The Chōshū Domain was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period. It occupied the whole of modern-day Yamaguchi Prefecture; the capital city was Hagi. The name Chōshū was shorthand for Nagato Province; the domain played a major role in the Late Tokugawa shogunate. It is known as the Hagi Domain; the rulers of Chōshū were the descendants of the great Sengoku warlord Mōri Motonari. Motonari was able to extend his power over all of the Chūgoku region of Japan and occupied a territory worth 1,200,000 koku. After he died, his grandson and heir Mōri Terumoto became daimyō and implemented a strategy of alliance with Toyotomi Hideyoshi; this would prove to be a great mistake. After Hideyoshi's death, the daimyō Tokugawa Ieyasu challenged the Toyotomi power and battled with Hideyoshi's trusted advisor Ishida Mitsunari at the Battle of Sekigahara. Mōri Terumoto was the most powerful ally of the Toyotomi and was elected by a council of Toyotomi loyalists to be the titulary head of the Toyotomi force; however the Toyotomi forces lost the battle due to several factors tied to Mōri Terumoto: His cousin Kikkawa Hiroie secretly made a deal with Tokugawa Ieyasu resulting in the inactivity of 15,000 Mōri soldiers during the battle.
His adopted cousin Kobayakawa Hideaki and his 15,600 soldiers betrayed Ishida and joined the Tokugawa side. After assurances from Tokugawa Ieyasu, Terumoto gave up the formidable Osaka castle without a fight. Despite its inactivity, the Mōri clan was removed from its ancestral home in Aki to Nagato Province, its holdings were drastically reduced from 1,200,000 to 369,000 koku; this was seen as a great act of betrayal to the Mōri clan, Chōshū became a hotbed of anti-Tokugawa activities. The origins of this were evident in the tradition of the clan's New Year's meeting; every year during the meeting, the elders and the administrators would ask the daimyo whether the time to overthrow the shogunate had come, to which the daimyo would reply: "Not yet, the shogunate is still too powerful." This dream would be realized some 260 years when the domain joined forces with the Satsuma Domain and sympathetic court nobles to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1865, the domain bought a war-ship Union from Glover and Co. an agency of Jardine Matheson established in Nagasaki, in the name of Satsuma Domain.
They led the fight against the armies of the former shōgun, which included the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei and the Ezo Republic, during the Boshin War. The domains' military forces of 1867 through 1869 formed the foundation for the Imperial Japanese Army. Thanks to this alliance, Chōshū and Satsuma natives enjoyed political and societal prominence well into the Meiji and Taishō eras; the initial reduction of 1.2 million to 369,000 koku resulted in a large shortfall in terms of military upkeep and infrastructure maintenance, despite which the domain remained the seventh-largest in Japan outside the shogunate-controlled domains. In order to bring the domain's finances out of debt, strict policies were enforced on the retainers: All retainers' fiefs were drastically reduced; some retainers who were paid in land began to be paid in rice. Some retainers were encouraged to engage in agriculture; as a result of high taxation, farmers secretly developed farms far inside the mountains as a private food source.
A new land survey was conducted within the domain in which many hidden farms were discovered and taxed. The domain began a strict policy with regard to trade. Laws were passed through which the profitable trade of the "four whites" was controlled by the domain: paper, rice and wax; some of the profits, a large amount of the tax revenue from this trade, went into the domain coffers. These policies strengthened the domain's finances and allowed the daimyo more effective control over his territory. However, these policies displaced samurai alike, resulting in frequent revolts; the capital of the domain was the castle town of Hagi, the source of Chōshū's alternate name of Hagi han. The domain remained under the rule of the Mōri family for the duration of the Edo period; because the shogunate confiscated domains whose daimyo were unable to produce heirs, the Mōri daimyo created four subordinate han ruled by branches of the family: Iwakuni han: 60,000 koku, ruled by descendants of Kikkawa Hiroie. Chōfū han: 50,000 koku, ruled by descendants of Mōri Hidemoto.
Tokuyama han: 40,000 koku, ruled by descendants of Mōri Naritaka. Kiyosue han: 10,000 koku, ruled by descendants of Mōri Mototomo. During the Edo period, the main branch died out in 1707, after which heirs were adopted from the Chōfu branch, which became extinct in 1751; the family continued through the Kiyosue branch. The Mōri daimyo, as with many of his counterparts throughout Japan, was assisted in the government of his domain by a group of karō, or domain elders. There were two kinds of karō in Chōshū: hereditary karō and the "lifetime karō", whose rank was granted to an individual but could not be inherited by his son; the hereditary karō were either members of minor branches of the Mōri family, or members of related families such as the Shishido and the Fukuhara, or descendants of Mōri Motonari's most trusted generals and advisors such as the Mazuda, the Kuchiba and the Kunishi. The lifetime karō were middle or lower samurai who displayed great talent in economics or politics and were promoted to karō by the daimyō.
One such person was the great reformer Murata Seifu. Mōri clan, 1600–1871 Middle Edo periodMurata Seifū, conducted the Tempō reforms in ChōshūBakumatsu periodYoshida Shōin, educator and teacher
Hockey India is now the governing body with exclusive mandate to direct and conduct all activities for both men and women's hockey in India. It is recognized by the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports, Govt. of India as the sole body responsible towards promoting Hockey in India. It was formed after Indian Hockey Federation was dismissed in 2008 by IOA. Headquartered in New Delhi, Hockey India was established on 20 May 2009 and is affiliated to the International Hockey Federation, the Indian Olympic Association and Asian Hockey Federation; the first Indian hockey president was Mr. Jaideep Yadav. Committed to the development of Hockey in the country, Hockey India with the assistance of Sports Authority of India and Department of Sports, Government of India, trains players at sub-junior and senior level; the governing body engages in Coaching the coaches with International Standard certification programs and equips technical officials and umpires to find a foothold in international arena, provides world-class infrastructure and International exposure for the players besides regular international competition.
Hockey India has pioneered in bringing top International hockey events to India such as the FIH Men's World Cup in 2010 and 2018, FIH Champions Trophy in 2014, FIH Junior Men's World Cup in 2016, FIH Hockey World League Final in 2017. With its vision to popularize the game and promote it, Hockey India is dedicated to getting our national team into the top three in the world. Hockey India launched its own logo in a ceremony on 24 July 2009, in India, it resembles Ashok Chakra of Indian flag. It is made up of hockey sticks. Information on Hockey India Executive Board Hockey India's Member Units are divided into four separate categories, namely Permanent Members, Associate Members, Academy Members and Hoc-Key Members; the details of all the Member Units can be found on the below link: Hockey India Member Units With able support from the Member Units, Hockey India conducts an array of domestic events across multiple venues. The domestic events continue to remain significant in the calendar of events as the future stars are recognized and selected to be further groomed at the National Camps.
While talented youngsters use this platform to showcase their abilities to national selectors, those who have been dropped from the national program use these platforms to prove just why they need to be in the reckoning again. The events spanning across different age-groups and divisions see fierce competition and healthy rivalry, enjoyable for the spectators at these cities to witness; these National Championships are divided into two divisions each for all the competitions to ensure that the participating teams are competing in a fair, equal environment, against teams with similar level of hockey. Below is the list of National Championships that Hockey India conducts every season: Hockey India Senior Men National Championship Hockey India Senior Women National Championship Hockey India Junior Men National Championship Hockey India Junior Women National Championship Hockey India Sub-Junior Men National Championship Hockey India Sub-Junior Women National Championship Hockey India 5-a-side National Championship Hockey India 5-a-side National Championship Hockey India 5-a-side National Championship Schedule of international matches Schedule of domestic matches“Cricket by Chance, Hockey by Skill and Football by Power” as the old saying goes.
India had a glorious past in the sport of Hockey. With 11 Olympic medals including 8 Gold, 1 Silver and 2 Bronze medals, India is the most successful team in the history of field Hockey. Before the advent of AstroTurf, India produced some high caliber and skillful players who were at ease while scoring field goals. A few of them played on Astro turf. Dhyan Chand The greatest player India produced was Major Dhyan Chand, the Wizard, he was known for his brilliant ball control. Dhyan Chand won three Olympic Gold medals, at Los Angeles and Berlin. Watching him play, Australian legendary batsman Don Bradman said, “He scores goals like runs in cricket”. India’s highest award for lifetime achievement in sports is named after Dhyan Chand, he is the recipient of Padma Bhushan. Dhyan Chand’s Hockey stick was the subject of extensive research as it was claimed he had a magnet in his stick and that he applied glue on his stick; the German dictator, Hitler offered the Hockey magician German citizenship and a rank of a Colonel, so he could represent West Germany, to which he refused.
Udham Singh Udham Singh, won 1 silver medal. He was part of the Helsinki and Tokyo Olympic gold-winning teams and won silver at the 1960 Rome Olympics. After his playing career, he took charge of the Indian team as manager winning the silver medal at the Mexico Olympics in 1968 and the 1970 Asian Games in Bangkok, he was conferred with the Arjuna award in 1965. Leslie Claudius Leslie Claudius, along with Udham Singh, won the most Olympic medals for India, he is considered to be the best half-back in the history of the sport. He was the first player to win 100 caps, he was manager of the Indian team at the 1978 Asian Games in Bangkok. In 1971, he was felicitated with the Padma Shri Award. Balbir Singh Sr Balbir Singh Sr is the only player in the history of the sport to have scored 5 goals in an Olympic match where he scored 5 in a 6-1 win against the Netherlands in the final, he became the second Indian to win three Olympic gold medals in London and Melbourne. He captained the team at the Melb
La polizia è sconfitta is a 1977 Italian poliziottesco film directed by Domenico Paolella. The character of Valli, played by Vittorio Mezzogiorno, was defined as "perhaps the most gruesome and ruthless villain of the Italian crime cinema." A tough police inspector forms a special squad of motorcycle cops in order to track down a psychotic racketeer and his gang. Marcel Bozzuffi as Inspector Grifi Riccardo Salvino as Agent Brogi Vittorio Mezzogiorno as Valli Claudia Giannotti as Anna Francesco Ferracini as Platania Pasquale Basile as Marshall Marchetti Nello Pazzafini as the Tunisian Alfredo Zammi as Giovanni Corsi Andrea Aureli as Giovanni, the Bar Owner List of Italian films of 1977 Stunt Squad on IMDb
Tourism in Zanzibar includes the tourism industry and its effects on the islands of Unguja and Pemba in the United Republic of Tanzania. Tourism is the top income generator for the islands, outpacing the lucrative agricultural export industry; the government plays a major role in promoting the industry, with the official government tourist page stating, "The Vision of the Government of Zanzibar regarding tourism is “To become one of the top tourism destinations of the Indian Ocean, offering an up market, high quality product across the board within the coming 17 years.” The Zanzibar Commission for Tourism recorded more than doubling the number of tourists from the 2015/2016 fiscal year and the following year, from 162,242 to 376,000. The main airport on the island is Zanzibar International Airport, though many tourists fly into Dar es Salaam and take a ferry to the island; the principal grouping of attractions on Zanzibar are: coastal tourism, terrestrial wildlife, dhow cruising and spice tours.
Zanzibar's capital is the historical Stone Town, home to much of Zanzibar's tourism industry. It is a World Heritage Site; the town is home to numerous historical and cultural sites, including Makusurani graveyard, House of Wonders and Kidichi Persian Baths, Dunga Ruins, the Peace Memorial Museum, which serves a national historical museum detailing the island's long history. Zanzibar is home to large amounts of beaches and clear Indian Ocean water, as well as coral and limestone scarps which allow for significant amounts of diving and snorkeling; the diving and snorkeling are done in marine parks. The aquatic life seen includes. Tourists can have refreshments on board; the town is famous for its spice tours. Tourists visit the various spice plantations in the island. Zanzibar is known for its variety of spices that are used to prepare food and medicines; some of the fruits available include. The spices available include. Zanzibar is known for its salt and seaweed farms that may be visited by tourists on request.
The Jozani forest is located in the central east region of Zanzibar consisting of a large mangrove swamp. The forest is home to the rare red colobus monkey; the forest is home to 40 species of bird and 50 species of butterfly. The Kidike root site is a great place to view the endangered Pemba flying fox
The 2013–14 OFC Champions League was the 13th edition of the Oceanian Club Championship, Oceania's premier club football tournament organized by the Oceania Football Confederation, the 8th season under the current OFC Champions League name. Auckland City became the first team to win four consecutive and six overall titles after defeating Amicale in the final; as the winner of the 2014 OFC Champions League, they earned the right to represent the OFC at the 2014 FIFA Club World Cup. Both finalists earned invitations to participate in the 2014 OFC President's Cup; the OFC decided to change the format once again for the 2014 edition: The competition consisted of two stages – preliminary stage and final stage. For the preliminary stage, like in the previous season, four teams from the four weakest associations took part in this stage, with the tournament played in round-robin format at a single venue. From this season, the preliminary stage winner was granted direct qualification to the group stage.
For the group stage, 12 teams took part in this stage, more it was played in a single country. Four associations were awarded two berths each, three associations were awarded one berth each, one berth was given to the preliminary stage winner; the 12 teams were divided into three groups of four teams, where each group was played in round-robin format, with the group winners and the best runner-up progressing to the semi-finals. For the semi-finals, like in the previous season, the two ties were played in home-and-away format over two legs. For the final, the OFC Executive Committee decided that it was played in home-and-away format over two legs, instead of over one match at a pre-determined venue like in the previous season. A total of 15 teams from all 11 OFC associations entered the competition; the four associations with the best results in the 2012–13 OFC Champions League were awarded two berths each, three other associations were awarded one berth each. Those teams directly entered the group stage, to be joined by the winner of the preliminary stage, contested by teams from the four developing associations.
The schedule of the competition was. The preliminary stage was played in Pago Pago, American Samoa from 15 to 19 October 2013; the draw to determine the fixtures was held on 8 October 2013 at the OFC Headquarters in Auckland, New Zealand. The four teams played each other on a round-robin basis; the group winner advanced to the group stage to join the 11 automatic qualifiers. Note: The Kiwi v Pago Youth match was scheduled to be played on 15 October 2013, 15:00 local time, but was postponed to the next day due to heavy rain. Note: The Pago Youth v Lotoha'apai United match was cancelled due to heavy rain and the fact that neither team could advance to the group stage; the group stage was played in Ba and Lautoka, Fiji from 7 to 15 April 2014. The 12 teams were divided into three groups of four, with the restriction that teams from the same association not be placed into the same group; the draw to determine the fixtures was held on 7 February 2014 at the OFC Headquarters in Auckland, New Zealand.
In each group, the four teams played each other on a round-robin basis. The group winners and the best runner-up advanced to the semi-finals. Group B matches were scheduled to be played in Prince Charles Park, but the venue was withdrawn after inspection by the OFC. In the semi-finals, the four teams were divided into two ties. In each tie, the two teams played each other on a home-and-away two-legged basis; the winners advanced to the final. The first legs were played on 26 and 27 April 2014, the second legs were played on 3 May 2014. Amicale won 2–1 on aggregate. Auckland City won 4–2 on aggregate. In the final, the two teams played each other on a home-and-away two-legged basis; the draw to determine the order of two legs was held on 30 April 2014 at the OFC Headquarters in Auckland, New Zealand. The first leg was played on 10 May 2014, the second leg was played on 18 May 2014. Auckland City won 3–2 on aggregate. 2014 FIFA Club World Cup 2014 OFC President's Cup OCL Preliminary Schedule & Results OFC Champions League Schedule & Results
UFC Presents: Aldo vs. Faber referred to as WEC 48: Aldo vs. Faber was a mixed martial arts event held by World Extreme Cagefighting that took place on April 24, 2010 at ARCO Arena in Sacramento, California; this was WEC's first and only event on pay-per-view before their merger with the Ultimate Fighting Championship that year. The event was first announced by WEC President Reed Harris on the Mahoney Show. Jamie Varner was expected to face Kamal Shalorus at this event, but that bout was called off due to an injury sustained by Shalorus; the match was rescheduled for WEC 49 on June 20, where both men fought to a split draw. A bout between Alex Karalexis and Zach Micklewright was due to take place at this event, but Micklewright suffered a broken ankle and was replaced by Anthony Pettis. Antonio Banuelos was scheduled to face Damacio Page at the event, but Page was forced off the card with an injury. Banuelos ending up facing Scott Jorgensen, in a rematch of their bout from WEC 41 which Banuelos won via split decision.
Cub Swanson was scheduled to face WEC newcomer Chan Sung Jung at this event, but Swanson was forced from the card with an injury. He was replaced by Leonard Garcia. Mackens Semerzier was scheduled to face Anthony Morrison at this event, but Semerzier was forced from the card with an injury and was replaced by Chad Mendes. Veteran UFC commentators Mike Goldberg and Joe Rogan handled broadcast duties for the event. Bruce Buffer handled the fighter introductions. Two of the night's preliminary fights aired on Spike TV, marking the only time that Spike would air live WEC fights before their dissolution; the advertising & live broadcasts for WEC 48 omitted all references to the WEC brand, with the only exceptions being early versions of the poster, one mention during the broadcast by Joe Rogan, the WEC logo on the championship belts themselves. During the broadcasts, the announcers referred only to "the organization" while the WEC logo was removed from the cage and the fighters' gloves. Fighters were awarded $65,000 bonuses.
Fight of the Night: Leonard Garcia vs. Chan Sung Jung Knockout of the Night: Manvel Gamburyan Submission of the Night: Benson Henderson The following is the reported payout to the fighters as reported to the California State Athletic Commission, it does not include sponsor money or "locker room" bonuses given by the WEC and do not include the WEC's traditional "fight night" bonuses. José Aldo: $40,000 def. Urijah Faber: $28,000 Benson Henderson: $26,000 def. Donald Cerrone: $14,000 Manvel Gamburyan: $36,000 def. Mike Brown: $21,000 Shane Roller: $28,000 def. Anthony Njokuani: $7,000 Scott Jorgensen: $21,000 def. Antonio Banuelos: $7,000 Leonard Garcia: $28,000 def. Chan Sung Jung: $5,000 Anthony Pettis: $8,000 def. Alex Karalexis: $10,000 Brad Pickett: $8,000 def. Demetrious Johnson: $3,000 Chad Mendes: $8,500 def. Anthony Morrison: $4,000 Takeya Mizugaki: $16,000 def. Rani Yahya: $9,000 Tyler Toner: $5,000 def. Brandon Visher: $4,000 World Extreme Cagefighting List of World Extreme Cagefighting champions List of WEC events 2010 in WEC Official WEC website