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Chaco War

The Chaco War was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region of South America, thought to be rich in oil. It is referred to as La Guerra de la Sed in literary circles, for being fought in the semi-arid Chaco, it was the bloodiest military conflict fought in South America during the 20th century, between two of its poorest countries, both having lost territory to neighbors in 19th-century wars. During the war, both landlocked countries faced difficulties shipping arms and supplies through neighboring countries. Bolivia faced particular external trade problems, coupled with poor internal communications. Although Bolivia had lucrative mining income and a larger, better-equipped army, a series of factors turned the tide against it, Paraguay came to control most of the disputed zone by war's end; the ultimate peace treaties granted two-thirds of the disputed territories to Paraguay. The origin of the war is attributed to a long-standing territorial dispute and the discovery of oil deposits on the eastern Andes range.

In 1929, the Treaty of Lima ended the hopes of the Bolivian government of recovering a land corridor to the Pacific Ocean, thought imperative to further development and trade. The impetus for war was exacerbated by a conflict between oil companies jockeying for exploration and drilling rights, with Royal Dutch Shell backing Paraguay and Standard Oil supporting Bolivia; the discovery of oil in the Andean foothills sparked speculation that the Chaco might prove a rich source of petroleum, foreign oil companies were involved in the exploration. Standard Oil was producing oil from wells in the high hills of eastern Bolivia, around Villa Montes. However, it is uncertain if the war would have been caused by the interests of these companies, not by aims of Argentina to import oil from the Chaco. In opposition to the "dependency theory" of the war's origins, the British historian Matthew Hughes argued against the thesis that Bolivian and Paraguayan governments were the "puppets" of Standard Oil and Royal Dutch Shell writing: "In fact, there is little hard evidence available in the company and government archives to support the theory that oil companies had anything to do with causing the war or helping one side or the other during the war".

Both Bolivia and Paraguay were landlocked. Though the 600,000 km2 Chaco was sparsely populated, control of the Paraguay River running through it provided access to the Atlantic Ocean; this became important to Bolivia, which had lost its Pacific coast to Chile in the 1879 War of the Pacific. Paraguay had lost half of its territory to Brazil and Argentina in the Paraguayan War of 1864–1870; the country was not prepared to surrender its economic viability. In international arbitration, Bolivia argued that the region had been part of the original Spanish colonial province of Moxos and Chiquitos to which Bolivia was heir. Meanwhile, Paraguay based its case on the occupation of the land. Indeed, both Paraguayan and Argentine planters were breeding cattle and exploiting quebracho woods in the area, while the small nomadic indigenous population of Guaraní-speaking tribes was related to Paraguay's own Guaraní heritage; as of 1919, Argentine banks owned 400,000 hectares of land in the eastern Chaco while the Casado family, a powerful part of the Argentine oligarchy, held 141,000.

The presence of Mennonite colonies in the Chaco, who settled there in the 1920s under the auspices of the Paraguayan parliament, was another factor in favour of Paraguay's claim. The first confrontation between the two countries dates back to 1885, when the Bolivian entrepreneur Miguel Araña Suárez founded Puerto Pacheco, a port on the upper Paraguay river, south of Bahía Negra, he assumed that the new settlement was well inside Bolivian territory, but Bolivia had implicitly recognized Bahía Negra as Paraguayan. The Paraguayan government sent in a naval detachment aboard the gunboat Pirapó, which forcibly evicted the Bolivians from the area in 1888. Two agreements followed—in 1894 and 1907—which neither the Bolivian nor the Paraguayan parliament approved. Meanwhile, in 1905 Bolivia founded two new outposts in the Chaco, Ballivián and Guachalla, this time along the Pilcomayo River; the Bolivian government ignored the half-hearted Paraguayan official protest. Bolivian penetration in the region went unopposed until 1927, when the first blood was shed over the Chaco Boreal.

On 27 February a Paraguayan army foot patrol and its native guides were taken prisoners near the Pilcomayo River and held in the Bolivian outpost of Fortin Sorpresa, where the commander of the Paraguayan platoon, lieutenant Adolfo Rojas Silva, was shot and killed in suspicious circumstances. Fortín was the name used for the small pillbox and trench-like garrisons in the Chaco, although the troops' barracks were no more than a few mud huts. While the Bolivian government formally regretted the death of Rojas Silva, the Paraguayan public opinion called it "murder". After the subsequent talks arranged in Buenos Aires failed to produce any agreement and collapsed in January 1928, the dispute grew violent. On 5 December 1928 a Paraguayan cavalry unit overran Fortin Vanguardia, an advance outpost established by the Bolivian army a few miles northwest of Bahía Negra; the Paraguayans burnt the scattered huts to the ground. The Bolivians retaliated with an air strike on Bahía Negra on 15 December, which caused few casualties and not much damage.

On 14 December Bolivia seized Fortin Boquerón, which would be the site of the first major battle of the camp


BookBox, a social enterprise located in Pondicherry, created ‘AniBooks’, animated stories for children with the narration appearing on-screen as Same Language Subtitles. Every word is highlighted in exact timing with the audio narration, thus strengthening reading skills and subconsciously. BookBox has their videos with over 45 stories in 40 languages; the business was born in 2004 from a student-driven competition, Social e-Challenge, at Stanford University. SLS is a pedagogically sound and proven technique and has won many international awards alongside their partner non-profit, PlanetRead created by Brij Kothari, implemented on film song based TV programs in India. BookBox offers books in the following languages: Brij. "BookBox: Scaling children's reading". Huffington Post. Oath Inc. "Elon Musk Backs Youth Literacy Through The Global Learning Xprize". The South African. Blue Sky Publications Ltd. January 13, 2016. Philip, Annie. "Taking Kalam's Stories to Children Across India". The Hindu. Kothari, Brij.

"Dr. Kalam: Animated Stories from His Legendary Life". Huffington Post. Oath Inc. "Using Captions for Children's Literacy in Any Language". Media Access Australia. March 18, 2016. Archived from the original on May 4, 2016. Sara T.. "75 Free Resources for Learning Spanish Online". Take Lessons. Suzy S.. "50+ Free Online Resources for Teaching Spanish to Kids". Take Lessons. Balasubramanyam, Vidya. "10 free online read alouds for children in Indian languages". The Alternative. Sattva Media and Consulting Pvt Ltd. Maya. "An Animated Version of Too Many Bananas". Pratham Books. Davey, Angelika. "Practise your German with Videos from BookBox". Angelika's German. Andrew. "List of Websites Where You Can Watch Spanish Videos with Spanish Subtitles or Transcripts Online". How Learn Spanish

Louis Viardot

Louis Viardot was a French writer, art historian, art critic, theatrical figure, translator. As a translator, he contributed to the development of Russian and Spanish literature in France. Viardot was born in a provincial family, his father was a liberal lawyer from Dijon, his father left his wife with five children in poverty. Viardot had to make his own way, his first job was as a bar trail he worked as a journalist. When Viardot was 18 years old, he left Dijon to study law in Paris; when he was in Paris in 1823, he started his job as a journalist. When he was twenty-three years old, he joined the french army and was deployed to Spain, during which the French army restored the monarchy there, he acquainted himself with the country's history and culture. Subsequently he translated Don Quixote by Cervantes into French. Viardot worked for the newspaper Le Globe alongside Pierre Leroux, who introduced him to George Sand. In 1836 Viardot, a friend of the artist Ary Scheffer, served as the attorney of Maria Malibran and managed her affairs.

Her marriage with Eugene Malibran was terminated in 1836 with his help. Maria Malibran was the oldest sister of his future spouse Pauline Garcia. 1836 г. Pauline Garcia, sister of Maria Malibran, met George Sand in 1836. Due to George Sand knowing Louis Viardot, Louis Viardot and his friend Ary Scheffer met Pauline Garcia, the sister of Maria Malibran and future wife of Louis, in 1836. In 1838, after the fire in the Théâtre italien in Paris, Louis together with Robert, served as the director of the theater. Viardot married Pauline Garcia on 16 April 1840, he loved her until his death. He did not believe in God, loved hunting and hunting dogs, he said that he had uttered the words "Long live the king!" only once, when he had received an invitation to a Royal hunt. He abandoned the position of director of the Théâtre italien in Paris, to devote himself to the career of his wife, would follow her on her tours. In 1841, Louis Viardot, together with Pierre Leroux and George Sand, founded the socialist newspaper La Revue Indépendante, published for a short period.

Scheffer and Viardot were familiar and friendly before Viardot's marriage. They were friends when Viardot defended the interests of Maria Malibran, the sister of his future wife, George Sand during the trial in 1836. At various times Maurice Sand, Ary Scheffer, Charles Gounod, Hector Berlioz were in relationships with Pauline Viardot. In their letters they claimed, she wrote in one letter: Louis and Scheffer have always been my dearest of friends, it is sad, that I was never able to respond to the hot and deep love of Louis, despite all my volition. The "evil tongues" connected the birth of the daughter Claudia in the Viardot family with the name of Gounod and said that he was the father of Claudia, born on 20 of May, 1852; the oldest daughter Louise was ten years older than the new born Claudie. Whether Gounod is father of Claudie or not remains a mystery, he behaved strangely, but in keeping with his nature of promanage-polysurfaces. Ivan Turgenev called Gounod "erotic Holy father" on French language.

Viardot family was not invited to the wedding of Gounod and Viardot family sent wedding present only and the problem was started. Scheffer was a confidant of Pauline Viardot in this questions. Scheffer was a friend of Viardot family all his life. In 1874, Viardot was paralyzed by a stroke and remained housebound until his death in 1883. Notices sur les principaux peintres de l'Espagne, Gavard & Paulin, 1839 Des origines traditionnelles de la peinture moderne en Italie, Paulin, 1840. Catalogue des musées d'Italie, Paulin, 1842. Catalogue des musées d'Espagne, d'Angleterre et de Belgique, Paulin, 1843. Catalogue des musées d'Allemagne et de Russie, Paulin, 1844. Aux électeurs de Seine-et-Marne, Paris, 20 III 1848. Souvenirs de chasse, 1846. Réédité chez Pygmalion en 1985 sous l'intitulé: Souvenirs de chasse de toute l'Europe. Les Musées d'Europe. Guide et Memento de l'artiste et du voyageur, 5 volumes Musées d'Italie, Hachette, 1852, rééd. 1859. Musées d'Espagne, Hachette, 1852, rééd. 1855, 1860. Musées d'Allemagne, Hachette, 1852, rééd.

1855, 1860, 1886. Musées d'Angleterre, de Belgique, de Hollande et de Russie, Hachette, 1852, rééd. 1855, 1860. Musées de France. Paris, Maison, 1855. Espagne et Beaux-Arts, Hachette, 1866. Apologie d'un incrédule, Lacroix, 1868. 1869. Les Merveilles de la peinture, Hachette, coll. « La Bibliothèque des merveilles », 1868-69. 1873-74. 1875. Libre examen, Paris, 1871. Les Merveilles de la sculpture, Hachette, coll. « La Bibliothèque des merveilles », 1869. 1872. La Science et la conscience, Librairie de la Bibliothèque démocratique, 1873 Reasons for Unbelief, translated from the French, with the approval of the author, New York, 1896. Works by Louis Viardot at Faded Page

Caroline Love Goodwin O'Day

Caroline Love Goodwin O'Day was an American politician. She was the third woman, first woman Democrat, elected to Congress from New York. Caroline Goodwin born June 22, 1869 was the daughter and first child of Sidney Prior Goodwin, a descendant of Ozias Goodwin who emigrated to Massachusetts from England in 1639, her father was a planter residing in Savannah, who served in the Oglethorpe Light Infantry of the Confederate States Army. He surrendered and was paroled in April, 1865.. Caroline graduated from Lucy Cobb Institute in Georgia, she studied art in Paris and Holland. On April 20, 1901, she married Daniel O'Day, who served as secretary and treasurer of Standard Oil Company, she was President of the Rye School Board. She was a commissioner of the State Board of Social Welfare from 1923 to 1934, she was vice chairwoman of the New York State Democratic Committee from 1916 to 1920, Associate Chairwoman from 1923 to 1942. She was a delegate to the 1928, 1932 and 1936 Democratic National Conventions.

In 1934, 1936, 1938 and 1940, O'Day was elected at-large as a Democrat to the 74th, 75th, 76th and 77th United States Congresses, holding office from January 3, 1935, to January 3, 1943. While in the House she was Chairwoman of the Committee on Election of President, Vice President, Representatives. Among the legislation she sponsored or co-sponsored was the Wagner-O'Day Act, the predecessor to the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act, she was buried at the Kensico Cemetery in New York. The United States Post Office – Rye was renamed the Caroline O'Day Post Office on October 23, 2010 in recognition of her public service. Women in the United States House of Representatives United States Congress. "Caroline Love Goodwin O'Day". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Bio at the Eleanor Roosevelt Papers project

Sneyd Davies

Sneyd Davies was an English poet and churchman, archdeacon of Derby from 1755. He was born on 30 October 1709, his father, John Davies, was rector of Kingsland and prebendary of Hereford and St. Asaph, his mother, was daughter of Ralph Sneyd, married, William Ravenscroft in 1690, who died in 1698, secondly, John Davies, by whom she had four children, Sneyd being the second son. He was on the foundation at Eton College, became scholar and fellow of King's College, Cambridge. At Eton he made the acquaintance of Charles Pratt, who became a Fellow of King's College, of Frederick Cornwallis. Davies wrote poems at school, was noted for scholarship, his father died in 1732, left him the advowson of Kingsland. Here he settled, led the life of a recluse, keeping up occasional correspondence with Pratt and other college friends, his particular crony was Timothy Thomas, rector of Presteigne, in his neighbourhood, who joined him in translating the Essay on Man into Latin verse. Cornwallis, on becoming bishop of Lichfield in 1749, appointed Davies to a chaplaincy, appointed him master of St. John's Hospital in 1751, prebendary of Lichfield, in 1755 archdeacon of Derby.

Davies became known in the literary circles of Lichfield. Davies was interested in further preferment, but when Pratt as Lord Camden offered him a small living in the neighbourhood of Kingsland in 1768, Davies's health was breaking, he died on 20 January 1769 aged 59. Davies left the living of his whole fortune to Richard Evans. Davies's poems were not collected, they included Latin verses, imitations of Horace's epistles and burlesque imitations of John Milton, verses in the manner of Jonathan Swift. Some of them were published anonymously in two volumes of poems by John Whaley a fellow of King's College; these and other poems by Davies are in James Dodsley's Collection, John Nichols's Collection. Thomas Pennant's Tour in Wales contains a poem on Caractacus, delivered at an annual meeting on Caer Caradoc. One poem is in the fourth volume of William Duncombe's Imitations of Horace, dedicated to Davies. Others are in the life of Davies, by George Hardinge, in the first volume of Nichols's Illustrations of Literature.

Some letters written by James Davis and called Origines Divisianæ. "Davies, Sneyd". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Sneyd Davies at the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Davies, Sneyd". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

This is not a story

This is not a story is a story by the French author Denis Diderot written in 1772. This is not a story, Madame de La Carlière and the Supplément au voyage de Bougainville together make up a trilogy of moral stories written in 1772 that appeared in the Correspondance littéraire in 1773; the intention of Diderot himself was for the three stories to be considered together: "le troisième conte donnera son sens aux deux premiers", he tells the reader. This intention is confirmed by the initial title of Madame de La Carlière, Second conte, by the allusions to characters or developments of one of the stories in another. Subsequently, the editors did not respect this material and intellectual unity and the texts were edited separately. Jacques-André Naigeon himself published the three texts in his edition of the complete works of Diderot, but separated the Supplément au voyage de Bougainville from the two other texts, it seems coherent to consider les Deux Amis de Bourbonne, another short story by Diderot, in the same vein as these three stories: the piece takes place during the same era and the themes and the style are similar.

There are two different stories in This. The first recounts the story of Tanié, in love with a venal and greedy woman, Madame Reymer. Tanié goes off to Saint-Domingue for ten years to make a fortune for her. Madame Reymer finds other lovers; when Tanié comes back from his voyage, he lives with Madame Reymer for around five years. Monsieur de Maurepas proposes that he leave to do business with the North, which Tanié accepts to take on because he knows that Madame Reymer is only with him for his fortune, he dies of a fever some days. In the second story, Diderot recounts the history of Mademoiselle de la Chaux. Out of love for him, Mademoiselle de la Chaux abandons all — her honor, her fortune, her family — to be with Gardeil. Somehow or other, they live happily. Gardeil, a translator by trade, works, his wife helps him by learning Greek and other languages. She gives herself and soul, to make him happy, but one day he leaves her because she is no longer useful to him, she takes it badly, but recovers some years later.

She enrolls in the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and writes a book, which she sends to the Marquise de Pompadour, a fervent admirer of good prose. She is invited to Versailles, but never ends up going, she ends her life in misery. Diderot concludes his book in saying that to judge someone based on one single character trait is going a bit fast, but that there is a lot of truth in generalities; the title of Ceci n'est pas un conte, followed by Second conte, betrays Diderot's game of denotation played against connotation. He plays with perceptions of reality and appearances and falsity, as well as good and the relativity of these notions; the Supplément au voyage de Bougainville, which evokes the morality of a civilisation from the end of the world, appears much like the keystone that confirms the importance of reflecting on the relationship between morality and guilt. To that of the painting The Treachery of Images by René Magritte, Diderot wants to tell us that a person's behavior is not in itself moral or immoral.

Morality is not universal and therefore it is not revealed either. Christiane Frémont, Stanford French Review, 1988, vol. 12, n° 2–3, p. 245-264. Michel Delon, introductory note in the edition of Les Œuvres de Diderot found in the bibliothèque de la Pléiade Valérie André, Féeries, 3, Politique du conte, 2006, mis en ligne le 4 mai 2007. URL: Consulté le 02 juillet 2008; the complete text on Project Gutenberg: Ceci n'est pas un conte