of an improbable but important friendship with Max Aitken the industrialist and British press baron, Lord Beaverbrook. The agnostic Aitken liked to tease the Methodist Bennett, whose fiery temper contrasted with Aitken's ability to turn away wrath with a joke.
This friendship would become important to his success in life, as would his friendship with the Chatham lawyer, Lemuel J. Tweedie, a prominent Conservative politician, he began to study law during summer holidays. Another important friendship was with the prominent Shirreff family of Chatham, the father being High Sheriff of Northumberland County for 25 years; the son, joined the E. B. Eddy Company, a large pulp and paper industrial concern, was transferred to Halifax, his sister moved there to study nursing, soon Bennett joined them to study law at Dalhousie University. Their friendship was renewed there, became crucial to his life when Jennie Shirreff married the head of the Eddy Company, she made Bennett the lawyer for her extensive interests. Bennett started at Dalhousie University in 1890, graduating in 1893 with a law degree and high standing, he worked his way through with a job as assistant in the library, being recommended by the Dean, Dr. Richard Chapman Weldon, MP, participated in debating and moot court acti
Yousuf Karsh, was an Armenian-Canadian photographer known for his portraits of notable individuals. He has been described as one of the greatest portrait photographers of the 20th century. An Armenian Genocide survivor, Karsh migrated to Canada as a refugee. By the 1930s he established himself as a significant photographer in Ottawa, where he lived most of his adult life, though he traveled extensively for work, his iconic 1941 photograph of Winston Churchill was a breakthrough point in his 60-year career, through which he took numerous photos of known political leaders and women of arts and sciences. Over 20 photos by Karsh appeared on the cover of Life magazine, until he retired in 1992. Karsh was born to Armenian parents Amsih Karsh, a merchant, Bahai Nakash, on December 23, 1908 in Mardin, Diyarbekir Vilayet, Ottoman Empire; the city's Armenian population was Arabic-speaking. His Armenian name Hovsep is a variant of Joseph, while Yousuf is the Arabic version of the same name, he grew up during the Armenian Genocide.
Karsh and his family escaped to a refugee camp in Aleppo, Syria in 1922 in a month-long journey with a Kurdish caravan. The Economist noted in their obituary of Karsh that he "thought of himself as an Armenian" and, according to Vartan Gregorian, "Although he was proud to be Canadian, Karsh was proud to be Armenian." Karsh was sent to Canada by his family. He arrived in Nova Scotia on December 31, 1923 by ship from Beirut, he moved to Sherbrooke, Quebec to live with his maternal uncle George Nakashian, a portrait photographer. Karsh worked for, was taught photography by his uncle, he gave Karsh a Box Brownie camera. From 1928 to 1931, Karsh apprenticed in Boston, Massachusetts for John H. Garo, the most prominent Armenian photographer in America at the time who had made a name for himself photographing Boston celebrities. Karsh settled in Ottawa and opened his first studio in 1932, it was located on the second floor of a building at 130 Sparks Street, named the Hardy Arcade. He remained there until 1972.
He was known professionally as "Karsh of Ottawa", his signature. He achieved initial success by capturing the attention of Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King, who helped Karsh arrange photography sessions with visiting dignitaries. Throughout his life, Karsh photographed "anyone, anyone." When asked why he exclusively captured famous people, he replied, "I am working with the world's most remarkable cross-section of people. I do believe it's the minority who make the world go around, not the majority." He once jokingly remarked, "I do it for my own immortality." By the time he retired in 1992, more than 20 of his photos had appeared on the cover of Life magazine. Karsh's photos were known for their use of dramatic lighting, which became the hallmark of his portrait style, he had studied it with both Garo in Boston and at the Ottawa Little Theatre, of which he was a member. His 1941 photo of Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister, brought; the photo was taken on December 30, 1941 in the chamber of the Speaker of the House of Commons in the Canadian Parliament in Ottawa after Churchill delivered a speech on World War II to the Canadian members of the parliament.
It was arranged by Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King. Churchill is noted for his posture and facial expression, which have been compared to the wartime feelings that prevailed in the UK: persistence in the face of an all-conquering enemy; the photo session was short and, just before exposure, Karsh moved towards Churchill and removed the cigar which he had in his hand. Churchill was showed his displeasure in the portrait; the photo, which according to The Economist is the "most reproduced portrait in the history of photography", has been described as one of the "most iconic portraits shot". USC Fisher Museum of Art described it as a "defiant and scowling portrait became an instant icon of Britain's stand against fascism." It appeared on the cover of the May 21, 1945 issue of Life, which bought it for $100. It now hangs on the wall of the Speaker's chamber. During World War II, Karsh photographed political and military leaders and began capturing photos of writers, artists, musicians and celebrities in the post-war period.
His 1957 portrait of the American novelist Ernest Hemingway, shot at Hemingway's Cuban home Finca Vigia, is another well-known photo by Karsh. According to Amanda Hopkinson it made Hemingway look like the hero of his novel The Old Man and the Sea, his other notable portraits include George Bernard Shaw at an old age, Dwight D. Eisenhower as a five-star general and Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, American artist Georgia O'Keeffe in her New Mexico studio, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev swathed in fur. Besides portraits of the famous, Karsh photographed assembly line workers in Windsor, commissioned by the Ford Motor Company of Canada, he photographed landscapes of Rome and the Holy Land to be included in books in collaboration with Bishop Fulton J. Sheen, an annual poster for the Muscular Dystrophy Association, other works, he was a visiting professor at Emerson College in Boston. Karsh's first marriage was to Solange Gathier in 1939, whom he met at the Ottawa Little Theatre in 1933, where she was a star.
Gathier was born in Tours and migrated to Canada as a young girl. They moved into her apartment and in 1940, into an Ar
Major's Hill Park
Major's Hill Park is a park in downtown Ottawa, Ontario. The park stands above the Rideau Canal at the point. Across the canal to the west are the parliament buildings, to the north of the park is the National Gallery of Canada, to the east are the United States embassy and the Byward Market. To the south is the Chateau Laurier hotel, built on land, once part of the park; the neighbourhood surrounding the park was once home to those. In particular, the area, now the park was the official residence of the Superintending Engineer of the Rideau Canal, Lieutenant-Colonel John By until he returned to England in 1832; the hill was known at the time as "Colonel's Hill". By was replaced in 1832 by Captain Daniel Bolton who took up residence in By's house. In 1838 Bolton was promoted to Major. By the time he left the Bytown in 1843, the hill had become known as Major's Hill. Commemorative plaques and a statue of Lieutenant-Colonel By, Major Bolton and their successors were erected in Major's Hill Park; the residence was destroyed by fire on October 1848, though ruins survive to today.
The use of the area as a residence means that the park has remained a green space since the early days of Ottawa. It is now managed by the National Capital Commission, which has placed historical information in the northwest corner of the park. Due to its central location, Major's Hill Park is frequented all year round, it is used as a venue for events, is central to Ottawa's Canada Day celebrations. A more recent addition to the calendar is the annual'B In The Park', which precedes the Glengarry Highland Games. Pipe bands and highland dancers from all over the world perform, it is presented by the Sons of Scotland Pipe Band of Ottawa, Canada's oldest civilian pipe band. Bytown Museum page with Hill historical information
Parliament Hill, colloquially known as The Hill, is an area of Crown land on the southern banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, Canada. Its Gothic revival suite of buildings is the home of the Parliament of Canada and has architectural elements of national symbolic importance. Parliament Hill attracts 3 million visitors each year. Law enforcement on Parliament Hill and in the parliamentary precinct is the responsibility of the Parliamentary Protective Service; the site of a military base in the 18th and early 19th centuries, development of the area into a governmental precinct began in 1859, after Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the capital of the Province of Canada. Following a number of extensions to the parliament and departmental buildings and a fire in 1916 that destroyed the Centre Block, Parliament Hill took on its present form with the completion of the Peace Tower in 1927. Since 2002, an extensive $1 billion renovation and rehabilitation project has been underway throughout all of the precinct's buildings.
Parliament Hill is a limestone outcrop with a sloping top, covered in primeval forest of beech and hemlock. For hundreds of years, the hill served as a landmark on the Ottawa River for First Nations and European traders and industrialists, to mark their journey to the interior of the continent. After Ottawa—then called Bytown—was founded, the builders of the Rideau Canal used the hill as a location for a military base, naming it Barrack Hill. A large fortress was planned for the site, but was never built, by the mid 19th century the hill had lost its strategic importance. In 1858, Queen Victoria selected Ottawa as the capital of the Province of Canada, Barrack Hill was chosen as the site for the new parliament buildings, given its prominence over both the town and the river, as well as the fact that it was owned by the Crown. On 7 May, the Department of Public Works issued a call for design proposals for the new parliament buildings to be erected on Barrack Hill, answered with 298 submitted drawings.
After the entries were narrowed down to three, Governor General Sir Edmund Walker Head was approached to break the stalemate, the winners were announced on August 29, 1859. The Centre Block, departmental buildings, a new residence for the governor general were each awarded separately, the team of Thomas Fuller and Chilion Jones, under the pseudonym of Semper Paratus, winning the prize for the first category with their Victorian High Gothic scheme of a formal, symmetrical front facing a quadrangle, a more rustic, picturesque back facing the escarpment overlooking the Ottawa River; the team of Thomas Stent and Augustus Laver, under the pseudonym of Stat nomen in umbra, won the prize for the second category, which included the East and West Blocks. These proposals were selected for their sophisticated use of Gothic architecture, thought to remind people of parliamentary democracy's history, would contradict the republican Neoclassicism of the United States' capital, would be suited to the rugged surroundings while being stately.
$300,000 was allocated for the main building, $120,000 for each of the departmental buildings. Ground was broken on December 20, 1859, the first stones laid on April 16 of the following year, Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, laid the cornerstone of the Centre Block on September 1; the construction of Parliament Hill became the largest project undertaken in North America to that date. However, workers hit bedrock earlier than expected, necessitating blasting in order to complete the foundations, altered by the architects in order to sit 5.25 metres deeper than planned. By early 1861, Public Works reported that $1,424,882.55 had been spent on the venture, leading to the site being closed in September and the unfinished structures covered in tarpaulins until 1863, when construction resumed following a commission of inquiry. Two years the unfinished site hosted a celebration of Queen Victoria's birthday, further cementing the area's position as the central place for national outpouring; the site was still incomplete when three of the British North American colonies entered Confederation in 1867, with Ottawa remaining the capital of the new country.
Within four years Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, the North-West Territories were added and, along with the associated bureaucracy, the first three required representation be added in parliament. Thus, the offices of parliament spread to buildings beyond Parliament Hill at that early date; the British military gave a nine-pound naval cannon to the British army garrison stationed in Ottawa in 1854. It was purchased by the Canadian government in 1869 and fired on Parliament Hill for many years as the "Noonday Gun". By 1876, the structures of Parliament Hill were finished, along with the surrounding fence and gates. However, the grounds had yet to be properly designed. Vaux completed a layout for the landscape of Parliament Hill, including the present day driveways and main lawn, while Scott created the more informal grounds to the sides of and behind the buildings. In 1901 they were the site of both mourning for, celebration of, Queen Victoria, when the Queen's death was mourned in official ceremonies in January of that year, when, in late September, Victoria's grandson, Pr
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, restaurants, day spa, social function services. Hotel rooms are numbered to allow guests to identify their room; some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.
The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers. Inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a modern sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, luxury hotels began to spring up in the part of the 19th century. Hotel operations vary in size, function and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set industry standards to classify hotel types. An upscale full-service hotel facility offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, an on-site restaurant, the highest level of personalized service, such as a concierge, room service, clothes pressing staff. Full service hotels contain upscale full-service facilities with a large number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant, a variety of on-site amenities.
Boutique hotels are smaller independent, non-branded hotels that contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities. Economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer longer-term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are hotels with a unique environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London; some hotels are built as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. Most hotel establishments are run by a General Manager who serves as the head executive, department heads who oversee various departments within a hotel, middle managers, administrative staff, line-level supervisors.
The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by hotel size and class, is determined by hotel ownership and managing companies. The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel, which referred to a French version of a building seeing frequent visitors, providing care, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning, as well as "hôtel" in some place names such as Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital since the Middle Ages; the French spelling, with the circumflex, was used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the's' found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but related meaning. Grammatically, hotels take the definite article – hence "The Astoria Hotel" or "The Astoria." Facilities offering hospitality to travellers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture and ancient Persia, hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
Japan's Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, founded in 705, was recognised by the Guinness World Records as the oldest hotel in the world. During the Middle Ages, various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travellers on the road; the precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travellers, including food and lodging and fodder for the traveller's horse and fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlour at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travellers. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart, but this depended much on the terrain.
Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenu