Redlands /ˈrɛdlᵻndz/ is a city in San Bernardino County, United States. It is a part of the Greater Los Angeles area, as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 68,747, up from 63,591 at the 2000 census. The population was estimated at 69,999 in 2013, the city is located approximately 10 miles east of downtown San Bernardino. The area now occupied by Redlands was originally part of the territory of the Morongo, explorations such as those of Pedro Fages and Francisco Garcés sought to extend Catholic influence to the indigenous people and the dominion of the Spanish crown into the area in the 1770s. The Serrano village of Guachama, located just to the west of present-day Redlands, was visited by Fr, Francisco Dumetz in 1810, and was the reason the site was chosen for a mission outpost. Dumetz reached the village on May 20, the feast day of Saint Bernardino of Siena, by 1820, a ditch, known as a zanja, was dug by the natives for the friars from Mill Creek to the Asistencia. In 1822, word of the Mexican triumph in the War of Independence reached the inland area, in 1842, the Lugo family bought the Rancho San Bernardino Mexican land grant and this became the first fixed settler civilization in the area.
The area northwest of current Redlands, astride the Santa Ana River, the Mormon community left wholesale in 1857, recalled to Utah by Brigham Young during the tensions with the federal government that ultimately led to the brief Utah War. Benjamin Barton purchased 1,000 acres from the Latter-day Saints and planted extensive vineyards, Lugonia attracted settlers, in 1869, Barry Roberts, followed a year by the Craw and Glover families. The first school teacher in Lugonia, George W. Beattie, arrived in 1874—shortly followed by the towns first negro settler, Israel Beal. The city has been visited by three U. S. Presidents, William McKinley was the first in 1901, followed by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 and William Howard Taft in 1909. Smiley Public Library, a Moorish-style library built in 1898, located behind the Smiley Library is the Lincoln Shrine, the only memorial honoring the Great Emancipator, the sixteenth president, west of the Mississippi River. Famous homes include “America’s Favorite Victorian, ” the Morey Mansion, on Terracina Boulevard, and the Kimberly Crest House and Gardens, a museum featured on the PBS series “America’s Castles.
”Named after the family that purchased the house. Redlands is still regarded as the Jewel of the Inland Empire, north flooding the area now known as the Inland Empire. North and others saw the area, with its hot, dry climate and ready access to water as an ideal center for citrus production. The city of Redlands was soon established by Frank E. Brown, an engineer, and E. G. Judson. They named their city “Redlands” after the color of the adobe soil, so large had the area grown by 1888 that it was decided to incorporate. A red-letter day in the Annals of Redlands, pronounced Scipio Craig, editor of The Citrograph newspaper, the original community of Lugonia was absorbed at this time
The Vanderbilt family is an American family of Dutch origin that was prominent during the Gilded Age. Their success began with the shipping and railroad empires of Cornelius Vanderbilt, the Vanderbilts were once the wealthiest family in America. Cornelius Vanderbilt was the richest American in history until his death in 1877, after that, his son William acquired his fathers fortune, and was the richest American until his death in 1885. Branches of the family are found on the United States East Coast, contemporary descendants include fashion designer Gloria Vanderbilt, her youngest son, journalist Anderson Cooper, musician John P. Hammond and screenwriter James Vanderbilt. Jan Janszoon and his son Anthony Janszoon van Salee were among the ancestors of the Vanderbilts and they were among the earliest arrivals to 17th century New Amsterdam. In a number of dating back to this period, Jans son is described as mulatto, as his mother was from Sale. The prominence of the Vanderbilt family began with Cornelius Vanderbilt, the fourth of nine born to a Staten Island family of modest means.
Jans village name was added to the Dutch Van to create Van der Bilt, the family is associated with the Dutch patrician Van der Bilt. Cornelius Vanderbilt left school at age 11 and went on to build a shipping and railroad empire that, during the 19th century, fultons company had established a monopoly on trade in and out of New York Harbor. Vanderbilt, based in New Jersey at the time, flouted the law, steaming in and out of the harbor under a flag that read, the Vanderbilt family lived on Staten Island until the mid 1800s, when the Commodore built a house on Washington Place. Although he always occupied a relatively modest home, members of his family would use their wealth to build magnificent mansions, shortly before his death in 1877, Vanderbilt donated US$1 million for the establishment of Vanderbilt University in Nashville. The Commodore left the majority of his enormous fortune to his eldest son and he built the first of what would become many grand Vanderbilt mansions on Fifth Avenue, at 640 Fifth Avenue.
William Henry appointed his first son, Cornelius Vanderbilt II, as the next Head of House, Cornelius II built the largest private home in New York, at 1 West 58th Street, containing approximately 154 rooms, designed by George B. He built The Breakers in Newport, Rhode Island, Cornelius IIs brother, William Kissam Vanderbilt, featured prominently in the familys affairs. He built a magnificent home on Fifth Avenue and would one of the great architectural patrons of the Gilded Age. He built Marble House at 596 Bellevue Avenue in Newport, George Washington Vanderbilt II, William Henry Vanderbilts youngest son, built Biltmore, in Asheville, North Carolina. Alfreds son Alfred Jr. became a horse breeder and racing elder. Harold Stirling Vanderbilt gained fame as a sportsman and he invented the contract form of bridge and won the most coveted prize in yacht racing, the Americas Cup, on three occasions
Solon Spencer Beman
Solon Spencer Beman was an American architect based in Chicago and best known as the architect of the planned Pullman community and adjacent Pullman Company factory complex. Several of his other largest commissions, including the Pullman Office Building, Pabst Building, Beman designed numerous Christian Science churches and influenced the design of countless more. Beman was born in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City, New York, to a father who was fascinated with architecture and who maintained an extensive collection of books on the subject. Encouraged by his father, in 1870 Beman began his training at 17 in the office of New York architect Richard Upjohn. While with Upjohn, Beman helped design the Connecticut State Capitol, in 1877, Beman left Upjohn to begin his own practice. In 1879, Beman received a commission from George Pullman to design what would become the nations first planned company town, Pullman arranged for Beman to design the many buildings involved, while landscape architect Nathan Franklin Barrett created the street and park system.
Ultimately the courts forced Pullman to relinquish the town, it was annexed by Chicago, Bemans early buildings tended toward picturesque eclecticism with varied historical details. Fashionable at the time, these styles included Gothic Revival, Queen Anne, Romanesque Revival, in Pullman, Beman designed block after block of rowhouses that feature a variety of elevations and detailing that create an overall picturesque appearance. Also included among the buildings for the Pullman development were Hotel Florence, Greenstone Church, kimball Mansion at 1801 Prairie Avenue and John W. Griffiths Mansion at 3806 South Michigan Avenue. Beman was quite skilled at Châteauesque, which when successful involves the mixing of Renasissance. Rather tricky for any but the cordon bleus of the profession, in 1897, Beman designed Pullmans monument at Chicagos Graceland Cemetery, a towering Corinthian column flanked by curved benches. Elsewhere, Beman designed the distinctive Pullman summer home at the Thousand Islands, Beman designed several buildings for the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893.
The Blackstone Public Library Branch, built in 1905, was Chicagos first branch library, the design was a near duplication of the James Blackstone Memorial Library in Branford, Connecticut. Both libraries were built with bequests from the Blackstone family of Chicago. M. S, Solon S. Beman had a long involvement with Christian Science. He was grateful to the church, which he credited with healing his wifes invalidism, Beman oversaw the construction of the Mother Church Extension after the original architect, Charles Brigham, became too ill to proceed and went to Bermuda to recover. Beman converted to Christian Science, and designed at least a dozen other Christian Science churches across the country, in 1904, he designed Fifth Church of Christ, Scientist, at 4840 South Dorchester Avenue in Chicago. A number of trained with Beman, including William L. Steele, Charles Draper Faulkner. Spencer S. Beman practiced architecture with his father, and after his death carried on his Christian Science church design work, between them, the two Bemans designed a minimum of 90 Christian Science churches
The Loire Valley, spanning 280 kilometres, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, primarily within the administrative region named Centre-Val de Loire. The area of the Loire Valley comprises about 800 square kilometres and it is referred to as the Cradle of the French and the Garden of France due to the abundance of vineyards, fruit orchards, and artichoke, and asparagus fields, which line the banks of the river. Notable for its towns and wines, the valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period. In 2000, UNESCO added the part of the Loire River valley to its list of World Heritage Sites. The valley includes historic towns such as Amboise, Blois, Orléans, the climate is favorable most of the year, the river often acting as a line of demarcation in Frances weather between the northern climate and the southern. The river has a significant effect on the mesoclimate of the region, the climate can be cool with springtime frost while wine harvest months may have rain.
Summers are hot, influences from the Atlantic moderate the temperature with breezes, Loire wines tend to exhibit a characteristic fruitiness with fresh, crisp flavors. On December 2,2000, UNESCO added the part of the river valley. When the French kings began constructing their huge châteaux here, the nobility, not wanting or even daring to be far from the seat of power and their presence in the lush, fertile valley began attracting the very best landscape designers. In addition to its many châteaux, the cultural monuments illustrate to a degree the ideals of the Renaissance. Many of the châteaux were designed to be built on the top of hills, many of the châteaux had extremely detailed and expensive churches on the grounds, or within the actual château itself. Loire Valley world heritage site Loire Valley Chateau du Rivau Chinon Fortress Western France Tourist Board
Alexander III of Russia
Alexander III was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from 13 March 1881 until his death on 1 November 1894. He was highly conservative and reversed some of the reforms of his father, Alexander II. During Alexanders reign Russia fought no wars, for which he was styled The Peacemaker. Although an enthusiastic amateur musician and patron of the ballet, Alexander was seen as lacking refinement, indeed, he rather relished the idea of being of the same rough texture as some of his subjects. His education was not such as to soften these peculiarities, more than six feet tall, he was noted for his immense physical strength. A sebaceous cyst on the side of his nose caused him to be mocked by some of his contemporaries. I was struck by the size of the man, and although cumbersome and heavy, there was indeed something of the muzhik about him. The look of his eyes made quite an impression on me. As he passed where I was standing, he raised his head for a second and it was a look as cold as steel, in which there was something threatening, even frightening, and it struck me like a blow.
The look of a man who stood above all others, but who carried a burden and who every minute had to fear for his life. In years I came into contact with the Emperor on several occasions, in more ordinary cases Tsar Alexander III could be at once kind and even almost homely. Great solicitude was devoted to the education of Nicholas as tsesarevich and this included acquaintance with French and German, and military drill. Pobedonostsev instilled into the mans mind the belief that zeal for Russian Orthodox thought was an essential factor of Russian patriotism to be cultivated by every right-minded emperor. On his deathbed the previous tsesarevich was said to have expressed the wish that his fiancée, Princess Dagmar of Denmark, the union proved a happy one to the end, unlike his fathers, there was no adultery in his marriage. The couple spent their night at the Tsesarevichs private dacha known as My Property. To the scandal of many at court, including the Tsesarevich himself, on 1 March 1881 Alexanders father, Alexander II, was assassinated by members of the terrorist organization Narodnaya Volya.
As a result, he ascended to the Russian imperial throne in Nennal on 13 March 1881 and he and Maria Feodorovna were officially crowned and anointed on 27 May 1883. On the day of his assassination Alexander II had signed an ukaz setting up commissions to advise the monarch
The peninsula is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is connected to Kherson Oblast by the Isthmus of Perekop and is separated from Kuban by the Strait of Kerch, the Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Crimea has historically been at the boundary between the world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century, in 1783, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire. It became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within newly independent Ukraine in 1991, with Sevastopol having its own administration, within Ukraine, the ex-Soviet Black Sea Fleet and its facilities were divided between Russias Black Sea Fleet and the Ukrainian Naval Forces. The two navies shared some of the harbours and piers, while others were demilitarised or used by either country. Sevastopol remained the location of the Russian Black Sea Fleet headquarters with the Ukrainian Naval Forces Headquarters based in the city, most of the international community does not recognize the annexation and considers Crimea to be Ukrainian territory.
Russia currently administers the peninsula as two federal subjects, the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. Ukraine continues to assert its right over the peninsula, the classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsulas Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. In English usage since the modern period the Crimean Khanate is referred to as Crim Tartary. The Italian form Crimea becomes current during the 18th century, the omission of the definite article in English became common during the 20th century. The name Crimea follows the Italian form from the Crimean Tatar name for the city Qırım which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde, the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty. The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain, suggestions argued in various sources include, a corruption of Cimmerium. A derivation from the Turkic term qirum, from qori-, other suggestions that have not been supported by sources but are apparently based on similarity in sound include, a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi.
However, he identifies the port, not in Crimea, no evidence has been identified that this name was ever in use for the peninsula. The classical name was revived in 1802 in the name of the Russian Taurida Governorate, in the 8th century BCE the Cimmerians migrated to the region and subsequently the Scythians as well it being the site of Greek colonies. The most important city was Chersonesos at the edge of todays Sevastopol, the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded to Crimea. Later occupiers included the Romans, Huns, the Byzantine Empire, the Kipchaks, the Golden Horde, consideration of the succeeding residents of the peninsula by their linguistic grouping is of relevance
Canada's grand railway hotels
Canada’s railway hotels are a series of five-star grand hotels across the country, each a local and national landmark, and most of which are icons of Canadian history and architecture. Each hotel was built by the Canadian railway companies, or the railways acted as a catalyst for the hotel’s construction. The hotels were designed to serve the passengers of the expanding rail network. Many of the hotels were built in the château style. The use of towers and turrets, and other Scottish baronial and French château architectural elements, architects used the style for important public buildings, such as the Confederation and Justice buildings in Ottawa. Canadas first grand hotel, the Windsor Hotel in Montreal. Although it was not owned by a company, it was built to serve railway visitors from nearby Windsor Station. Given its location next to Montreals main train station, the Windsor served for years as the permanent residence of executives of both the Canadian Pacific Railway and Grand Trunk Railway.
The railways development role in the construction and operation of hotels was inaugurated with Canadian Pacific Railways opening of the Hotel Vancouver on May 16,1888. This was the first of three railway-owned hotels by that name in Vancouver, two weeks later, the Canadian Pacific Railway officially opened the Banff Springs Hotel on June 1,1888. CPR president William Cornelius Van Horne had personally chosen the site in the Rocky Mountains for the new hotel and he envisioned a string of grand hotels across Canada that would draw visitors from abroad to his railway. Van Horne famously remarked, “If we can’t export the scenery, we’ll import the tourists. ”The original Banff Springs Hotel, of construction, was destroyed by fire in 1926. Canadian Pacific Hotels next built the Château Frontenac in Quebec City and it was designed to rival any hotel in Europe. Place Viger followed in Montreal, followed by The Empress in Victoria, British Columbia, the largest of these hotels is the Royal York in Toronto, which opened in 1929.
The CPR’s main competitor, the Grand Trunk Railway, was not prepared to leave the field solely to its rival and it determined to build a chain of luxury hotels across the country, which it did in the château style. The GTR built the Château Laurier in Ottawa in 1912, with the Fort Garry Hotel in Winnipeg, the GTR was amalgamated into the Canadian National Railway in 1920. During the decades that followed, the CPR and the CNR continued to expand their competing hotel chains across the country, the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, built in 1958 over that city’s Central Station, was perhaps the last true railway hotel built in Canada. Both railways continued to open new establishments in subsequent years, although none had any connection to the railways, in 1988, Canadian Pacific acquired the CNR hotels
Carei is a city in Satu Mare County, northwestern Romania, near the border with Hungary. The city was named after an old family, the Károlyi. In 1262, in a document, Karul appears as a name of a person, the bird that can be found on the coat of arms of the Karolyi family. King Louis I of Hungary permitted the organization of weekly market gatherings in Carei in 1346, the development of the trade in the region stimulated the wealth and expansion of the town. In the 14th century, the locality was a settlement with a few streets built around the domain of the noble Károlyi. Wars and famine during the Middle Ages decimated the population, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Carei is often devastated by wars. The town and the villages suffered the greatest losses during the anti-Habsburg riot. The first group of colonists came in 1712, opening a period of gradual colonization with Swabians, Slovaks. Between 1712-1774,466 Swabian families are settled down in Carei, effects on cultural and social life began to show, in 1727 the Piarist Gymnasium was established, in 1754 the first typography was built, and in 1756 a drugstore was opened.
The towns urban shape is outlined after the fire that occurred in May 1887. The rebuilding of the houses and the organizing of the streets are done according to the planning regulations adopted by the towns council. The light industry began to bloom in the town starting with the 19th century, in 1887 the Zalău-Carei railway was built and in 1905 the one between Carei and Mátészalka was restored for transportation purposes. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, in 1940, under the auspices of the Third Reich, which imposed the Second Vienna Award, Hungary retook this territory from Romania. Although between 1760 and 1920 the town is the capital of the Szatmar county, the development is not significant. In 1926 it was attached to Sălaj county, after 1945, Carei is included in the Baia Mare district, and after 1968, along with the administrative-territorial reorganization of the country, it returns to Satu Mare county. Until World War II, the industry of the town consisted of mills, the Oil Factory Ardealul, during the Communist period, Carei gradually turned into an industrial town.
The most important historical building in the city is the Károlyi castle, built originally as a fortress around the 14th century, it was converted to a castle in 1794, undergoing further transformations during the 19th century. The manor is surrounded by a park covering a surface of about 30 acres and containing a great variety of species of trees
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. The City of Newport is located approximately 37 miles southeast of Providence,21 miles south of Fall River and it is known as a New England summer resort and famous for its mansions. It was a major 18th-century port city and contains a number of surviving buildings from the colonial era of the United States. The city is the county seat of Newport County and it was known for being the city of some of the Summer White Houses during the administrations of Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy. The population was 24,027 as of 2013 and its eight founders and first officers were Nicholas Easton, William Coddington, John Clarke, John Coggeshall, William Brenton, Jeremy Clark, Thomas Hazard, and Henry Bull. They left Portsmouth, Rhode Island after a fallout with Anne Hutchinson. As part of the agreement and his followers took control of the side of the island. They were soon joined by Nicholas Easton, who had recently expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for holding heretical beliefs.
The settlement grew to be the largest of the four settlements of Rhode Island. Many of the first colonists in Newport became Baptists, and the second Baptist congregation in Rhode Island was formed in 1640 under the leadership of John Clarke, peace did not last long in Newport, as many did not like Coddingtons autocratic style. As a result, a counter-faction was formed by 1650, led by Nicholas Easton, Newport became the most important port in colonial Rhode Island, and a public school was established in 1640. In 1658, a group of Jews were allowed to settle in Newport who were fleeing the Inquisition in Spain, the Newport congregation is now referred to as Congregation Jeshuat Israel and is the second-oldest Jewish congregation in the United States. It meets in Touro Synagogue, the oldest standing synagogue in the United States, in 1663, the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations received its Royal Charter, and Benedict Arnold was elected its first Governor at Newport. The commercial activity which raised Newport to its fame as a port was begun by a second wave of Portuguese Jews who settled there about the middle of the 18th century.
They brought with them experience and connections, capital. Most prominent among those were Jacob Rodrigues Rivera who arrived in 1745, Rivera introduced into America the manufacture of sperm oil, which became one of the leading industries and made Newport rich. Newports inhabitants who were engaged in whaling developed 17 manufactories of oil and candles, Aaron Lopez fled to Newport from Lisbon in 1752 and is credited with making Newport an important center of trade. To him in a degree than to any one else was due the rapid commercial development which made Newport for a quarter of a century afterward the most formidable rival of New York
Bradford Lee Gilbert was a nationally-active architect based in New York City. Gilbert is best known for designing the first steel-framed curtain wall building in New York, the Tower Building, the Tower Building is considered New York Citys first skyscraper. There is some dispute as to whether the Tower Building had eleven or thirteen floors, depending on which floors were counted and it had to have the steel-frame construction because on its narrow lot, masonry-supporting walls would have allowed almost no free space on the first floor. Gilberts design used the frame as a railroad bridge. The Tower Building was initially greeted with skepticism, with members of the public predicting it would blow over. This prompted Gilbert to scale the building in the middle of an 1889 hurricane to demonstrate with a line that the building was not vibrating. The building was razed in 1914, born in Watertown, New York, Gilbert had been appointed architect of the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad by the age of 23.
Among his extensive work for multiple railroads across the country, Gilbert designed a version of New York Citys Grand Central Terminal in 1898. Gilbert was the architect for the Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition. Gilbert died at his home in Brooklyn in 1911. R. L, passenger Station, New Jersey,1901 William G. Mr. Gilbert was first married in 1871 in New York to Cora, daughter of Captain John Rathbone. After his divorce, he married his wife, Maria McAuley, widow of Jerry McAuley in 1892 in Cranford, New Jersey On February 12,1896, Bradford. George E. Archer Frank J. Nies, DL&W Railroad contemporary Bradford Lee Gilbert history site