Victoire of France (1733–1799)
Victoire de France, was a French princess, the seventh child and fifth daughter of King Louis XV of France and his Queen consort Maria Leszczyńska. She was named after her father, Maria Theresa, Queen of France, her great great grandmother and the consort of Louis XIV of France Originally known as Madame Quatrième, signifying the fourth daughter of the King, she was known as Madame Victoire, she outlived eight of her nine siblings, was survived by her older sister Madame Adélaïde by less than a year. The sisters were collectively known as Mesdames. Marie Louise Thérèse Victoire de France was born at the Palace of Versailles. Unlike the older children of Louis XV, Madame Victoire was not raised at the Palace of Versailles. Rather, she was, in June 1738, sent to live at the Abbey of Fontevraud with her younger sisters, because the cost of raising them in Versailles with all the status they were entitled to was deemed too expensive by Cardinal Fleury, Louis XV's chief minister, she remained there till 1748 when she was 15.
According to Madame Campan, the Mesdames had rather a traumatic upbringing in Fontrevault and were not given much education: "Cardinal Fleury, who in truth had the merit of reestablishing the finances, carried this system of economy so far as to obtain from the King the suppression of the household of the four younger Princesses. They were brought up as mere boarders in a convent eighty leagues distant from the Court. Saint Cyr would have been more suitable for the reception of the King’s daughters. Madame Louise assured me that at twelve years of age she was not mistress of the whole alphabet, never learnt to read fluently until after her return to Versailles. Madame Victoire attributed certain paroxysms of terror, which she was never able to conquer, to the violent alarms she experienced at the Abbey of Fontevrault, whenever she was sent, by way of penance, to pray alone in the vault where the sisters were interred. A gardener belonging to the abbey died raving mad, his habitation, without the walls, was near a chapel of the abbey, where Mesdames were taken to repeat the prayers for those in the agonies of death.
Their prayers were more than once interrupted by the shrieks of the dying man." On 24 March 1748, being fifteen and no longer regarded a child, Victoire wrote to her father the king and asked permission to return to court. Louis XV appointed three maids-of-honour to attend her, sent the Duchesse de Duras to collect her and met her with her brother the crown prince at Sceaux. In November 1750, she was joined by Louise. While their education had been neglected in the convent, they compensated for this and studied extensively after their return to court, encouraged by their brother, with whom they formed a close attachment: "When Mesdames, still young, returned to Court, they enjoyed the friendship of Monseigneur the Dauphin, profited by his advice, they devoted themselves ardently to study, gave up the whole of their time to it. Italian, the higher branches of mathematics and dialing, filled up in succession their leisure moments."Victoire made a success at court and her father with her lively self-assurance and charm.
In 1753, it was suggested that she might marry her brother-in-law, Ferdinand VI of Spain, as his wife, Barbara of Portugal was ill at the time and expected to die. However, the Queen of Spain lived another five years. No other marriage partner of suitable religion and status was found, Victoire remained unmarried: with time, she became quite overweight, because of this, her father the King came to refer to her as ‘Coche’, while he called Madame Adelaide ‘Logue’, Madame Sophie, ‘Graille’, Madame Louise, ‘Chiffie’. Victoire, as her sisters, had a close relationship with her brother, viewed her mother as a role model, followed her sister Madame Adélaïde in her campaign against the influence of Madame de Pompadour and Madame du Barry, she had a close friendship with her favorite lady-in-waiting the Marquise de Durfort, who "afforded to Madame Victoire agreeable society. The Princess spent all her evenings with that lady, ended by fancying herself domiciled with her." In contrast to her elder sister Adelaide, Victoire was described as "good, sweet-tempered, affable", well liked both by society and her staff.
In 1761, Victoire visited the waters in Lorraine for medical purposes for the first time, in the company of Adelaide, because of an over amount of food consumption, while their sisters Sophie and Louise visited Paris for the first time. Madame Campan described the sisters and their life in the years around 1770: "Louis XV. saw little of his family. He came every morning by a private staircase into the apartment of Madame Adelaide, he brought and drank there coffee that he had made himself. Madame Adelaide pulled a bell which apprised Madame Victoire of
Noble rot is the beneficial form of a grey fungus, Botrytis cinerea, affecting wine grapes. Infestation by Botrytis requires moist conditions. If the weather stays wet, the damaging form, "grey rot", can destroy crops of grapes. Grapes become infected with Botrytis when they are ripe. If they are exposed to drier conditions and become raisined this form of infection is known as noble rot. Grapes when picked at a certain point during infestation can produce fine and concentrated sweet wine. Wines produced by this method are known as botrytized wines. According to Hungarian legend, the first aszú was made by Laczkó Máté Szepsi in 1630. However, mention of wine made from botrytised grapes had appeared in the Nomenklatura of Fabricius Balázs Sziksai, completed in 1576. A discovered inventory of aszú predates this reference by five years; when vineyard classification began in 1730 in the Tokaj region, one of the gradings given to the various terroirs centered on their potential to develop Botrytis cinerea.
A popular myth is that the practice originated independently in Germany in 1775, where the Riesling producers at Schloss Johannisberg traditionally awaited the say-so of the estate owner, Heinrich von Bibra, Bishop of Fulda, before cutting their grapes. In this year, the abbey messenger was robbed en route to delivering the order to harvest and the cutting was delayed for three weeks, time enough for the Botrytis to take hold; the grapes were presumed worthless and given to local peasants, who produced a good, sweet wine which subsequently became known as Spätlese, or late harvest wine. In the following few years, several different classes of increasing must weight were introduced, the original Spätlese was further elaborated, first into Auslese in 1787 and Eiswein in 1858. In some cases, inoculation occurs when spores of the fungus are sprayed over the grapes, while some vineyards depend on natural inoculation from spores present in the environment; the fungus perforates the grapes' skin, allowing water in the grape to evaporate during dry conditions, thereby raising the sugar concentration in the remaining juice.
Some of the finest botrytized wines are picked berry by berry in successive tris. Internationally renowned botrytized wines include the aszú of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary, Sauternes from France – where the process is known as pourriture or pourriture noble, Beerenauslese or Trockenbeerenauslese wines from Germany and Austria. Other wines of this type include the Romanian Grasă de Cotnari, French Coteaux du Layon, French Monbazillac, Austrian Ausbruch and South African Noble Late Harvest. Depending on conditions, the grapes may be only minimally botrytized. Botrytis has been imported for use by winemakers in California and Australia. University of California Pest Management Guidelines for Grape Botrytis Bunch Rot The Ohio State University Botrytis Bunch Rot Fact Sheet Botrytis Genome Sequencing Project, INRA, France
Sweetness of wine
The subjective sweetness of a wine is determined by the interaction of several factors, including the amount of sugar in the wine, but the relative levels of alcohol and tannins. Sugars and alcohol enhance a wine's sweetness; these principles are outlined in the 1987 work by The Taste of Wine. Vintage: the Story of Wine, by Hugh Johnson, presents several methods that have been used throughout history to sweeten wine; the most common way was to harvest the grapes as late as possible. This method was advocated by Martial in Roman times. In contrast, the ancient Greeks would harvest the grapes early, to preserve some of their acidity, leave them in the sun for a few days to allow them to shrivel and concentrate the sugar. In Crete, a similar effect was achieved by twisting the stalks of the grape to deprive them of sap and letting them dry on the vine—a method that produced passum and the modern Italian equivalent, passito. Stopping the fermentation enhanced a wine's potential sweetness. In ancient times, this was achieved by submerging the amphoras in cold water till winter.
Wine can be sweetened by the addition of sugar in some form, after fermentation is completed – the German method like the Süssreserve. In Roman times, this was done in preparing mulsum, wine freshly sweetened with honey and flavored with spices, used as an apéritif, in the manufacture of conditum, which had similar ingredients but was matured and stored before drinking.. Among the components influencing how sweet a wine will taste is residual sugar, it is measured in grams of sugar per litre of wine abbreviated to g/l or g/L. Residual sugar refers to the sugar remaining after fermentation stops, or is stopped, but it can result from the addition of unfermented must or ordinary table sugar. Among the driest wines, it is rare to find wines with a level of less than 1 g/L, due to the unfermentability of certain types of sugars, such as pentose. By contrast, any wine with over 45 g/L would be considered sweet, though many of the great sweet wines have levels much higher than this. For example, the great vintages of Château d'Yquem contain between 100 and 150 g/L of residual sugar.
The sweetest form of the Tokaji, the Eszencia – contains over 450 g/L, with exceptional vintages registering 900 g/L. Such wines are balanced, keeping them from becoming cloyingly sweet, by developed use of acidity; this means that the finest sweet wines are made with grape varieties that keep their acidity at high ripeness levels, such as Riesling and Chenin blanc. How sweet a wine will taste is controlled by factors such as the acidity and alcohol levels, the amount of tannin present, whether the wine is sparkling or not. A sweet wine such as a Vouvray can taste dry due to the high level of acidity. A dry wine can taste sweet. Medium and sweet wines have a perception among many consumers of being of lower quality than dry wines. However, many of the world's great wines, such as those from Sauternes or Tokaj, have a high level of residual sugar, balanced with additional acidity to produce a harmonious result. Süssreserve is a wine term referring to a portion of selected unfermented grape must, free of microorganisms, to be added to wine as a sweetening component.
This technique was developed in Germany and is used with German-style wines such as semi-sweet Riesling or Müller–Thurgau. The technique not only raises the sugar level of the wine, but lowers the amount of alcohol. Under German law, no more than fifteen percent of the final wine's volume may be the reserved juice; this practice is allowed for Prädikatswein, the highest level in the German wine classification. It is used for semi-sweet Kabinett and Spätlese, but more for Auslese and upward; the use of Süssreserve gives a different composition of sugars in the wine in comparison to arrested fermentation. Grape must contains the sugars glucose and fructose; when wine ferments, glucose is fermented at a faster rate than fructose. Thus, arresting fermentation when a significant portions of the sugars have fermented gives a wine where the residual sugar consists of fructose, while the use of Süssreserve will give a wine where the sweetness comes from a mixture of glucose and fructose. According to EU regulation 753/2002, the following terms may be used on the labels of table wines and quality wines: Sparkling wines have ratings according to Commission Regulation No 607/2009 of 14 July 2009: Article 58 points out "the sugar content may not differ by more than 3 grams per litre from what appears on the product label", so there is some leeway.
For example, a sparkling wine with 9 grams per litre of residual sugar may be labelled as either the drier, less sweet, classification of Extra Brut, or the sweeter classification of Brut or Extra Dry/Extra Sec/Extra Seco. The rules applicable to labellings before 14 July 2009 were: In Austria, the Klosterneuburger Mostwaage scale is used; the scale is divided into Klosterneuburger Zuckergrade, similar to the Oechsle scale. However, the KMW measures. In Canada, the wine industry measures wine sweetness as grams of sucrose in 100 grams of grape juice or grape must at 20 °C in degrees Brix. In Czech Republic and Slovakia, the Normalizovaný Moštoměr scale is used; the scale m
Michel de Montaigne
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and autobiography with intellectual insight, his massive volume, contains some of the most influential essays written. Montaigne had a direct influence on Western writers, including Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer, Isaac Asimov, on the works of William Shakespeare. During his lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author; the tendency in his essays to digress into anecdotes and personal ruminations was seen as detrimental to proper style rather than as an innovation, his declaration that, "I am myself the matter of my book", was viewed by his contemporaries as self-indulgent. In time, Montaigne came to be recognized as embodying better than any other author of his time, the spirit of entertaining doubt that began to emerge at that time.
He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, "Que sçay-je?". Montaigne was born in the Aquitaine region of France, on the family estate Château de Montaigne, in a town now called, Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne, close to Bordeaux; the family was wealthy. His father, Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of Montaigne, was a French Catholic soldier in Italy for a time and he had been the mayor of Bordeaux. Although there were several families bearing the patronym "Eyquem" in Guyenne, his father's family is thought to have had some degree of Marrano origins, while his mother, Antoinette López de Villanueva, was a convert to Protestantism, his maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez, from Zaragoza, was from a wealthy Marrano family that had converted to Catholicism. His maternal grandmother, Honorette Dupuy, was from a Catholic family in France. During a great part of Montaigne's life his mother lived near him and survived him, but is mentioned only twice in his essays. Montaigne's relationship with his father, however, is reflected upon and discussed in his essays.
Montaigne's education began in early childhood and followed a pedagogical plan that his father had developed, refined by the advice of the latter's humanist friends. Soon after his birth, Montaigne was brought to a small cottage, where he lived the first three years of life in the sole company of a peasant family, in order to, according to the elder Montaigne, "draw the boy close to the people, to the life conditions of the people, who need our help". After these first spartan years, Montaigne was brought back to the château. Another objective was for Latin to become his first language; the intellectual education of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor. His father hired only servants who could speak Latin, they were given strict orders always to speak to the boy in Latin; the same rule applied to his mother and servants, who were obliged to use only Latin words he employed, thus they acquired a knowledge of the language his tutor taught him. Montaigne's Latin education was accompanied by spiritual stimulation.
He was familiarized with Greek by a pedagogical method that employed games and exercises of solitary meditation, rather than the more traditional books. The atmosphere of the boy's upbringing, although designed by refined rules taken under advisement by his father, created in the boy's life the spirit of "liberty and delight" that he would describe as making him "relish... duty by an unforced will, of my own voluntary motion...without any severity or constraint". And so a musician woke him every morning, playing one instrument or another, an épinettier was the constant companion to Montaigne and his tutor, playing tunes to alleviate boredom and tiredness. Around the year 1539, Montaigne was sent to study at a highly-regarded boarding school in Bordeaux, the Collège de Guyenne under the direction of the greatest Latin scholar of the era, George Buchanan, where he mastered the whole curriculum by his thirteenth year, he began his study of law at the University of Toulouse in 1546 and entered a career in the local legal system.
He was a counselor of the Court des Aides of Périgueux and, in 1557, he was appointed counselor of the Parlement in Bordeaux, a high court. From 1561 to 1563 he was courtier at the court of Charles IX and he was present with the king at the siege of Rouen, he was awarded the highest honour of the French nobility, the collar of the Order of St. Michael, something to which he aspired from his youth. While serving at the Bordeaux Parlement, he became a close friend of the humanist poet Étienne de la Boétie, whose death in 1563 affected Montaigne, it has been suggested by Donald M. Frame, in his introduction to The Complete Essays of Montaigne that because of Montaigne's "imperious need to communicate", after losing Étienne he began the Essais as a new "means of communication" and that "the reader takes the place of the dead friend". Montaigne married Françoise de la Cassaigne in 1565 in an arranged marriage, she was the niece of wealthy merchants of Toulouse and Bordeaux. They
Pressing in winemaking is the process where the juice is extracted from the grapes with the aid of a wine press, by hand, or by the weight of the grape berries and clusters. Intact grape clusters were trodden by feet but in most wineries today the grapes are sent through a crusher/destemmer, which removes the individual grape berries from the stems and breaks the skins, releasing some juice, prior to being pressed. There are exceptions, such as the case of sparkling wine production in regions such as Champagne where grapes are traditionally whole-cluster pressed with stems included to produce a lighter must, low in phenolics. In white wine production, pressing takes place after crushing or/and before primary fermentation. In red wine production, the grapes are crushed but pressing doesn't take place till after or near the end of fermentation with the time of skin contact between the juice and grapes leaching color and other phenolics from the skin. 60-70% of the available juice within the grape berry, the free-run juice, can be released by the crushing process and doesn't require the use of the press.
The remaining 30-40% that comes from pressing can have higher pH levels, lower titratable acidity higher volatile acidity and higher phenolics than the free-run juice depending on the amount of pressure and tearing of the skins and will produce more astringent, bitter wine. Winemakers keep their free-run juice and pressed wine separate during much of the winemaking process to either bottle separately or blend portions of each to make a more complete, balanced wine. In practice the volume of many wines are made from 85-90% of free-run juice and 10-15% pressed juice; the timing of pressing and the methods used will influence other decisions in the winemaking process. In white wine making, pressing happens after harvest and crushing. Here, the biggest decision will be how much pressure to apply and how much pressed juice the winemakers wants in addition to the free-run juice; some grape varieties, such as Sémillon and Aurore have "liquidy" pulps that releases juice without needing much pressure that could risk tearing the skins.
Other varieties, such as Catawba, have much tougher pulps. In red wine production the timing of when to press is one of the most important decisions in the wine making process since that will be the moment that maceration and phenolic extraction ceases; some winemakers use the decreasing sugar level scale and press once the wine has reached complete dryness. Winemakers will use taste to determine if the wine has extracted enough tannins to produce a balanced wine and may press before complete dryness. Though removing the skins by pressing removes some solids that the wine yeast need to complete fermentation and the benefits of pressing early is balanced by the risk of potential stuck fermentation; the quality of the vintage year and the overall ripeness of the harvested grapes may play a role since in cool years when the grapes are harvested under-ripe, the tannins in the grape are very "green" and harsh. In these years winemakers might press early, a process that the Australians call "short vatting".
In warmer years, the tannins may be full ripe or "sweet" and the winemaker may decide to do a period of extended maceration and not press the grapes for as long as a month after fermentation has completed. The pressed juice will require some additional treatment, which can be done separately to the pressed juice alone or to the entire batch of wine if the pressed juice is blended with the free-run; these treatments may include acid adjustments to lower pH, extended settling periods for clarification and additional racking to remove the extra suspended solids and the use of fining agents to remove extra solids or excess tannins. Grape pulp contains a lot of pectins that create colloid coagulation with these solids that will make the wine difficult to stabilize; some winemakers will use pectolytic enzymes during the maceration process to help break down the cell walls to allow the release of more juice freely. These enzymes are used with white wines to assist in clarification; the type of pressing used and the amount of suspended solids plays a particular role in filtering decisions as a high amount of suspended solids can clog and damage expensive filters.
The earliest wine press was the human foot or hand and squeezing grapes into a bag or container where the contents would ferment. The pressure applied by these manual means was limited and these early wines were pale in color and body. Humans discovered that more juice could be extracted and a better wine could be produced if they developed ways of pressing, it begin with the ancient Egyptians who developed a "sack press" made of cloth, squeezed with the aid of a giant tourniquet. The ancient Greeks and Romans developed large wooden wine presses that utilized large beams and windlasses to exert pressure on the pomace; that style of wine press would evolve into the basket press used in the Middle Ages by wine estates of the nobility and Catholic Church. There are many church records that showed feudal land tenants were willing to pay a portion of their crop to use a landlord's wine press if it was available; this was because added volume of wine that pressing could produce versus manual treading was substantial enough to justify the cost.
Machine pressing became more widespread in the 17th and 18th century as
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that affects many plant species, although its most notable hosts may be wine grapes. In viticulture, it is known as "botrytis bunch rot"; the fungus gives rise to two different kinds of infections on grapes. The first, grey rot, is the result of wet or humid conditions, results in the loss of the affected bunches; the second, noble rot, occurs when drier conditions follow wetter, can result in distinctive sweet dessert wines, such as Sauternes or the Aszú of Tokaji/Grasă de Cotnari. The species name Botrytis cinerea is derived from the Latin for "grapes like ashes"; the fungus is referred to by its anamorph name, because the sexual phase is observed. The teleomorph is an ascomycete, Botryotinia fuckeliana known as Botryotinia cinerea The disease, gray mold, affects more than 200 dicotyledonous plant species and a few monocotyledonous plants found in temperate and subtropical regions. Serious economic losses can be a result of this disease to both greenhouse grown crops.
The causal agent, Botrytis cinerea can infect mature or senescent tissues, plants prior to harvest, or seedlings. There is a wide variety of hosts infected by this pathogen including protein crops, fiber crops, oil crops, horticultural crops. Horticultural crops include vegetables and small fruit crops, these are most affected and devastated by gray mold. Plant organs affected include fruits, leaves, storage organs, shoots. Symptoms vary across plant tissues. B. cinerea is a soft rot that will have a collapsed and water soaked appearance on soft fruit and leaves. Brown lesions may develop on undeveloped fruit. Twigs infected with gray mold will die back. Blossoms will mature fruit. Symptoms are visible at wound sites. Gray masses with a velvety appearance are conidia on the plant; these conidia are asexual spores that will continue to infect the plant and surrounding hosts throughout the growing season making this a polycyclic disease. Plants have evolved to produce localized lesions. An oxidative burst causes.
This soft rot can trigger HR to assist in colonization. Botrytis cinerea, as a necrotrophic pathogen, exploits the dead tissue for its pathogenicity or its ability to cause disease. Susceptible plants cannot use the HR to protect against Botrytis cinerea. See: Botrytis cinerea is characterized by abundant hyaline conida borne on grey, branching tree-like conidiophores; the fungus produces resistant sclerotia as survival structures in older cultures. It overwinters as sclerotia or intact mycelia, both of which germinate in spring to produce conidiophores; the conidia, dispersed by wind and by rain-water, cause new infections. Different Botrytis cinerea strains show considerable genetic variability. Gliocladium roseum is a fungal parasite of Botrytis cinerea. Gray mold favors moist and warm environmental conditions between 18.3-23-9℃. Temperature, relative humidity, wetness duration produce a conducive environment, favorable for inoculation of mycelium or conidia. Controlled environments, such as crop production greenhouses, provide the moisture and high temperatures that favor the spreading and development of the pathogen Botrytis cinerea.
Standing water on plant leaf surfaces provides a place for spores to germinate. Humid conditions can result from improper irrigation practice, plants placed too close together, or the structure of the greenhouse not allowing for efficient ventilation and air flow. Ventilation at night reduces the incidence of gray mold. Melanized sclerotium allows Botrytis cinerea to survive for years in the soil. Sclerotia and the asexual conidia spores contribute to the widespread infection of the pathogen. A low pH is preferred by the gray mold to perform well. Botrytis cinerea can acidify its environment like oxalic acid. By acidifying its surroundings, cell wall degrading enzymes are enhanced, plant-protection enzymes are inhibited, stomatal closure is deregulated, pH signaling is mediated to facilitate its pathogenesis. In the Botrytis infection known as "noble rot", the fungus removes water from the grapes, leaving behind a higher percent of solids, such as sugars, fruit acids and minerals; this results in a concentrated final product.
The wine is said to have an aroma of honeysuckle and a bitter finish on the palate. A distinct fermentation process caused by nature, the combination of geology and specific weather led to the particular balance of beneficial fungus while leaving enough of the grape intact for harvesting; the Chateau d'Yquem is the only Premier Cru Supérieur due to the vineyard's susceptibility to noble rot. Botrytis complicates winemaking by making fermentation more complex. Botrytis produces an anti-fungal that kills yeast and results in fermentation stopping before the wine has accumulated sufficient levels of alcohol. Makers of fine German dessert wines have been known to take fermen
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde