A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods. A tunnel may be for rail traffic, or for a canal; the central portions of a rapid transit network are in tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication cables, as well as connecting buildings for convenient passage of people and equipment. Secret tunnels are built for military purposes, or by civilians for smuggling of weapons, contraband, or people. Special tunnels, such as wildlife crossings, are built to allow wildlife to cross human-made barriers safely. Tunnels can be connected together in tunnel networks. A tunnel is long and narrow; the definition of what constitutes a tunnel can vary from source to source.
For example, the definition of a road tunnel in the United Kingdom is defined as "a subsurface highway structure enclosed for a length of 150 metres or more." In the United States, the NFPA definition of a tunnel is "An underground structure with a design length greater than 23 m and a diameter greater than 1,800 millimetres."In the UK, a pedestrian, cycle or animal tunnel beneath a road or railway is called a subway, while an underground railway system is differently named in different cities, the "Underground" or the "Tube" in London, the "Subway" in Glasgow, the "Metro" in Newcastle. The place where a road, canal or watercourse passes under a footpath, cycleway, or another road or railway is most called a bridge or, if passing under a canal, an aqueduct. Where it is important to stress that it is passing underneath, it may be called an underpass, though the official term when passing under a railway is an underbridge. A longer underpass containing a road, canal or railway is called a "tunnel", whether or not it passes under another item of infrastructure.
An underpass of any length under a river is usually called a "tunnel", whatever mode of transport it is for. In the US, the term "subway" means an underground rapid transit system, the term pedestrian underpass is used for a passage beneath a barrier. Rail station platforms may be connected by pedestrian footbridges. Much of the early technology of tunneling evolved from military engineering; the etymology of the terms "mining", "military engineering", "civil engineering" reveals these deep historic connections. Predecessors of modern tunnels were adits to transport water for irrigation or drinking, sewerage; the first Qanats are known from before 2000 B. C. A major tunnel project must start with a comprehensive investigation of ground conditions by collecting samples from boreholes and by other geophysical techniques. An informed choice can be made of machinery and methods for excavation and ground support, which will reduce the risk of encountering unforeseen ground conditions. In planning the route, the horizontal and vertical alignments can be selected to make use of the best ground and water conditions.
It is common practice to locate a tunnel deeper than otherwise would be required, in order to excavate through solid rock or other material, easier to support during construction. Conventional desk and preliminary site studies may yield insufficient information to assess such factors as the blocky nature of rocks, the exact location of fault zones, or the stand-up times of softer ground; this may be a particular concern in large-diameter tunnels. To give more information, a pilot tunnel may be driven ahead of the main excavation; this smaller tunnel is less to collapse catastrophically should unexpected conditions be met, it can be incorporated into the final tunnel or used as a backup or emergency escape passage. Alternatively, horizontal boreholes may sometimes be drilled ahead of the advancing tunnel face. Other key geotechnical factors: "Stand-up time" is the amount of time a newly excavated cavity can support itself without any added structures. Knowing this parameter allows the engineers to determine how far an excavation can proceed before support is needed, which in turn affects the speed and cost of construction.
Certain configurations of rock and clay will have the greatest stand-up time, while sand and fine soils will have a much lower stand-up time. Groundwater control is important in tunnel construction. Water leaking into a tunnel or vertical shaft will decrease stand-up time, causing the excavation to become unstable and risking collapse; the most common way to control groundwater is to install dewatering pipes into the ground and to pump the water out. A effective but expensive technology is ground freezing, using pipes which are inserted into the ground surrounding the excavation, which are cooled with special refrigerant fluids; this freezes the ground around each pipe until the whole space is surrounded with frozen soil, keeping water out until a permanent structure can be built. Tunnel cross-sectional shape is very important in determining stand-up time. If a tunnel excavation is wider than it is high, it will have a harder time supporting itself, decreasing its stand-up time. A square or rectangular excavation is more difficult to make self-supporting, because of a concentration of stress at t
A bus stop is a designated place where buses stop for passengers to board or alight from a bus. The construction of bus stops tends to reflect the level of usage, where stops at busy locations may have shelters and electronic passenger information systems. Bus stops are, in some locations, clustered together into transport hubs allowing interchange between routes from nearby stops and with other public transport modes to maximise convenience. For operational purposes, there are three main kinds of stops: Scheduled stops, at which the bus should stop irrespective of demand. Certain stops may be restricted to "discharge/set-down only" or "pick-up only"; some stops may be designated as "timing points", if the vehicle is ahead of schedule it will wait there to ensure correct synchronization with the timetable. In dense urban areas where bus volumes are high, skip-stops are sometimes used to increase efficiency and reduce delays at bus stops. Fare stages may be defined by the location of certain stops in distance or zone-based fare collection systems.
Sunday stops used only on Sundays. From the 17th to the 19th century, horse drawn stage coaches ran regular services between many European towns and stopping at designated Coaching inns where the horses could be changed and passengers board or alight, in effect constituting the earliest form of bus stop; the Angel Inn, the first stop on the route from London to York, was a noted example of such an inn. A seat in a Stage coach had to be booked in advance. John Greenwood opened the first bus line in Britain in Manchester in 1824, running a fixed route and allowing passengers to board on request along the way without a reservation. Landmarks such as Public houses, rail stations and road junctions became customary stopping points. Regular Horse drawn buses started in Paris in 1828 and George Shillibeer started his London horse Omnibus service in 1829. Running between stops at Paddington and the Bank of England to a designated route and timetable. By the mid 19th Century guides were available to London bus routes including maps with routes and the main stops.
In the UK National National Public Transport Access Node database of all UK stops, developed by the Department of Transport in 2001, stops are classified as marked or custom and usage. Use of a marked stop may be changed- the bus will always stop, or by request only. Bus stop infrastructure ranges from a simple pole and sign, to a rudimentary shelter, to sophisticated structures; the usual minimum is a pole mounted flag with suitable name/symbol. Bus stop shelters may have a full or partial roof, supported by a two, three or four sided construction. Modern stops are mere steel and glass/perspex constructions, although in other places, such as rural Britain, stops may be wooden brick or concrete built; the construction may include small inbuilt seats. The construction may feature advertising, from simple posters, to complex illuminated, changeable or animated displays; some installations have included interactive advertising. Design and construction may be uniform to reflect a large corporate or local authority provider, or installations may be more personal or distinctive where a small local authority such as a parish council is responsible for the stop.
The stop may include separate street furniture such as lighting and a trash receptacle. Individual bus stops may be placed on the sidewalk next to the roadway, although they can be placed to facilitate use of a busway. More complex installations can include construction of a bus turnout or a bus bulb, for traffic management reasons, although use of a bus lane can make these unnecessary. Several bus stops may be grouped together to facilitate easy transfer between routes; these may be arranged in a simple row along the street, or in parallel or diagonal rows of multiple stops. Groups of bus stops may be integral to transportation hubs. With extra facilities such as a waiting room or ticket office, outside groupings of bus stops can be classed as a rudimentary bus station. Convention is for the bus to draw level with the'flag', although in areas of mixed front and rear entrance buses, such as London, a head stop, more a tail stop, indicates to the driver whether they should stop the bus with either the rear platform or the drivers cab level with the flag.
In certain areas, the area of road next the bus stop may be specially marked, protected in law. Car drivers can be unaware of the legal implications of stopping or parking in a bus-stop. In bus rapid transit systems, bus stops may be more elaborate than street bus stops, can be termed'stations' to reflect this difference; these may have enclosed areas to allow off-bus fare collection for rapid boarding, be spaced further apart like tram stops. Bus stops on a bus rapid transit line may have a more complex construction allowing level boarding platforms, doors separating the enclosure from the bus until ready to board. Most bus stops are identified with a metal sign attached to a light standard; some stops are plastic strips strapped on to poles and others involve a sign attached to a bus shelter. The signs are identified with a picture of a bus and/or with the words "bus stop"; the bus stop "flag" will sometimes contain the route numbers of all the buse
Expressways of Japan
The expressways of Japan make up a large network of controlled-access toll expressways. Following World War II, Japan's economic revival led to a massive increase in personal automobile use; however the existing road system was inadequate to deal with the increased demand. In April 1956 the Japan Highway Public Corporation was established by the national government with the task of constructing and managing a nationwide network of expressways. In 1957 permission was given to the corporation to commence construction of the Meishin Expressway linking Nagoya and Kobe, the first section of which opened to traffic in 1963. In addition to the national expressway network administered by JH, the government established additional corporations to construct and manage expressways in urban areas; the Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation was established in 1959, the Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation was established in 1962. By 2004 the lengths of their networks had extended to 283 kilometres and 234 kilometres respectively.
In 1966 a plan was formally enacted for a 7,600 kilometres national expressway network. Under this plan construction of expressways running parallel to the coastlines of Japan would be given priority over those traversing the mountainous interior. In 1987, the plan was revised to extend the network to 14,000 kilometres. In April 2012, completed sections of the network totaled 10,021 kilometres In October 2005 JH, the Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation, the Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation, the Honshū-Shikoku Bridge Authority were privatized under the reform policies of the government of Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi; the expressway network of JH was divided into three companies based on geography - East Nippon Expressway Company, Central Nippon Expressway Company, West Nippon Expressway Company. The Metropolitan Expressway Public Corporation transferred its authority to the Metropolitan Expressway Company, while the Hanshin Expressway Public Corporation transferred its authority to the Hanshin Expressway Company.
The Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority became the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Expressway Company, whose operations are planned to be absorbed into those of W-NEXCO. Japan's expressway development has been financed with debt, it was intended to make the expressways free. The Meishin Expressway and Tomei Expressway debt has been paid off since 1990, it was decided in 1972 that tolls would be pooled from all expressways to provide a single source of operating funds, since some sections were little used. Earthquake resistant construction methods have added to costs, as well as extensive soundwalling. In March 2009 Prime Minister Taro Aso unveiled a plan to reduce tolls to ¥1,000 on weekends and national holidays. Tolls on weekdays would be cut by around 30 percent. According to the National Expressway Construction Association, 4.41 million vehicles use the expressways daily, driving an average of 43.7 kilometres. National expressways make up the majority of expressways in Japan; this network boasts an uninterrupted link between Aomori Prefecture at the northern part of Honshu and Kagoshima Prefecture at the southern part of Kyushu, linking Shikoku as well.
Additional expressways serve travellers in Hokkaido and on Okinawa Island, although those are not connected to the Honshu-Kyushu-Shikoku grid. Most expressways are 4 lanes with a central reservation; some expressways in close proximity to major urban areas are 6 lanes, while some in rural areas are 2 lanes only with a barrier on the center line. 2-laned sections are built to a standard. Speed limits are 100 km/h, a minimum speed of 50 km/h is enforced. Vehicles unable to reach 50 km/h, such as tractors and mopeds, are forbidden from using the expressways. Speed limits may be reduced temporarily or permanently as speed limit signs can be adjusted electronically. Many rest facilities such as parking areas and service areas serve travellers along national expressways. On October 24, 2016, the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism had introduced a new format of route numbering system for national expressways. In this route numbering system, expressway route numbers begin with the prefix E or C followed by their respective numbers.
Expressway routes are numbered according to the national highway routes. However, there are exceptions in this rule, as there are some expressways that are assigned with the two-digit numbers greater than 59 which are not used in the national highway route numbering system; the Tsugaru Expressway is an example of this exception, it is numbered E64, but it parallels Route 101. If there are more than one expressway being constructed in parallel with their respective national highways, newer expressways within the same corridor may have the suffix A at the end of their route numbers, while the earliest one is exempted from having the A suffix. For example, the Chūgoku
An exit number is a number assigned to a road junction an exit from a freeway. It is marked on the same sign as the destinations of the exit. In some countries, such as the United States, it is marked on a sign in the gore. Exit numbers reset at political borders such as state lines; some non-freeways use exit numbers. These are rural roads built to expressway standards, either only the actual exits are numbered, or the at-grade intersections are numbered. An extreme case of this is in New York City, where the Grand Concourse and Linden Boulevard were given sequential numbers, one per intersection. A milder version of this has been used on the West Side Highway in New York, where only the major intersections are numbered. Another case is the Nanaimo Parkway in Nanaimo, British Columbia carrying Highway 19, where all exits are numbered though all except one are at-grade intersections; some other intersections on Highway 19 outside Nanaimo are given numbers. As a means of educating motorists, some state highway maps include a brief explanation of the exit numbering system on an inset.
Iowa DOT maps from the 1980s and 1990s included a picture or drawing of a milepost and described how Iowa had included milepost references near interchanges on the map. Sequential exit numbering begins with exit 1 at the beginning of the road. Letter suffixes are used when new exits are added. For example, on the New York State Thruway, an exit was added between 21 and 22, was given the number 21A. Subsequently, a new exit was added between 21 and 21A, leading to the sequence 21 - 21B - 21A - 22. In Florida, some new exits got the suffix C, so that if it had or acquired separate exits for the two directions, they would be 15CA and 15CB rather than 15AB. There are occurrences of this happening on the New Jersey Turnpike. On the Baltimore Beltway, there is an exit 12B-C, as well as 12A. There is an exit 8A and an exit 8; some sequential exits are renumbered due to added exits. For instance, the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York was renumbered so that its northernmost exit, 27, became 30. However, the Merritt Parkway, which continued the Hutchinson's exit numbers in Connecticut, was not renumbered.
This means the Route 120A interchange is numbered 30 in New York. The Atlantic City-Brigantine Connector in Atlantic City, New Jersey uses letters for its exits; as more highways were built and countries began to experiment with distance-based exit numbers. The first mile-based system known was implemented on the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey in the late 1950s. Michigan implemented mile-based junction numbers on Interstate 94 in the 1960s. In this system, the number of miles from the beginning of the highway to the exit is used for the exit number. If two exits would end up with the same number, the numbers are sometimes modified slightly. An exit can be numbered by where the exit in the direction of increased mileage leaves the freeway, or by where the road that the exit serves crosses the freeway. From this number, the integer exit number can be determined by rounding up, rounding down, or rounding to the nearest integer. Many jurisdictions prefer to avoid an exit 0. To this end, the numbers are either rounded up to get the exit number, or any exit that would get the number 0 is instead numbered 1.
Examples of highways with an exit 0 are British Columbia Highway 1 on the mainland, Interstate 70 in Wheeling, West Virginia, along the West Virginia–Ohio border, Interstate 90 on the Montana side of the Idaho–Montana border. Some freeways' exit number starts from a advanced number. One reason for starting with a number higher than 1 is that the maintaining agency expects that the highway will be extended. For example, Ontario Highway 400 starts at 20 because it was expected that the southern end of the highway would extend to downtown Toronto. Another reason to use a higher number is. An example is British Columbia Highway 5, which branches off British Columbia Highway 1 and starts at 170. In areas that use the metric system, distance-based numbers are by kilometer rather than mile. A few highways, such as Delaware Route 1 and Interstate 19, have kilometer-based exit numbers in areas that use miles. Uses distance based numbering on a section of the M1 south of Brisbane, and the Gateway Motorway and Bruce Highway North of Brisbane.
Most European countries use sequential numbering schemes. Spain uses distance-based numbering on its Autovias, but not on its Autopistas. Austria and the Czech Republic use distance-based schemes. A number of European countries do not number motorway intersections because one cannot "exit" the motorway there. Countries like Germany and Switzerland have attributed numbers to their exit, but instead of the usual exit symbol, they are given a specific interchange symbol. Italy uses sequential numbering on the ring roads for some cities, including the ring
Nishinomiya is a city located in Hyōgo Prefecture, between the cities of Amagasaki and Ashiya. On April 1, 2005, the city of Nishinomiya celebrated its 80th anniversary, it is best known as the home of Kōshien Stadium, where the Hanshin Tigers baseball team plays home games and where Japan's annual high school baseball championship is held. It is the location of Kwansei Gakuin University, a private university founded by American missionaries in the nineteenth century. Nishinomiya is an important commercial and shipping city in the Kansai region with the third largest population in Hyōgo Prefecture; as of October 1, 2011, the city has an estimated population of 483,598 and a population density of 4,800 persons per km². The total area is 99.96 km². Nishinomiya City is located in the south-east of Hyōgo Prefecture between the cities of Kobe and Osaka, it is bordered by Osaka Bay to the south, the cities of Amagasaki and Takarazuka along the Mukogawa and Nigawa rivers to the east and by a part of the Rokko Mountains and Kobe City to the north.
The city can be divided into two areas: a mountainous area in the north and a coastal plain in the south. Situated in the middle is Mount Kabuto, a landmark of the city. April 1, 1924: Opening of Kōshien Stadium April 1925: Nishinomiya Town became a municipal organization. April 1933: Nishinomiya merged with Imazu Town, Shiba Village and Taisha Village. February 1941: Nishinomiya merged with Koto Village. May 1942: Nishinomiya merged with Kawaragi Village. April 1951: Nishinomiya merged with Naruo Village, Yamaguchi Village and Shiose Village. January 17, 1995: Great Hanshin earthquake disaster. Nishinomiya City received widespread damage. Furuno, a global electronics company, whose main products include marine electronics and medical equipment, has its headquarters in the city. Since most of the farmland is in the urban district, Nishinomiya agriculture is in a difficult situation. Efforts are being made to improve farming to make it profitable by growing such marketable products as soft vegetables for the big markets of Osaka and Kobe.
Other efforts include effective land use by growing crops in greenhouses using hydroponic techniques and development of techniques for safe products. Nishinomiya is situated between the major cities of Osaka. Luxury neighborhoods are common in this city in areas near Ashiya; some of the shopping malls in Nishinomiya are the Lalaport Koshien and the Hankyu Nishinomiya Gardens. Konan University Nishinomiya Campus "Konan Cube" Kwansei Gakuin University Otemae University Kobe College Seiwa College and Junior College Hyogo College Of Medicine Mukogawa Women's University and Junior College Shukugawa Gakuin Junior College Koshien Junior College Hōtoku Gakuen High School, with a prominent baseball team Hirota Shrine - Hirota Shrine was called Nishi no miya by aristocrats in Kyoto; that is the origin of the city name. Hyogo Performing Arts Center Kannō-ji Koshikiiwa Shrine Nishinomiya Shrine Mondo-yakujin Much of Grave of the Fireflies is set in Nishinomiya. Nishinomiya is the setting for the popular light novel and anime series The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya.
Kitayama Botanical Garden Mount Kabuto Sister cities Spokane since September, 1961 Friendship cities Londrina since May, 1977 Shaoxing since July, 1985 District of Lot-et-Garonne and Agen since April, 1992 (France, Burlington Aquitaine Amami since October, 1981 Yusuhara since March, 1991 Sake - Japanese Rice Wine Najio Japanese Paper Bamboo Crafts Japanese Candles Aimyon - singer-songwriter Nagaru Tanigawa - author of the light novel series Haruhi Suzumiya Yuichiro Nagashima - kickboxer Ryūsui Seiryōin - novelist Hiro Matsushita - Businessman, former driver in Champ Car series. Chairman of Swift Engineering & Swift Xi Hōsei Yamasaki - comedian Eizo Sakamoto - heavy metal musician Mana Ashida - child actress Kaoru - lead guitarist of Dir En Grey Yuya Matsushita - singer and actor Mina Myoi - American-born Japanese singer based in Korea, member of Twice Akira Tozawa - professional wrestler Rika Kihira - figure skater Nishinomiya travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Nishinomiya at OpenStreetMap Nishinomiya City official website Hyogo Performing Arts Center
Toyonaka is a city in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on October 15, 1936 As of 2016, the city has an estimated population of 396,014 and a population density of 11,000 persons per km²; the total area is 36.38 km². Its peak population was over 420,000. Toyonaka is a residential area of Osaka Prefecture, includes Senri New Town; the city is easy to reach through various modes of transportation, many of its residents commute daily into Osaka City to work. Osaka University and Osaka Music College have their campuses in Toyonaka; the Harada Shinto shrine is located in Toyonaka, adjacent to the Hankyu Okamachi station. Founded during the reign of the Emperor Tenmu, the wooden shrine was rebuilt in 1652 and again in 1781. An important cultural property, it is known for its copse of camphor trees and it is the site of the popular Lion Festival each October; the Consulate-General of Russia in Osaka is located in Toyonaka. Osaka International Airport is located in Toyonaka including its terminal, although it is more associated with the city of Itami.
The city is served by the Osaka Monorail, the Kita-Osaka Kyūkō Railway and the Hankyu Takarazuka Line. Hattori Ryokuchi Arboretum Hattori Ryokuchi Park Osaka University San Mateo, United States Takashi Fujii - television performer Mai Hosho - actress Tak Matsumoto - musician and guitarist Yoshihiro Murai - governor of Miyagi prefecture Masashi Oguro - soccer player Kaoru Shintani - manga artist Shōzō Endō - comedian Naoki Tanaka - comedian Osamu Tezuka - manga artist and animator Hitomi Yaida - singer and songwriter Yukie Nishimura - pianist and composer Official website
Miyoshi is a city located in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on March 31, 1954; as of May 2017, the city has an estimated population of 53,616 and a population density of 69 persons per km2. The total area is 778 km2. On April 1, 2004, Miyoshi absorbed the towns of Kisa and Miwa, the villages of Funo and Sakugi, the town of Kōnu to create the new and expanded city of Miyoshi. Futami District was dissolved as a result of this merger. Miyoshi City official website