A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it. Electrons in the semiconductor recombine with electron holes, releasing energy in the form of photons; this effect is called electroluminescence. The color of the light is determined by the energy required for electrons to cross the band gap of the semiconductor. White light is obtained by using multiple semiconductors or a layer of light-emitting phosphor on the semiconductor device. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are used in remote-control circuits, such as those used with a wide variety of consumer electronics; the first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red. Modern LEDs are available across the visible and infrared wavelengths, with high light output. Early LEDs were used as indicator lamps, replacing small incandescent bulbs, in seven-segment displays. Recent developments have produced white-light LEDs suitable for room lighting.
LEDs have led to new displays and sensors, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources, including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, general lighting, traffic signals, camera flashes, lighted wallpaper and medical devices. Unlike a laser, the color of light emitted from an LED is neither coherent nor monochromatic, but the spectrum is narrow with respect to human vision, functionally monochromatic. Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat's-whisker detector. Russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927, his research was distributed in Soviet and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.
In 1936, Georges Destriau observed that electroluminescence could be produced when zinc sulphide powder is suspended in an insulator and an alternating electrical field is applied to it. In his publications, Destriau referred to luminescence as Losev-Light. Destriau worked in the laboratories of Madame Marie Curie an early pioneer in the field of luminescence with research on radium. Hungarian Zoltán Bay together with György Szigeti pre-empted led lighting in Hungary in 1939 by patented a lighting device based on SiC, with an option on boron carbide, that emmitted white, yellowish white, or greenish white depending on impurities present. Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo, Edward Jamgochian explained these first light-emitting diodes in 1951 using an apparatus employing SiC crystals with a current source of battery or pulse generator and with a comparison to a variant, crystal in 1953. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide, GaAs, indium phosphide, silicon-germanium alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvins. In 1957, Braunstein further demonstrated that the rudimentary devices could be used for non-radio communication across a short distance; as noted by Kroemer Braunstein "…had set up a simple optical communications link: Music emerging from a record player was used via suitable electronics to modulate the forward current of a GaAs diode. The emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away; this signal was played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music. We had a great deal of fun playing with this setup." This setup presaged the use of LEDs for optical communication applications. In September 1961, while working at Texas Instruments in Dallas, James R. Biard and Gary Pittman discovered near-infrared light emission from a tunnel diode they had constructed on a GaAs substrate. By October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically isolated semiconductor photodetector.
On August 8, 1962, Biard and Pittman filed a patent titled "Semiconductor Radiant Diode" based on their findings, which described a zinc-diffused p–n junction LED with a spaced cathode contact to allow for efficient emission of infrared light under forward bias. After establishing the priority of their work based on engineering notebooks predating submissions from G. E. Labs, RCA Research Labs, IBM Research Labs, Bell Labs, Lincoln Lab at MIT, the U. S. patent office issued the two inventors the patent for the GaAs infrared light-emitting diode, the first practical LED. After filing the patent, Texas Instruments began a project to manufacture infrared diodes. In October 1962, TI announced the first commercial LED product, which employed a pure GaAs crystal to emit an 890 nm light output. In October 1963, TI announced the first commercial hemispherical LED, the SNX-110; the first visible-spectrum LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr. while working at General Electric. Holonyak first reported his LED in the journal Applied Physics Letters on December 1, 1962.
M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T. P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunicat
Victorine-Louise Meurent was a French painter and a famous model for painters. Although she is best known as the favourite model of Édouard Manet, she was an artist in her own right who exhibited at the prestigious Paris Salon. In 1876 her paintings were selected for inclusion at the Salon's juried exhibition, when Manet's work was not. Born in Paris to a family of artisans, Meurent started modeling at the age of sixteen in the studio of Thomas Couture and may have studied art at his women's atelier. Meurent first modeled for Manet for his painting The Street Singer. Manet was first drawn to Meurent, she was noticeable for her petite stature, which earned her the nickname La Crevette, for her red hair, depicted as bright in Manet's watercolor copy of Olympia. As well as playing the guitar, Meurent played the violin, gave lessons in the two instruments, sang in café-concerts. Meurent's name remains forever associated with Manet's masterpieces of 1863, The Luncheon on the Grass and Olympia, which include nude portrayals of her.
At that time she modeled for Edgar Degas and the Belgian painter Alfred Stevens, both close friends of Manet. Her relationship with Stevens is said to have been close. Manet continued to use Meurent as a model until the early 1870s, when she began taking art classes and they became estranged, as she was drawn to the more academic style of painting that Manet opposed; the last Manet painting in which Meurent appears is Gare Saint-Lazare, painted in 1873, referred to as The Railway. The painting is considered the best example of Manet's use of contemporary subject matter. In 1875, Meurent began studying with the portraitist fr:Étienne Leroy; the following year, Meurent was accepted. Manet's own submissions were rejected by the jury that year. Bourgeoise de Nuremberg au XVIe siècle, Meurent's entry at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1879, was hung in the same room as the entry by Manet. Work by Meurent was included in the 1885 and 1904 exhibitions. In all, Meurent exhibited in the Salon six times, she continued to support herself by modelling through the 1880s for Norbert Goeneutte, an artist best known for his etchings, for Toulouse-Lautrec, who took to introducing her as Olympia.
Meurent was inducted into the Société des Artistes Français in 1903, with the support of Charles Hermann-Leon and Tony Robert-Fleury, the Société's founder. By 1906 Meurent had left Paris for the suburb of Colombes, where she lived with a woman named Marie Dufour for the remainder of her life; the two appear to have shared ownership of their house. In her eighties she continued to refer to herself as an artist, as recorded in a census from that time. Meurent died on March 17, 1927. After the death of Dufour in 1930, the contents of the house were liquidated. A painting by Meurent, Le Jour des Rameaux or Palm Sunday was recovered in 2004 and now hangs in the Colombes History Museum. Victorine Meurent's life has inspired two historical novels, she appears as a character in several others; the Irish writer George Moore included Meurent as a character in his semi-fictional autobiography, Memoirs of My Dead Life. She appears as a middle-aged woman. Meurent is the protagonist of both Mademoiselle Victorine: a Novel by Debra Finerman and A Woman With No Clothes On by V R Main and is a character in Christopher Moore's novel Sacré Bleu.
She is a character in the film Intimate Lives: The Women of Manet, aka Manet in Love and is played by Shelley Phillips. Another novel depicting Meurent and her relationship with Manet is Paris Red by Maureen Gibbon. Friedrich, Otto. Olympia: Paris in the Age of Manet New York: Touchstone, 1993. Lipton, Eunice. Alias Olympia. ISBN 0-8014-8609-2. 1992. Main, V R. A Woman With No Clothes On. London: Delancey Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-9539119-7-4. 2008. Seibert, Margaret Mary Armbrust. 1986. A Biography of Victorine-Louise Meurent and Her Role in the Art of Édouard Manet. Diss; the Ohio State U. 1986. The Naked Truth, by V R Main Salon 1885, № 1755 Société des artistes français Salon 1904, № 1264 Le Bulletin de la vie artistique, 1921/05/15, p.297.
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan; the University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various international rankings. The university is composed of an undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies; the university has additional campuses and centers in London, Beijing and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago. University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, economics, literary criticism and the behavioralism school of political science.
Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory; the university is home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation; the University of Chicago has produced faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world. 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".
In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world. The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings; the Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson, Martin A. Ryerson Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.
The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago; the university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building; these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".
William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park; this became the Divinity School in the first professional school at the University of Chicago. Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, the lighted playing field.
Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg
The Royal Abbey of Our Lady of Fontevraud or Fontevrault was a monastery in the village of Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, near Chinon, in the former French duchy of Anjou. It was founded in 1101 by the itinerant preacher Robert of Arbrissel; the foundation became the center of a new monastic Order, the Order of Fontevrault. This order was composed of double monasteries, in which the community consisted of both men and women—in separate quarters of the abbey—all of which were subject to the authority of the Abbess of Fontevraud; the Abbey of Fontevraud itself consisted of four separate communities, all managed by the same abbess. The first permanent structures were built between 1110 and 1119; the area where the Abbey is located was part of what is sometimes referred to as the Angevin Empire. The King of England, Henry II, his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, son, King Richard the Lionheart were all buried here at the end of the 12th century, it was disestablished as a monastery during the French Revolution. The Abbey is situated in the Loire Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, between Chalonnes-sur-Loire and Sully-sur-Loire within the Loire-Anjou-Touraine French regional natural park.
The complex of monastic buildings served as a prison from 1804 to 1963. Since 1975, it has hosted the Centre Culturel de l'Ouest. Robert of Arbrissel had served as the Archpriest of the Diocese of Rennes, carrying out the reformist agenda of its bishop; when the bishop died in 1095, Robert was driven out of the diocese due to the hostility of the local clergy. He became a hermit in the forest of Craon, where he practiced a life of severe penance, together with a number of other men who went on to found major monastic institutions, his eloquence and asceticism attracted many followers, for whom in 1096 he founded a monastery of canons regular at La Roë, of which he was the first abbot. In that same year Pope Urban II summoned him to Angers and appointed him an apostolic missionary, authorizing him to preach anywhere, his preaching drew large crowds of devoted followers, both men and women lepers. As a result, many men wished to embrace the religious life; when the canons of that house objected to the influx of candidates of lower social states, he resigned his office and left the community.
Around 1100 Robert and his followers settled in a valley called Fons Ebraldi where he established a monastic community. The men and women lived together in the same house, in an ancient ascetic practice called Syneisaktism; this practice had been condemned by Church authorities and under pressure the community soon segregated according to gender, with the monks living in small priories where they lived in community in service to the nuns and under their rule. They were recognized as a religious community in 1106, both by the Bishop of Angers and by Pope Paschal II. Robert, who soon resumed his life of itinerant preaching, appointed Hersende of Champagné to lead the community, her assistant, Petronilla of Chemillé, was elected as the first abbess in 1115. Robert wrote a brief Rule of Life based upon the Rule of St. Benedict. Unlike the other monastic orders characterized by double monasteries, the monks and nuns of the Order of Fontevrault followed the same Rule. In his Rule, Robert dealt with four principal points: silence, good works and clothing, encouraging the utmost in simplicity of life and dress.
He directed that the abbess should never be chosen from among those, brought up at Fontevrault, but that she should be someone who had had experience of the world. This latter injunction was observed only in the case of the first two abbesses and was canceled by Pope Innocent III in 1201. At the time of Robert's death in 1117, there were about 3,000 nuns in the community. In the early years the Plantagenets were great benefactors of the abbey and while Isabella d'Anjou was the abbess, King Henry II's widow, Eleanor of Aquitaine, made the abbey her place of residence. Abbess Louise de Bourbon left her crest on many of the alterations to the abbey building which she made during her term of office. With the passing of the Plantagenet dynasty Fontevrault and her dependencies began to fall upon hard times. At the end of the 12th century, the Abbess of Fontevrault, Matilda of Flanders, complained about the extreme poverty which the abbey was suffering; as a result, in 1247 the nuns were permitted to receive inheritances to provide income for their needs, contrary to monastic custom.
The fragile economic basis of the Order was exacerbated by the devastation of the Hundred Years War, which lasted throughout the 14th century. A canonical visitation of fifty of the priories of the Order in 1460 showed most of them to be occupied, if not abandoned; the Order was dispersed during the French Revolution. In November 1789, all property of the Catholic Church was declared to be the property of the nation. On 17 August 1792, a Revolutionary decree ordered evacuation of all monasteries, to be completed by 1 October 1792. At that time, there were still some 200 nuns and a small community of monks in residence at Fontevraud; the last abbess, Julie Sophie Charlotte de Pardaillan d'Antin, is said to have died in poverty in Paris in 1797. The abbey became a prison in 1804; the prison was planned to hold 1,000 prisoners, the former abbey required major changes, including new barracks in addition to the transformation of monastic buildings into dormitories and common areas. Prisoners–-men and children-–began arriving in 1814.
It held some 2,000 prisoners, earning the prison the reputation of being the "toughest in France after Clairvaux". Politic
Saumur is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France. The historic town is located between the Loire and Thouet rivers, is surrounded by the vineyards of Saumur itself, Bourgueil, Coteaux du Layon, etc. which produce some of France's finest wines. Early settlement of the region goes back many thousands of years; the Dolmen de Bagneux on the south of the town, is 23 meters long and is built from 15 large slabs of the local stone, weighing over 500 tons. It is the largest in France; the Château de Saumur was constructed in the 10th century to protect the Loire river crossing from Norman attacks after the settlement of Saumur was sacked in 845. The castle, destroyed in 1067 and inherited by the House of Plantagenet, was rebuilt by Henry II of England in the 12th century, it changed hands several times between Anjou and France until 1589. Houses in Saumur are constructed exclusively of the Tuffeau stone; the caves dug to excavate the stone have become tunnels and have been used by the local vineyards as locations to store their wines.
Amyraldism, or the School of Saumur, is the name used to denote a distinctive form of Reformed theology taught by Moses Amyraut at the University of Saumur in the 17th century. Saumur is the scene for Balzac's novel Eugénie Grandet, written by the French author in 1833. Prior to the French Revolution Saumur was the capital of the Sénéchaussée de Saumur, a bailiwick, which existed until 1793. Saumur was the location of the Battle of Saumur during the Revolt in the Vendée, becoming a state prison under Napoleon Bonaparte; the town was an equestrian centre with both the military cavalry school from 1783 and the Cadre Noir based there. During the Battle of France, in World War II, Saumur was the site of the Battle of Saumur where the town and south bank of the Loire was defended by the teenage cadets of the cavalry school, to their great credit and for the Honour of France. In 1944 it was the target of Azon bombing raids by Allied planes; the first raid, on 8/9 June 1944, was against a railway tunnel near Saumur, seeing the first use of the 12,000 lb Tallboy "earthquake" bombs.
The hastily organized night raid was to stop a planned German Panzer Division, travelling to engage the newly landed allied forces in Normandy. The panzers were expected to use the railway to cross the Loire. No. 83 Squadron RAF illuminated the area with flares by four Avro Lancasters and marked the target at low level by three de Havilland Mosquitos. 25 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron RAF, the "Dambusters" dropped their Tallboys from 18,000 ft with great accuracy. They hit the approaches to the bridge, blocked the railway cutting and one pierced the roof of the tunnel, bringing down a huge quantity of rock and soil which blocked the tunnel, badly delaying the German reinforcements moving towards Normandy 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich; the damaged tunnel was dug out to make a deeper cutting, resulting in the need for a second attack. On 22 June, nine Consolidated B-24 Liberators of the United States Army Air Forces used the new Azon 1,000 lb glide bombs against the Saumur rail bridge, they failed to destroy the bridge.
During the morning of 24 June, 38 American Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses with conventional bombs attacked the bridge. The bridge was damaged; the town of Saumur was awarded the Croix de Guerre with palm for its resistance and display of French patriotism during the war. Saumur is home to the Cadre Noir, the École Nationale d'Équitation, known for its annual horse shows, as well as the Armoured Branch and Cavalry Training School, the officer school for armored forces. There is the national tank museum, the Musée des Blindés, with more than 850 armored vehicles, wheeled or tracked. Most of them are from France, though some come from other countries such as Brazil and the Soviet Union, as well as axis and allied vehicles of World War Two; the annual military Carrousel takes place in July each year, as it has done for over 160 years, with displays of horse cavalry skills and modern military vehicles. Amongst the most important monuments of Saumur are the great Château de Saumur itself which stands high above the town, the nearby Château de Beaulieu which stands just 200 metres from the south bank of the Loire river and, designed by the architect Jean Drapeau.
A giant sequoia tree stands in the grounds of Château de Beaulieu. The Dolmen de Bagneux is on the old road going south; the architectural character of the town owes much to the fact that it is constructed exclusively of the beautiful, but fragile, Tuffeau stone. The wine industry surrounds Saumur, many utilising the tunnels as cellars with the hundreds of domaines producing white, rosé and sparkling wines. Visits to producers and the annual Grandes Tablées du Saumur-Champigny is a popular annual event held in early August with over 1 km of tables set up in Saumur so people can sample the local foods and wine. Saumur has a famous weekly market; every Saturday morning with hundreds of stalls open for business in the streets and squares of the old town, from before 8am. Its skyline has been compared with that of the capital of Slovakia. Saumur was the birthplace of: Anne Le Fèvre Dacier and translator of classics Jeanne Delanoue, made a Roman Catholic Saint in 1982 François Bontemps, General of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Charles Ernest Beulé, archeologist Coco Chanel, fashion designer Yves Robert, composer, writer, producer Jack le Goff, equestrian Fanny Ardant, actr
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Maine-et-Loire is a department of the Loire Valley in west-central France, in the Pays de la Loire region. See also: Anjou and History of Maine-et-LoireMaine-et-Loire is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was called Mayenne-et-Loire, but its name was changed to Maine-et-Loire in 1791. It was created from most of the former province of Anjou, its present name is drawn from the Loire Rivers, which meet within the department. Maine-et-Loire is part of the current region of Pays-de-la-Loire and is surrounded by the departments of Ille-et-Vilaine, Sarthe, Indre-et-Loire, Deux-Sèvres, Vendée, Loire-Atlantique; the principal city is Angers. It has a varied landscape, with forested ranges of hills in the south and north separated by the valley of the Loire; the highest point is Colline des Gardes at 210 m. The area has many navigable rivers such as the Loire, Mayenne and Authion; the inhabitants of Maine-et-Loire have no official qualifier. They are sometimes known as Angevins, from the former province of Anjou, or Mainéligériens, from the name of the département.
Châteaux of the Loire Valley Château de Montsoreau. Royal Abbey of Fontevraud. Château de Brissac. Château de Saumur. Château d'Angers. Château de Brézé. Anjou traditions The largest vineyard of the Loire Valley; the boule de fort, the traditional boules game in AnjouAngers and around: The Angers castle and the Apocalypse Tapestry, the largest tapestry in the world. The Cointreau museum, in Saint-Barthélemy-d'Anjou The Château de Brissac, the tallest castle of the Loire Valley; the crooked spires in Baugé region. Saumur and around: The Cadre Noir, one of the most famous horsemanship school in the world. Montsoreau Flea Market is the largest Flea Market in the Loire Valley taking place every second Sunday of the month. Château de Montsoreau-Museum of contemporary art, featuring the Philippe Méaille Collection, largest collection of works by the British conceptual artists, Art & Language; the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud and the graves of the House of Plantagenet, including Richard I of England. The Tank museum of Saumur, which display the largest tank collection in France.
Around Saumur, the largest concentration of troglodyte house in Europe. Cholet and around: The textile museum of Cholet, the creation of the famous red and white handkerchief; the Château de Touvois The Parc Oriental de Maulévrier, the largest Japanese garden of FranceSegré and around: The fortified city of Pouancé and its medieval castle. The Blue Mine, a slate mine, with a funicular which goes 130 meters under the surface; the National stud of Le Lion-d'Angers, which host every year Le Mondial du Lion The Château de Challain-la-Potherie Cantons of the Maine-et-Loire department Communes of the Maine-et-Loire department Arrondissements of the Maine-et-Loire department Anjou wine Prefecture website General council website Anjou Tourism Board website "Maine-et-Loire". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921