Loir-et-Cher is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region, France. Its name is originated from two rivers which cross it, the Loir on the North and the Cher on the South, its prefecture is Blois. The INSEE and La Poste gave it the number 41; the department of Loir-et-Cher covers a territory which had a substantial population during the prehistoric period. However it was not until the Middle Ages that local inhabitants built various castles and other fortifications to enable them to withstand a series of invasions of Normans, the English and others; the economy is quite flourishing: there are shops in valley, agriculture is prominent in the region of the Beauce and the Perche to the Sologne which were prosperous until the 17th century. However, the region remained quartered between the neighboring earldoms and duchies. In 1397, the House of Orleans became the possession of the Comté of Blois. In 1497, Louis d’Orleans was crowned with the name of Louis XII, it was the beginning of the importance of Blois and of the Blaisois in the politic life of the French, impressive under the last Valois.
At this time and important financiers competed to build castles and elegant abodes which are today an important part of the French national heritage due to their quantity and worth. After that, there were religious wars which were ferocious under Charles IX's reign. In 1576 and 1588, the General Estates convened in Blois. L’Orléanais, le Berry, la Touraine, le Perche et le Maine occupied le Loir-et-Cher and its provinces in 1970; the Loir-et-Cher’s birth as a department was difficult and laborious. On 29 September 1789, the constitution’s advisory board made a report in which he wanted to attribute one of the 80 departments to Blois. However, some cities and canton capitals disagreed, such as Orleans. Inside of the department, Montrichard turns to Amboise and Tours, Saint-Aignan wants to turn to the Berry and Salbris to Vierzon. Orleans gives Blois an important part of the Sologne except Beaugency and Tours doesn’t give Amboise; the department is founded 4 March 1790, in accordance with the law of 22 December 1789.
It is constituted of some old provinces of the Orleanais and of the Touraine along with a Berry’s plot. The department’s constriction in its centre and the maximum stretching out in its surface area beyond the Loir on the North and the Cher on the South is due to these tribulations. After the victory of the Coalises during the Waterloo’s battle, the Prussian’s troops occupied the department from June 1815 to November 1818; the poet Pierre de Ronsard, the inventor Denis Papin, the historian Augustin Thierry come from here. Other well-known people are associated with this department, such as François the First, Gaston d’Orleans, the Marshall Maunoury, the abbot Gregoire. In the artistic domain, there is the compositor Antoine Boesset, musician in the Louis XII de France’s court, the head of the Music of the King’s Bedroom from 1623 to 1643; the Loir-et-Cher’s department is a part of the Centre Region. It is adjacent of these departments: the Eure-et-Loir, the Loiret, the Cher, the Indre, the Indre-et-Loire and the Sarthe.
Due to its surface area of 6 343 km², it is the 31st largest department in the nation. It has a privileged geographical situation because it is in the center of the Centre region and near the Paris basin. An axe lively and dynamic, brings Blois closer of the both tall urban conglomerations near it: Orleans and Tours. Located on the boundaries of the Perche, the Beauce, the Sologne and the Touraine, it finds its territorial identity in the diversity of its geography and its landscapes. Cut in its middle by the Loire, it shows an image of diversity. In 1989, American-based animators Andreas Deja, Glen Keane, Tom Sito, draftsmen Jean Gillmore, Thom Enriquez, Hans Bacher launched an expedition to the chateau to do their research for the animated adaptation of "Beauty and the Beast". Loir-et-Cher is a part of the modern region of Centre-Val de Loire. Adjacent departments are Eure-et-Loir to the north, Loiret to the north-east, Cher to the south-east, Indre to the south, Indre-et-Loire to the south-west, Sarthe to the west.
The department comprises 6,314 km2, which makes it the 31st largest of the French departments in terms of area. The line of the river Loire traverses the land, ensuring easy communication between its own capital and the vibrant cultural and commercial centres of Tours to the west and the fringes of the Seine-Paris basin at Orléans to the east, its main rivers are the Loir and the Cher. The inhabitants of the department are called the Loir-et-Chériens. Loir-et-Cher has an important number of historic châteaux, including the following: Château de Blois Château de Chaumont Château de Chambord Château de Cheverny Cantons of the Loir-et-Cher department Communes of the Loir-et-Cher department Arrondissements of the Loir-et-Cher department Prefecture website General Council website Loir-et-Cher at Curlie
Cleveland Museum of Art
The Cleveland Museum of Art is an art museum in Cleveland, located in the Wade Park District, in the University Circle neighborhood on the city's east side. Internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of Asian and Egyptian art, the museum houses a diverse permanent collection of more than 45,000 works of art from around the world; the museum provides general admission free to the public. With a $755 million endowment, it is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the United States. With about 770,000 visitors annually, it is one of the most visited art museums in the world; the Cleveland Museum of Art was founded as a trust in 1913 with an endowment from prominent Cleveland industrialists Hinman Hurlbut, John Huntington, Horace Kelley. The neoclassical, white Georgian Marble, Beaux-Arts building was constructed on the southern edge of Wade Park, at the cost of $1.25 million. Wade Park and the museum were designed by the local architectural firm, Hubbell & Benes, with the museum planned as the park's centerpiece.
The 75-acre green space takes its name from philanthropist Jeptha H. Wade, who donated part of his wooded estate to the city in 1881; the museum opened its doors to the public on June 6, 1916, with Wade's grandson, Jeptha H. Wade II, proclaiming it, "for the benefit of all people, forever". Wade, like his grandfather, had a great interest in art and served as the museum's first vice-president. Today, the park, with the museum still as its centerpiece, is on the National Register of Historic Places. In March 1958, the first addition to the building opened; this addition, on the north side of the original building, was designed by the Cleveland architectural firm of Hayes and Ruth. They designed a new art library; the museum again expanded in 1971 with the opening of the North Wing. With its stepped, two-toned granite facade, the addition designed by modernist architect Marcel Breuer provided angular lines in distinct contrast with the flourishes of the 1916 building's neoclassical facade; the museum's main entrance was shifted to the North Wing.
The auditorium and lecture halls were moved into the North Wing, allowing their spaces in the Original Building to be renovated as gallery space. In 1983, a West Wing, designed by the Cleveland architectural firm of Dalton, van Dijk, Johnson, & Partners, was completed; this provided larger library space, as well as nine new galleries. Between 2001 and 2012, the 1958 and 1983 additions were demolished. A new wrap-around building, east and west wings were constructed. Designed by Rafael Viñoly, this $350 million project doubled the museum's size to 592,000 square feet. To integrate the new east and west wings with the Breuer building to the north, a new structure was built along the south side of the 1971 addition, creating extensive new gallery space on two levels, as well as providing for a museum store and other amenities. Viñoly covered the space created by the demolition of the 1958 and 1983 structures with a glass-roofed atrium; the east wing opened in 2009, the north wing and atrium in 2012.
The West Wing opened on January 2, 2014. The museum's building and renovation project, "Building for the Future", began in 2005 and was targeted for completion in 2012 at projected costs of $258 million; the museum celebrated the official completion of the renovation and expansion project with a grand opening celebration held on December 31, 2013, additional activities that continued through the first week of 2014. The $350 million project—two-thirds of, earmarked for the complete renovation of the original 1916 structure—added two new wings, was the largest cultural project in Ohio's history; the new east and west wings, as well as the enclosing of the atrium courtyard under a soaring glass canopy, have brought the museum's total floor space to 592,000 square feet. The first phase of the project had $9.3 million in cost overruns. Museum director Timothy Rub assured the public that the increase in quality would be worth both the wait and expense. In June 2008, after being closed for nearly three years for the overhaul, the museum reopened 19 of its permanent galleries to the public in the renovated 1916 building main floor.
On June 27, 2009, the newly constructed East Wing opened to the public. On June 26, 2010, the ground level of the 1916 building reopened, it now houses the collections of Greek, Egyptian, Sub-Saharan African and Medieval art. The expanded museum includes enhanced visitor amenities, such as new restrooms, an expanded store and café, a sit-down gourmet restaurant, parking capacity increased to 620 spaces, a 34,000 square feet glass-covered courtyard. Wade Park includes an outdoor gallery displaying part of the museum's holdings in the Wade Park Fine Arts Garden; the bulk of this collection is located between the original 1916 main entrance to the building and the lagoon. Highlights of the public sculpture include the large cast of Chester Beach's 1927 Fountain of the Waters. Rodin's The Thinker in installed at the top of the museum's main staircase. After being destroyed in a 1970 bombing, the statue was never restored. Art historians knew that Rodin was involved in the original casting of
Blois is a city and the capital of Loir-et-Cher department in central France, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. Though of ancient origin, Blois is first distinctly mentioned by Gregory of Tours in the 6th century, the city gained some notability in the 9th century, when it became the seat of a powerful countship known as Blesum castrum. In 1171, Blois was the site of a blood libel against its Jewish community that led to 31 Jews being burned to death, their martyrdom contributed to a prominent and durable school of poetry inspired by Christian persecution. In 1196, Count Louis granted privileges to the townsmen; the counts of the Châtillon line resided at Blois more than their predecessors, the oldest parts of the château were built by them. In 1429, Joan of Arc made Blois her base of operations for the relief of Orléans. Joan of Arc rode the thirty-five miles on Wednesday 29 April to Blois to relieve Orléans. After his captivity in England, Charles of Orléans in 1440 took up his residence in the château, where in 1462 his son, afterwards Louis XII, was born.
In the 16th century Blois was the resort of the French court. The Treaty of Blois, which temporarily halted the Italian Wars, was signed there in 1504–1505; the city's inhabitants included many Calvinists, in 1562 and 1567 it was the scene of struggles between them and the supporters of the Catholic Church. In 1576 and 1588 Henri III, king of France, chose Blois as the meeting-place of the States-General, in 1588 he brought about the murders of Henry, duke of Guise, his brother, archbishop of Reims and cardinal, in the Château, where their deaths were shortly followed by that of the queen-mother, Catherine de' Medici. From 1617 to 1619 Marie de' Medici, wife of King Henri IV, exiled from the court, lived at the château, soon afterwards given by King Louis XIII to his brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, who lived there till his death in 1660; the bishopric, seated at Blois Cathedral, dates from the end of the 17th century. In 1814 Blois was for a short time the seat of the regency of Marie Louise, wife of Napoleon I.
Blois was occupied during World War II by the German army, which took the city on 18 June 1940. The city was liberated by American soldiers during the last two weeks of August 1944. On both occasions, the city withstood several days of bombing; the Château de Blois, a Renaissance château once occupied by King Louis XII, is located in the centre of the city, an 18th-century stone bridge spans the Loire. As Blois is built on a pair of steep hills and steep pathways run through the city, culminating in long staircases at various points. To the south of the city, the Forêt de Russy is a reminder of the thick woods that once covered the area. La Maison de la Magie Robert-Houdin is a museum fronting on the Château; as a museum of France, it is the only public museum in Europe which incorporates in one place collections of magic and a site for permanent performing arts, is directly reflects the personality of Robert-Houdin. The Gare de Blois railway station offers direct connections to Paris, Orléans, Tours and several regional destinations.
The A10 motorway connects Blois with Paris, Tours. Blois was the birthplace of: Thubois Stephen, King of England from 1135 to 1154. Louis XII, King of France from 1498 to 1515 Jean Morin and biblical scholar of Protestant parents Denis Papin, physicist and inventor Thomas de Mahy, Marquis de Favras, royalist Jean Marie Pardessus, lawyer Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry, historian Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, magician René Guénon, philosopher, social critic, the founder of the Traditionalist School Philippe Ariès, medievalist and historian Albert Ronsin, 20th-century French scholar, historian and curator Philippe Gondet, footballer Claudine Doury, photographer Sonia Bompastor, female footballer Aly Cissokho, footballer of Senegalese descent Bernard Onanga Itoua footballer Nicolas Vogondy, cyclist Corentin Jean, footballer Fabrice Moireau, 21st-century French watercolourist and artist Blois is twinned with: Waldshut-Tiengen, since 30 June 1963 Weimar, since 18 February 1995 Lewes, United kingdom, since 30 June 1963 Sighişoara, since 18 November 1995 Urbino, since 1 May 2003 Huế, since 23 May 2007 Athos, the count of La Fère has a castle in Blois, in Twenty Years After, The Vicomte de Bragelonne.
Official website Documentary photography of Blois by "Sayf" Jewish Encyclopedia entry INSEE commune file
Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman, queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II. As the mother of kings Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. From 1560 to 1563, she ruled France as regent for King of France. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Catherine married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favors on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers, who wielded much influence over him. Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II; when he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III.
He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life. Catherine's three sons reigned in an age of constant civil and religious war in France; the problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Calvinist Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known, she failed, however. She resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them. In return, she came to be blamed for the excessive persecutions carried out under her sons' rule, in particular for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France; some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars.
Her policies, may be seen as desperate measures to keep the Valois monarchy on the throne at all costs, her patronage of the arts as an attempt to glorify a monarchy whose prestige was in steep decline. Without Catherine, it is unlikely; the years during which they reigned have been called "the age of Catherine de' Medici". According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe. Catherine de Medici was born on 13 April 1519 in Florence, Republic of Florence, the only child of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, his wife, Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, the countess of Boulogne; the young couple had been married the year before at Amboise as part of the alliance between King Francis I of France and Lorenzo's uncle Pope Leo X against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. According to a contemporary chronicler, when Catherine was born, her parents were "as pleased as if it had been a boy". Within a month of Catherine's birth, both her parents were dead: Madeleine died on 28 April of puerperal fever or plague, Lorenzo died on 4 May, his title over Urbino reverting to Francesco Maria I della Rovere.
King Francis wanted Catherine to be raised at the French court, but Pope Leo had other plans for her. Catherine was first cared for by Alfonsina Orsini. After Alfonsina's death in 1520, Catherine joined her cousins and was raised by her aunt, Clarice de' Medici; the death of Pope Leo in 1521 interrupted Medici power until Cardinal Giulio de' Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523. Clement housed Catherine in the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence; the Florentine people called her duchessina, in deference to her unrecognised claim to the Duchy of Urbino. In 1527, the Medici were overthrown in Florence by a faction opposed to the regime of Clement's representative, Cardinal Silvio Passerini, Catherine was taken hostage and placed in a series of convents; the final one, the Santissima Annuziata delle Murate was her home for three years. Mark Strage described these years as "the happiest of her entire life". Clement had no choice but to crown Charles Holy Roman Emperor in return for his help in retaking the city.
In October 1529, Charles's troops laid siege to Florence. As the siege dragged on, voices called for Catherine to be killed and exposed naked and chained to the city walls; some suggested that she be handed over to the troops to be used for their sexual gratification. The city surrendered on 12 August 1530. Clement summoned Catherine from her beloved convent to join him in Rome where he greeted her with open arms and tears in his eyes, he set about the business of finding her a husband. On her visit to Rome, the Venetian envoy described Catherine as "small of stature, thin, without delicate features, but having the protruding eyes peculiar to the Medici family". Suitors, lined up for her hand, including James V of Scotland who sent the Duke of Albany to Clement to conclude a marriage in April and November 1530; when Francis I of France proposed his second son, Duke of Orléans, in early 1533, Clement jumped at the offer. Henry was a prize catch for Catherine; the wedding, a grand affair marked by extravagant display and gift-giving, took place in the Église Saint-Ferréol les Augustins in Marseille on 28 October 1533.
Prince Henry danced and jousted for Catherine
Ministry of Culture (France)
The Ministry of Culture is the ministry of the Government of France in charge of national museums and the monuments historiques. Its goal is to maintain the French identity through the promotion and protection of the arts on national soil and abroad, its budget is dedicated to the management of the Archives Nationales and the regional Maisons de la culture. Its main office is in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement of Paris on the Rue de Valois, it is headed by the Minister of a cabinet member. The current position holder is Franck Riester, since 16 October 2018. Deriving from the Italian and Burgundian courts of the Renaissance, the notion that the state had a key role to play in the sponsoring of artistic production and that the arts were linked to national prestige was found in France from at least the 16th century on. During the pre-revolutionary period, these ideas are apparent in such things as the creation of the Académie française, the Académie de peinture et de sculpture and other state-sponsored institutions of artistic production, through the cultural policies of Louis XIV's minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
The modern post of Minister of Culture was created by Charles de Gaulle in 1959 and the first Minister was the writer André Malraux. Malraux was responsible for realizing the goals of the droit à la culture, an idea, incorporated in the Constitution of France and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by democratising access to culture, while achieving the Gaullist aim of elevating the "grandeur" of post-war France. To this end, he created numerous regional cultural centres throughout France and sponsored the arts. Malraux's artistic tastes included the modern arts and the avant-garde, but on the whole he remained conservative. Under president François Mitterrand the Minister of Culture was Jack Lang who showed himself to be far more open to popular cultural production, including jazz and roll, rap music, graffiti art, comic books and food, his famous phrase "économie et culture, même combat" is representative of his commitment to cultural democracy and to active national sponsorship and participation in cultural production.
In addition to the creation of the Fête de la Musique and overseeing the French Revolution bicentennial, he was in charge of the massive architectural program of the François Mitterrand years that gave permission for the building of the Bibliothèque nationale, the new Louvre, the Arab World Institute, the Musée d'Orsay, the Opéra-Bastille, the "Grande Arche" of La Défense, the new seat of the French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, the Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie and Cité de la Musique, both in the Parc de la Villette. The Ministry of Jacques Toubon was notable for a number of laws enacted for the preservation of the French language, both in advertisements and on the radio, ostensibly in reaction to the presence of English; the following people were appointed as Minister of Culture of France: Since the French constitution does not identify specific ministers, each government may label each ministry as they wish, or have a broader ministry in charge of several governmental sectors.
Hence, the ministry has gone through a number of different names: The Ministry of Culture is made up of a variety of internal divisions, including: Direction de l'administration générale Direction de l'architecture et du patrimoine - in charge of national monuments and heritage Inventaire général du patrimoine culturel - maintains extensive databases of historical sites and objects. See Base Mérimée, Base Palissy and Monument historique. Direction des archives de France - in charge of the National Archives Direction du livre et de la lecture - in charge of French literature and the book trade Direction de la musique, de la danse, du théâtre et des spectacles - in charge of music and theater Direction des Musées de France - in charge of the National museumsThe Ministry has access to one inter-ministerial division: Direction du développement des médias in charge of developing and expanding the French media The Ministry runs three "delegations": Délégation aux arts plastiques - in charge of the visual and sculptural arts Délégation au développement et aux affaires internationales - in charge of international affairs and French art Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France - in charge of the French language and languages of FranceFinally, the Ministry shares in the management of the National Centre of Cinema, a public institution.
The Alliance française is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. For more on the organization of the Ministry, see Ministry of Culture. On the national level, the Ministry runs: Regional Cultural Affairs Departmental Architecture and Monuments Departmental Archives under the direction of the depart
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca, it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls. Lucca was founded by the Etruscans and became a Roman colony in 180 BC; the rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre may still be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the early sixth century. At one point, Lucca was plundered by the first Germanic King of Italy. Lucca was an important city and fortress in the sixth century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke; the Holy Face of Lucca, a major relic carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742.
During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca was a center of Jewish life, the community being led by the Kalonymos family. Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune with a charter in 1160. For 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina. Dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca. In 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca.
The Lucchesi expelled him two years and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florence's Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco, his biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. In 1408, Lucca hosted. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola seized by John, king of Bohemia. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Mastino II della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. Lucca managed, at first as a democracy, after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789.
Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state with a republican constitution to remain independent over the centuries. In 1805, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as "Princess of Lucca". From 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy; the only reigning dukes of Lucca were Maria Luisa of Spain, succeeded by her son Charles II, Duke of Parma in 1824. Meanwhile, the Duchy of Parma had been assigned for life to Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the second wife of Napoleon. In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, upon the death of Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma in 1847, Parma reverted to Charles II, Duke of Parma, while Lucca lost independence and was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; as part of Tuscany, it became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and part of the Italian State in 1861. The walls encircling the old town remain intact as the city expanded and modernized, unusual for cities in the region. Built as a defensive rampart, once the walls lost their military importance they became a pedestrian promenade, the Passeggiata delle Mura Urbane, a street atop the walls linking the bastions.
It passes through the Bastions of Santa Croce, San Frediano, San Martino, San Pietro/Battisti, San Salvatore, La Libertà/Cairoli, San Regolo, San Colombano, Santa Maria, San Paolino/Catalani, San Donato. Each of the four principal sides of the structure is lined with a different tree species than the others; the walled city is encircled by Piazzale Boccherini, Viale Lazzaro Papi, Viale Carlo Del Prete, Piazzale Martiri della Libertà, Via Batoni, Viale Agostino Marti, Viale G. Marconi, Piazza Don A. Mei, Viale Pacini, Viale Giusti, Piazza Curtatone, Piazzale Ricasoli, Viale Ricasoli, Piazza Risorgimento, Viale Giosuè Carducci; the town includes a number of public squares, most notably the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro, site of ancient Roman amphitheater. Ducal Palace: built on the site of Ca