Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city. On the European continent, a town may be described as a "market town" or as having "market rights" if it no longer holds a market, provided the legal right to do so still exists. In Britain it remains in common use as a loose descriptive term for small rural towns with a hinterland of villages, it is sometimes reflected in their names, as with Market Rasen, or Market Drayton. Modern markets are in special halls, but this is a recent development; the markets were open-air, held in what is called the market square, centred on a market cross. They were and are open one or two days a week; the primary purpose of a market town is the provision of goods and services to the surrounding locality. Although market towns were known in antiquity, their number increased from the 12th century. Market towns across Europe flourished with an improved economy, a more urbanised society and the widespread introduction of a cash-based economy.
The Domesday Book of 1086 lists 50 markets in England. Some 2,000 new markets were established between 1200 and 1349; the burgeoning of market towns occurred across Europe around the same time. Market towns most grew up close to fortified places, such as castles or monasteries, not only to enjoy their protection, but because large manorial households and monasteries generated demand for goods and services. Historians term these early market towns "prescriptive market towns" in that they may not have enjoyed any official sanction such as a charter, but were accorded market town status through custom and practice if they had been in existence prior to 1199. From a early stage and administrators understood that a successful market town attracted people, generated revenue and would pay for the town's defenses. From around the 12th century and European kings began granting charters to villages allowing them to create a market on specific days. Framlingham in Suffolk is a notable example of a market situated near a fortified building.
Additionally, markets were located where transport was easiest, such as at a crossroads or close to a river. When local railway lines were first built, market towns were given priority to ease the transport of goods. For instance, in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, several market towns close together were designated to take advantage of the new trains; the designation of Halifax, Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge, Todmorden is an example of this. A number of studies have pointed to the prevalence of the periodic market in medieval towns and rural areas due to the localised nature of the economy; the marketplace was the accepted location for trade, social interaction, transfer of information and gossip. A broad range of retailers congregated in market towns – peddlers, hucksters, stallholders and other types of trader; some were professional traders occupied a local shopfront such as a bakery or alehouse, while others were casual traders who set up a stall or carried their wares around in baskets on market days.
Market trade supplied for the needs of local consumers whether they were visitors or local residents. Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of European market towns between the 13th and 15th century, their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Over time, permanent shops began opening daily and supplanted the periodic markets, while peddlers or itinerant sellers continued to fill in any gaps in distribution; the physical market was characterised by transactional exchange and bartering systems were commonplace. Shops had higher overhead costs, but were able to offer regular trading hours and a relationship with customers and may have offered added value services, such as credit terms to reliable customers; the economy was characterised by local trading in which goods were traded across short distances. Braudel reports. However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar – calico cloth from India, porcelain and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar and coffee from the New World.
The importance of local markets began to decline from the mid-16th century. Permanent shops which provided more stable trading hours began to supplant the periodic market. In addition, the rise of a merchant class led to the import and exports of a broad range of goods, contributing to a reduced reliance on local produce. At the centre of this new global mercantile trade was Antwerp, which by the mid-16th century, was the undisputed largest market town in Europe. A good number of local histories of individual market towns can be found. However, more general histories of the rise of market-towns across Europe are much more difficult to locate. Clark points out that while a good deal is known about the economic value of markets in local economies, the cultural role of market-towns has received scant scholarly attention. In Denmark, the concept of the market town has existed since the Iron Age, it is not known, the first Danish market town, but Hedeby and Ribe were among the first. Per 1801, there were 74 market towns in Denmark.
The last town to gain market rights was Skjern in 195
Hauts-de-Seine is a department of France. It is part of the Métropole du Grand Paris and of the Île-de-France region, covers the western inner suburbs of Paris, it is small and densely populated and contains the modern office and shopping complex known as La Défense. Hauts-de-Seine and two other small départements, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne and are together with the City of Paris included in the Greater Paris since 1 January 2016. Hauts-de-Seine is made up of three departmental arrondissements and 36 communes: Hauts-de-Seine has a general council of which members are called general councillors; the general council is the deliberative organ of the department. The general councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the departement for a 6-years term; the general council is ruled by a president. See Hauts-de-Seine General Council; the Hauts-de-Seine department was created in 1968, from parts of the former départements of Seine and Seine-et-Oise.
Its creation reflected the implementation of a law passed in 1964, Nanterre had been selected as the prefecture for the new department early in 1965. In the 1990s and early 2000s, Hauts-de-Seine received national attention as the result of a corruption scandal concerning the misuse of public funds provided for the department's housing projects. Implicated were former minister and former president of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council, Charles Pasqua, other personalities of the RPR party. Hauts-de-Seine is one of Europe's richest areas, its GDP per capita was US$119,778 in 2015, according to INSEE official figures. Hauts-de-Seine was the political base of Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic from 2007 to 2012, he was the mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine in the department. Charles Pasqua was based in Hauts-de-Seine. Website of the General council Prefecture website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Saxony-Anhalt is a state of Germany. Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres and has a population of 2.23 million, 108.69 inhabitants per km2, making it the 8th-largest state in Germany by area and the 10th-largest by population. Its capital is Magdeburg and its largest city is Halle. Saxony-Anhalt is surrounded by the states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg and Thuringia; the state of Saxony-Anhalt originated in July 1945 after World War II, when the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany formed it from the former Prussian Province of Saxony and the Free State of Anhalt. Saxony-Anhalt became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Halle and Magdeburg, with the city of Torgau joining the district of Leipzig. Saxony-Anhalt was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, excluding Torgau, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states.
Saxony-Anhalt is one of 16 Bundesländer of Germany. It is located in the western part of eastern Germany. By size, it is the 8th largest state in Germany and by population it is the 10th largest, it borders four other Bundesländer: Lower Saxony to the north-west, Brandenburg to the north-east, Saxony to the south-east and Thuringia to the south-west. In the north, the Saxony-Anhalt landscape is dominated by the flat expanse of the North German Plain; the old Hanseatic towns Salzwedel, Gardelegen and Tangermünde are located in the sparsely populated Altmark. The Colbitz-Letzlingen Heath and the Drömling near Wolfsburg mark the transition between the Altmark region and the Elbe-Börde-Heath region with its fertile, sparsely wooded Magdeburg Börde. Notable towns in the Magdeburg Börde are Haldensleben, Wanzleben, Schönebeck and the capital Magdeburg, from which the Börde derives its name; the Harz mountains are located in the south-west, comprising the Harz National Park, the Harz Foreland and Mansfeld Land.
The highest mountain of the Harz is Brocken, with an elevation of 1,141 meters. In this area, one can find the towns of Halberstadt, Thale and Quedlinburg; the wine-growing area Saale-Unstrut and the towns of Zeitz, Weißenfels and Freyburg are located on the rivers Saale and Unstrut in the south of the state. The metropolitan area of Halle forms an agglomeration with Leipzig in Saxony; this area is known for its developed chemical industry, with major production plants at Leuna and Bitterfeld. In the east, Dessau-Roßlau and Wittenberg are situated on the Elbe in the Anhalt-Wittenberg region; the capital of Saxony-Anhalt is Magdeburg. It is the second-largest city in the state after Halle. From 1994 to 2003, the state was divided into three regions, Dessau and Magdeburg and, below the regional level, 21 districts. Since 2004, this system has been replaced by 11 rural districts and three urban districts; the counties are: Altmarkkreis Salzwedel Anhalt-Bitterfeld Börde Burgenlandkreis Harz Jerichower Land Mansfeld-Südharz Saalekreis Salzlandkreis Stendal WittenbergThe independent cities are: Dessau-Roßlau Halle Magdeburg The largest cities in Saxony-Anhalt according to a 31 December 2017 estimate: In April 1945 the US Army took control of most of the western and northern area of the future Saxony-Anhalt.
The U. S. Group Control Council, Germany appointed the first non-Nazi officials in leading positions in the area. So Erhard Hübener, put on leave by the Nazis, was reappointed Landeshauptmann. By early July the US Army withdrew from the former Prussian Province of Saxony to make way for the Red Army to take it as part of the Soviet occupation zone, as agreed by the London Protocol in 1944. On 9 July the Soviet SVAG ordered the merger of the Free State of Anhalt, Halle-Merseburg, the governorate of Magdeburg and some Brunswickian eastern exclaves and salients with the Province of Saxony; the Saxon Erfurt governorate had become a part of Thuringia. Anhalt takes its name from Anhalt Castle near Harzgerode; the SVAG appointed Hübener as president of the provincial Saxon administration, a newly created function. The administration was seated in Halle an der Saale, which became the capital of Saxony-Anhalt until 1952. On 3 September 1945 the new administration enacted by Soviet-inspired ordinance the mass expropriations hitting holders of large real estates of noble descent.
On the occasion of the first election in the Soviet zone, allowing parties to compete for seats in provincial and state parliaments, on 20 October 1946, the Province of Saxony was renamed as the Province of Saxony-Anhalt, taking the prior merger into account. On 3 December 1946 the members of the new provincial parliament elected Hübener the first minister-president of Saxony-Anhalt with the votes of CDU and Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, thus he became the only governor in the Soviet zone, not a member of the communist Socialist Unity Party of Germany. He was an inconvenient governor for the Soviet rulers. After the official Allied decision to dissolve the Free State of Prussia, which had remained in limbo since the Prussian coup of 1932, its former provinces, in as
Meudon is a railway station serving Meudon, a southwestern suburb of Paris, France. It is situated on the Paris–Brest railway, it is served by Transilien trains from Paris-Montparnasse to Rambouillet and Mantes-la-Jolie. Meudon station at Transilien, the official website of SNCF
Montlhéry is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. It is located 26 km from Paris. Inhabitants of Montlhéry are known as Montlhériens. Montlhéry lay on the strategically important road from Paris to Orléans. Under the Merovingians, it was owned by the church in Reims and in 768 it was given to the abbey of St. Denis in Paris, it was the site of a number of battles between the lords of Montlhéry and the early Capetian monarchy. The Montlhéry noble house was related to the Montmorency family. Thibaud ruled from 970 to 1031 and was succeeded by his son Guy I, who ruled until 1095. Guy I's children married into other local noble families: his daughter Melisende married Hugh, count of Rethel, another daughter Elizabeth married Joscelin of Courtenay. Through these marriages and subsequent Montlhéry participation on the First Crusade, Guy I was the ancestor of the ruling dynasties of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Edessa. Another daughter, married into the Le Puiset family, a son, became count of Rochefort.
Guy I was succeeded by Milo I, followed by Milo's sons Guy II and Milo II. In 1118, after many disputes with the rebellious lords, Louis VI of France ordered the castle to be dismantled and turned the town into a royal residence. Louis VI had himself been married to a granddaughter of Guy I, Lucienne of Rochefort, from 1104 to 1107. After being absorbed into the royal domain, Montlhéry became part of the territory governed by the viscount of Paris. In the early 13th century, the French king Philip II rebuilt the castle in the contemporary style, at a new site high above the town. During the Hundred Years' War, the town and the castle passed between English and French forces. On 16 July 1465, Charles the Bold defeated Louis XI of France at the Battle of Montlhéry; the town was left in ruins by the Wars of Religion, but it was rebuilt in 1591 under Henry IV. In the 19th century, the tower was used for scientific experiments. In 1822, François Arago calculated the speed of sound there. In 1823, Claude Chappe installed a relay for the Paris-Bayonne telegraph line.
On 5 June 1874, Alfred Cornu tried to calculate the speed of light between the tower and the Observatory in Paris. During the Franco-Prussian War, the town was occupied and pillaged by the Prussians, it was occupied again by Germany in 1940 during the Second World War. Today Montlhéry is twinned with Stetten am kalten Markt, Germany; the Château de Montlhéry, a 13th-century castle with its prominent keep, succeeded a castle built in the 11th century, an earlier foundation, built from 991 to 1015. Thibaud of Montmorency Guy I of Montlhéry Milo I of Montlhéry Guy II of Montlhéry Milo II of Montlhéry passes to royal domain of France South of Montlhéry is the site of an automobile race track, the Autodrome de Montlhéry, established by Alexandre Lamblin in 1924, it is sometimes referred to as the'French Indianapolis', because it is laid out as a high speed oval. Many speed records were set there within months of its opening. Today the racetrack has fallen into disuse and is used for other purposes.
Montlhéry was a market town, remembered today in the Tomato Festival. The medieval tower is a popular tourist attraction, which re-opened in 2005 after being closed for repairs. Henri Oreiller, was an alpine ski racer and Olympic gold medalist from France. Paul Fort, nicknamed Le Prince des Poètes lived there from 1921 until his death in 1960. Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association History and Archaeology of the Castle, on Montlhéry.com Salch, Charles-Laurent. Dictionnaire des châteaux et des fortifications du moyen âge en France. Strasbourg: Publitotal. P. 1287 pp. ISBN 2-86535-070-3. Media related to Montlhéry at Wikimedia Commons City council website Website about Montlhéry Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use
Châtillon – Montrouge (Paris Métro)
Châtillon – Montrouge is a surface station of the Paris Métro that serves as the southern terminus of Line 13 in the communes of Châtillon and Montrouge. The station opened on 9 November 1976 as part of the extension of line 13 from Porte de Vanves. Reversal at the station have been carried out using automatic train operation since June 2008. Platform screen doors were installed to protect passengers from falling under driverless trains, it was the first station on the metro to be so equipped, except on Line 14, built for automatic operations at its inception. A rubber-tired tramway from Châtillon to Vélizy-Villacoublay opened in 2014. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton