The Château d'Amboise is a château in Amboise, located in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France. Confiscated by the monarchy in the 15th century, it became a favoured royal residence and was extensively rebuilt. King Charles VIII died at the château in 1498 after hitting his head on a door lintel; the château fell into decline from the second half of the 16th century and the majority of the interior buildings were demolished, but some survived and have been restored, along with the outer defensive circuit of towers and walls. It has been recognised as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture since 1840; the Château d'Amboise is situated at an elevation of 81 meters. The Château d'Amboise was built on a spur above the River Loire; the strategic qualities of the site were recognised before the medieval construction of the castle, a Gallic oppidum was built there. In the late 9th century Ingelgarius was made viscount of Orléans and through his mother was related to Hugh the Abbot, tutors to the French kings.
Ingelgarius married a member of a prominent family who controlled Château d'Amboise. He was made Count of the Angevins and his rise can be attributed to his political connections and reputation as a soldier. Château d'Amboise would pass through Ingelgarius and Adelais' heirs, he was succeeded by their son, Fulk the Red; as Fulk the Red expanded his territory, Amboise and Villentrois formed the core of his possessions. Amboise lay on the eastern frontier of the Angevins holdings. Amboise and its castle descended through the family to Fulke Nerra in 987. Fulk had to contend with the ambitions of Odo I, Count of Blois who wanted to expand his own territory into Anjou. Odo I could call on the support of many followers and instructed Conan, Count of Rennes, Gelduin of Saumr, Abbot Robert of Saint-Florent de Saumur to harass Fulk's properties. While Conan was busy on Anjou's western border and Robert attempted to isolate the easternmost castles of Amboise and Loches by raiding the Saumurois and disrupting communications.
To further threaten Amboise, fortifications were erected at Chaumont and Montsoreau, while Saint-Aignan was garrisoned. Expanded and improved over time, on 4 September 1434 it was seized by Charles VII of France, after its owner, Louis d'Amboise, Viscount of Thours, was convicted of plotting against Louis XI and condemned to be executed in 1431. However, the king took his château at Amboise. Once in royal hands, the château became a favourite of French kings, from Louis XI to Francis I. Charles VIII decided to rebuild it extensively, beginning in 1492 at first in the French late Gothic Flamboyant style and after 1495 employing two Italian mason-builders, Domenico da Cortona and Fra Giocondo, who provided at Amboise some of the first Renaissance decorative motifs seen in French architecture; the names of three French builders are preserved in the documents: Colin Biart, Guillaume Senault and Louis Armangeart. Following the Italian War of 1494–1495, Charles brought Italian architects and artisans to France to work on the château, turn it into "the first Italianate palace in France".
Among the people Charles brought from Italy was Pacello da Mercogliano who designed the gardens at the Châteaux of Ambois and Blois. Charles died at Château d'Amboise in 1498. Before his death he had the upper terrace widened to hold a larger parterre and enclosed with latticework and pavilions; the parterres have been recreated in the twentieth century as rectangles of lawns set in gravel and a formal bosquet of trees. King Francis I was raised at Amboise, which belonged to his mother, Louise of Savoy, during the first few years of his reign, the château reached the pinnacle of its glory; as a guest of the King, Leonardo da Vinci came to Château Amboise in December 1515 and lived and worked in the nearby Clos Lucé, connected to the château by an underground passage. Records show that at the time of Leonardo da Vinci's death on 2 May 1519, he was buried in the Chapel of St. Florentin located 100 meters NE of the Chapel of St. Hubert; this Chapel of St. Florentin belonged to the royal castle and lay within the stone fortifications surrounding the property of the Château d'Amboise, it should not to be confused with the nearby Église Saint Florentin in Amboise, but not located within the property borders of the Château d'Amboise.
After the French Revolution, the Chapel of St. Florentin was in such a ruinous state that the engineer appointed by Napoleon decided that it was not worth preserving and had it demolished; the remaining stonework was used to repair the Château d'Amboise. Some sixty years the foundational site of the Chapel of St. Florentin was excavated: it is alleged that a complete skeleton was found, with fragments of a stone inscription containing some of the letters of his name. However, other accounts describe heaps of bones and anecdotes of children kicking skulls around for fun and games. Nonetheless, based on some contemporaneous accounts, it is the collection of bones that were found to be whole and with an extraordinarily large skull that are supposed to be buried in the Chapel of Saint Hubert, where now a large floor-level marble stone bearing a metal medallion relief portrait of Leonardo da Vinci (based on the "Melzi's por
Scott Eastwood is an American actor and model. His father is filmmaker Clint Eastwood, he has appeared in the films Flags of Our Fathers, Gran Torino, The Forger, Trouble with the Curve, Texas Chainsaw, The Perfect Wave, The Longest Ride, Mercury Plains, Suicide Squad, Walk of Fame, The Fate of the Furious and Pacific Rim: Uprising. Eastwood was born Scott Clinton Reeves on March 21, 1986 at the Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula in Monterey, California, he is the son of actor-director Clint Eastwood and flight attendant Jacelyn Reeves, is the fifth of Clint's eight children. He has a younger sister named Kathryn, born two years after him in 1988, a number of paternal half-siblings, including Kimber Tunis, Kyle Eastwood, Alison Eastwood, Francesca Eastwood and Morgan Eastwood. Eastwood was raised in Carmel-by-the-Sea until age ten, after which he moved with his mother to Hawaii, he spent four years in Hawaii before returning to California, where he graduated from Carmel High School.
He attended Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, where he graduated with a communications degree in 2008. Eastwood began his career by using his given last name to avoid nepotism, although there is another actor named Scott Reeves. "I've auditioned for pretty much every one of my father's movies", he said in 2015, stating that he was rejected for the Clint Eastwood-directed American Sniper. He appeared in his father's 2008 film Gran Torino, played Joel Stransky in Invictus. In April 2010, Eastwood played the lead role in Enter Nowhere, had a supporting role in David Ayer's 2014 film Fury, appeared in the 2015 music video for Taylor Swift's "Wildest Dreams", starred alongside Britt Robertson in the 2015 film adaptation of Nicholas Sparks' novel The Longest Ride. In 2016, Eastwood played Lieutenant GQ Edwards in the film Suicide Squad, an adaptation of the DC Comics series; that year, he starred alongside Joseph Gordon-Levitt and Shailene Woodley in the biographical drama film Snowden, directed by Oliver Stone, released in September.
In 2017, he played a special agent in the action film The Fate of the Furious, starred in Overdrive, a thriller film, shot in Paris and Marseille. In 2018, he starred. In August 2016, Scott opened up to the media about a previous car accident on September 24, 2014 that killed his girlfriend, Jewel Brangman, at that time. Scott bears a striking resemblance to his father, noted in the media when he dressed up as the character played by Clint Eastwood in The Good, the Bad and the Ugly for a Halloween charity event in 2016. Scott Eastwood on IMDb Scott Eastwood on Twitter
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other. Examples of complex systems are Earth's global climate, the human brain, infrastructure such as power grid, transportation or communication systems and economic organizations, an ecosystem, a living cell, the entire universe. Complex systems are systems whose behavior is intrinsically difficult to model due to the dependencies, relationships, or other types of interactions between their parts or between a given system and its environment. Systems that are "complex" have distinct properties that arise from these relationships, such as nonlinearity, spontaneous order and feedback loops, among others; because such systems appear in a wide variety of fields, the commonalities among them have become the topic of their independent area of research. In many cases, it is useful to represent such a system as a network where the nodes represent the components and links to their interactions; the term complex systems refers to the study of complex systems, an approach to science that investigates how relationships between a system's parts give rise to its collective behaviors and how the system interacts and forms relationships with its environment.
The study of complex systems regards collective, or system-wide, behaviors as the fundamental object of study. As an interdisciplinary domain, complex systems draws contributions from many different fields, such as the study of self-organization from physics, that of spontaneous order from the social sciences, chaos from mathematics, adaptation from biology, many others. Complex systems is therefore used as a broad term encompassing a research approach to problems in many diverse disciplines, including statistical physics, information theory, nonlinear dynamics, computer science, sociology, economics and biology. Complex systems are chiefly concerned with the properties of systems. A system, broadly defined, is a set of entities that, through their interactions, relationships, or dependencies, form a unified whole, it is always defined in terms of its boundary, which determines the entities that are or are not part of the system. Entities lying outside the system become part of the system's environment.
A system can exhibit properties that produce behaviors which are distinct from the properties and behaviors of its parts. The notion of behavior implies that the study of systems is concerned with processes that take place over time; because of their broad, interdisciplinary applicability, systems concepts play a central role in complex systems. As a field of study, complex systems is a subset of systems theory. General systems theory focuses on the collective behaviors of interacting entities, but it studies a much broader class of systems, including non-complex systems where traditional reductionist approaches may remain viable. Indeed, systems theory seeks to explore and describe all classes of systems, the invention of categories that are useful to researchers across varying fields is one of the systems theory's main objectives; as it relates to complex systems, systems theory contributes an emphasis on the way relationships and dependencies between a system's parts can determine system-wide properties.
It contributes to the interdisciplinary perspective of the study of complex systems: the notion that shared properties link systems across disciplines, justifying the pursuit of modeling approaches applicable to complex systems wherever they appear. Specific concepts important to complex systems, such as emergence, feedback loops, adaptation originate in systems theory. "Systems exhibit complexity" means that their behaviors cannot be inferred from their properties. Any modeling approach that ignores such difficulties or characterizes them as noise will produce models that are neither accurate nor useful; as yet no general theory of complex systems has emerged for addressing these problems, so researchers must solve them in domain-specific contexts. Researchers in complex systems address these problems by viewing the chief task of modeling to be capturing, rather than reducing, the complexity of their respective systems of interest. While no accepted exact definition of complexity exists yet, there are many archetypal examples of complexity.
Systems can be complex if, for instance, they have chaotic behavior, or if they have emergent properties, or if they are computationally intractable to model. The interacting components of a complex system form a network, a collection of discrete objects and relationships between them depicted as a graph of vertices connected by edges. Networks can describe the relationships between individuals within an organization, between logic gates in a circuit, between genes in gene regulatory networks, or between any other set
The Rebecca Screven House in Charleston, South Carolina is Charleston single house built sometime before 1828 at 35 Legare Street. Rebecca Screven built the house on property she inherited from Mrs. Elizabeth Williams. In 1879, the house was bought by Louisa J. McCord. Louisa McCord was one of the most prominent women writers in antebellum South Carolina. In April 2014, the Historic Charleston Foundation bought the house through its revolving fund, a pool of money the foundation uses to acquire historic properties before reselling them to preservation-minded buyers subject to preservation easements; the foundation paid $1.75 million for the house, performed some work on the building, listed it for resale in May 2014 through a competitive bid process. Both the interior and exterior of the house will be protected by easements, as will a garden designed by Loutrel Briggs. Fought, Leigh. Southern Womanhood and Slavery: A Biography of Louisa S. McCord, 1810-1879. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1470-3
Landsat 7 is the seventh satellite of the Landsat program. Launched on April 15, 1999, Landsat 7's primary goal is to refresh the global archive of satellite photos, providing up-to-date and cloud-free images; the Landsat Program is managed and operated by the USGS, data from Landsat 7 is collected and distributed by the USGS. The NASA World Wind project allows 3D images from Landsat 7 and other sources to be navigated and viewed from any angle; the satellite's companion, Earth Observing-1, trailed by one minute and followed the same orbital characteristics, but in 2011 its fuel was depleted and EO-1's orbit began to degrade. Landsat 7 was built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. In 2016, NASA announced plans to attempt the first refueling of a live satellite by refueling Landsat 7 in 2020 with the Restore-L Mission, as of 2019 the date slipped to 2022. Landsat 7 was designed to last for five years, has the capacity to collect and transmit up to 532 images per day, it is in a sun-synchronous orbit, meaning it scans across the entire earth's surface.
With an altitude of 705 kilometers + / - 5 kilometers, it takes 16 days, to do so. The satellite weighs 1973 kg, is 4.04 m long, 2.74 m in diameter. Unlike its predecessors, Landsat 7 has a solid state memory of 378 gigabits; the main instrument on board Landsat 7 is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. A panchromatic band with "15 m" spatial resolution Visible bands in the spectrum of blue, red, near-infrared, mid-infrared with 30 m spatial resolution A thermal infrared channel with 60 m spatial resolution Full aperture, 5% absolute radiometric calibration On May 31, 2003 the Scan Line Corrector in the ETM+ instrument failed; the SLC consists of a pair of small mirrors that rotate about an axis in tandem with the motion of the main ETM+ scan mirror. The purpose of the SLC is to compensate for the forward motion of the spacecraft so that the resulting scans are aligned parallel to each other. Without the effects of the SLC, the instrument images the Earth in a "zig-zag" fashion, resulting in some areas that are imaged twice and others that are not imaged at all.
The net effect is that 22% of the data in a Landsat 7 scene is missing when acquired without a functional SLC. Following the SLC failure, an Anomaly Response Team was assembled, consisting of representatives from the USGS, NASA, Hughes Santa Barbara Remote Sensing; the team assembled a list of possible failure scenarios, most of which pointed at a mechanical problem with the SLC itself. Since there is no backup SLC, a mechanical failure would indicate. However, the team was unable to rule out the possibility of an electrical failure, though such a possibility was deemed remote. On September 3, 2003, USGS director Charles G. Groat authorized the Landsat project to reconfigure the ETM+ instrument and various other subsystems on board Landsat 7 to use the spacecraft's redundant electrical harness. With this authorization, the USGS flight operations team at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center uploaded a series of commands to the spacecraft, instructing it to operate using the redundant electrical harness.
This operation was successful, on September 5, 2003, the ETM+ instrument was turned on and acquired data, sent to the Landsat ground system at EROS outside Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It was apparent that the migration to the Side-B electrical harness had not fixed the problem with the SLC. Following this, the instrument was reconfigured again to use its primary electrical harness; the subsequent conclusion of the ART was that the SLC problem was mechanical and permanent in nature. Landsat 7 continues to acquire data in this mode. Data products are available with the missing data optionally filled in using other Landsat 7 data selected by the user. In 2013, Landsat 7 was joined by Landsat 8. In August 1998, NASA contracted EarthSat to produce Landsat GeoCover —a positionally accurate orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner imagery covering the majority of the Earth's land mass; the contract was part of the NASA Scientific Data Purchase, administrated through NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center.
GeoCover was enhanced to EarthSat NaturalVue, a simulated natural color Landsat 7 derived c. Year 2000, orthorectified and color balanced digital image dataset. Other commercial simulated true color 15-meter global imagery products built from the NASA Landsat 7 imagery include TerraColor from Earthstar Geographics, TruEarth from TerraMetrics, BrightEarth from ComputaMaps, simulated natural color from Atlogis and a product of i-cubed used in World Wind. Largest parts of the earth surface displayed on web mapping services like Google Maps/Google Earth, MSN Maps or Yahoo Maps are based on enhanced and color balanced Landsat 7 imagery. Google Earth NASA World Wind Virtual globe UNIFORM-1 NASA's Landsat 7 Website Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook The USGS' Landsat Website "Landsat 7 Media Kit". Boeing. Archived from the original on 1999-05-08. NASA's World Wind Project List of Landsat layers available in World Wind NASA Applied Sciences Directorate website for free viewing/download of Landsat GeoCover band 742 mosaics University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility for free viewing/download of individual Landsat images, GeoCover mosaics, other earth imagery data Harris GLOBE15 - Harris Corporation Geospatial website EarthSat's NaturalVue 2000: Global natural color satellite imagery coverage (resolution
Randi Jayne Zuckerberg is an American businesswoman. She is the former director of market development and spokesperson for Facebook, a sister of the company's co-founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Prior to working at Facebook, she was a panelist on Forbes on Fox; as of May 2014, she is founder and CEO of Zuckerberg Media, editor-in-chief of Dot Complicated, a digital lifestyle website, creator of Dot. an animated television show about a young girl who uses technology to enhance both her educational experiences and recreational activities. After graduating from Harvard, Randi Zuckerberg worked for two years in marketing for advertising firm Ogilvy & Mather, she has stated in articles and interviews that to her it was a dream job in which she enjoyed the work and was on a good track for professional advancement. In late 2004, Randi's brother Mark asked her to join him at his startup Facebook, which he said was understaffed with people willing to travel and who could explain his vision. Randi took a position that required a cut in pay but with stock options.
She has stated that she thought this was a temporary position that might last six months. Once she was in Silicon Valley and part of the innovation-driven community, she became fascinated with the possibilities and remained for ten years. Ranked among 50 "Digital Power Players" by The Hollywood Reporter in 2010, Zuckerberg organized, was a correspondent for the ABC News/Facebook Democratic Party and Republican Party U. S. Presidential primaries debates in 2008, she fulfilled a correspondent role at the CNN/Facebook Inauguration Day Partnership in 2009 and the Comcast Facebook Diaries event. Zuckerberg told the Wall Street Journal that her Facebook journalist team was treated at the DNC "like rock stars". In August 2011, Zuckerberg resigned from Facebook and announced her new social media firm, named "Zuckerberg Media". Since starting Zuckerberg Media, Randi has produced shows and digital content for BeachMint, the Clinton Global Initiative, Cirque du Soleil, the United Nations, Condé Nast and Bravo.
Zuckerberg has written three adult non-fiction books: Spark Your Career in Advertising, a SparkNotes book published in 2007 Dot Complicated, her first book with HarperCollins, published in October 2013 Pick Three: You Can Have It All, published in May 2018She has written two children's picture books: Dot. published in November 2013 Missy President, published in October 2016 Zuckerberg appeared on the Today Show on January 26, 2016 in a segment entitled "2016 Netiquette" in which she discussed modern day etiquette on the Internet. In the cartoon adaptation of Dot. she voices the character "Ms. Randi", Dot's music teacher who organizes the children's choir at the community center. In 2011 Zuckerberg advocated for the abolition of anonymity on the Internet to protect children and young adults from cyber-bullying. Zuckerberg explained. Zuckerberg and her husband Brent Tworetzky have two sons; the family resides in New York City. Dot Complicated official website Randi Zuckerberg at the Internet Broadway Database Randi Zuckerberg at Internet Off-Broadway Database Appearances on C-SPAN