Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, located in Washington, D. C. is a United States Presidential Memorial, established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968. It is a recognized think tank, ranked among the top ten in the world. Named in honor of President Woodrow Wilson, the only President of the United States to hold a PhD, its mission is "to commemorate the ideals and concerns of Woodrow Wilson by: providing a link between the world of ideas and the world of policy. S. and the world's top think tank for institutional collaboration. The Center was established within the Smithsonian Institution, but it has its own board of trustees, composed both of government officials and of individuals from private life appointed by the President of the United States; the Center's director and staff include scholars, librarians and support staff, responsible to the trustees for carrying out the mission of the Center. The trustees and staff are advised by a group of private citizens called the Wilson Council.
Interns undergraduate or graduate students, support the activities of visiting scholars and staff while learning the business of top-level research. Most of the Center's staff form specialized projects covering broad areas of study; these programs and projects organize and host conferences and seminars, support many kinds of research and publication on topics relevant to their areas. The Center publishes a digital magazine, the Wilson Quarterly; the Center is a public–private partnership. One-third of the Center's operating funds come annually from an appropriation from the U. S. government, the Center itself is housed in a wing of the Ronald Reagan Building, a federal office building where the Center enjoys a 30-year rent-free lease. The remainder of the Center's funding comes from foundations and contracts, individuals, endowment income, subscriptions; because of its historic reliance on congressional appropriations, the Center posts on its website a Plan for Federal Funding Hiatus. The Board of Trustees led by Chairman Frederic V. Malek, are appointed to six-year terms by the President of the United States.
Trustees serve on various committees including executive and finance, investment and investment policy. Director, CEO of the Wilson Center: Jane HarmanBoard of Directors Chairman: Frederic V. Malek and Chairman, Thayer Lodging Group, a Brookfield Property Private citizen members: Peter J. Beshar, Executive Vice President & General Counsel, Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc. Thelma Duggin, President, AnBryce Foundation Barry S. Jackson, Managing Director, The Lindsey Group and Strategic Advisor, Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck David Jacobson, Former U. S. Ambassador to Canada and Vice Chair, BMO Financial Group Nathalie Rayes, Vice President of Public Affairs, Grupo Salinas Earl W. Stafford, Chief Executive Officer, The Wentworth Group, LLC Jane Watson Stetson, Philanthropist Louis Susman, Former U. S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom Public members: Alex Azar, Secretary, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Elisabeth DeVos, Secretary, U. S. Department of Education David Ferriero, Archivist of the United States Carla D. Hayden, Librarian of Congress Jon Parrish Peede, Acting Chairman, National Endowment for the Humanities Michael Pompeo, Secretary, U.
S. Department of State David J. Skorton, Smithsonian Institution Each year, the Woodrow Wilson Center gives out several awards recognizing members of the community who have shown an outstanding commitment to President Woodrow Wilson's dream of integrating politics and policy for the common good. Recipients fall into two award categories, those receiving the award for Public Service, those receiving the award for Corporate Citizenship. Awardees are selected by the Board, distributed at dinners benefitting the Center in different locations each year. Most of the Center's staff form specialized projects covering broad areas of study. There are 14 programs, some of which are described below. Established in 1999, the Wilson Center's Africa Program focuses on international affairs issues as affect Africa, conducts programmatic work to train and mentor rising leaders in Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, facilitates meetings between the policymaking communities of Washington, D. C. and Africa.
Its current director is Monde Muyangawa. The Wilson Center's Asia Program analyzes the politics, policy and issues of the broader Asia-Pacific region, encompassing a region stretching from Afghanistan to Japan. Since its founding in 2006, the Brazil Institute has focused on analyzing and convening panels to discuss Brazilian politics and the country's global profile. Founded in 2001, the Canada Institute analyzes Canada-U. S. relations and Canada's international role as polar ice melts. The Cold War International History Project supports the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War, seeking to integrate new sources and perspectives from the former Eastern Bloc with the historiography of the Cold War. In particular, it disseminates new information and perspectives from inaccessible sources from the former Communist world on the histor
The Atlantic Council is an American think tank in the field of international affairs. Founded in 1961, it provides a forum for international political and intellectual leaders, it manages ten regional centers and functional programs related to international security and global economic prosperity. It is headquartered in Washington, D. C.. It is a member of the Atlantic Treaty Association; the Atlantic Council was founded with the stated mission to encourage the continuation of cooperation between North America and Europe that began after World War II. In its early years its work consisted of publishing policy papers and polling Europeans and Americans about their attitudes towards transatlantic and international cooperation. In these early years its primary focus was on economic issues—mainly encouraging free trade between the two continents, to a lesser extent to the rest of the world—but it did some work on political and environmental issues. Although the Atlantic Council did publish policy papers and monographs, Melvin Small of Wayne State University wrote that in its early years, the Council's real strength lay in its connections to influential policy makers.
The Council early on found a niche as "center for informal get-togethers" of leaders from both sides of the Atlantic, with members working to develop "networks of continuing communication". The Atlantic Council works outside Europe and the U. S, it was among the first organizations advocating an increased Japanese presence in the international community. Its Asian programs have expanded since 2001 as a consequence of the war in Afghanistan leading to the opening of its South Asia Center and Program on Asia. Climate change, coordinating with India and China on these issues, were a factor in this development. In February 2009, James L. Jones, then-chairman of the Atlantic Council, stepped down in order to serve as President Obama's new National Security Advisor and was succeeded by Senator Chuck Hagel. In addition, other Council members left to serve the administration: Susan Rice as ambassador to the UN, Richard Holbrooke as the Special Representative to Afghanistan and Pakistan, General Eric K. Shinseki as the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Anne-Marie Slaughter as Director of Policy Planning at the State Department.
Four years Hagel stepped down to serve as US Secretary of Defense. Gen. Brent Scowcroft served as interim chairman of the organization's Board of Directors until January 2014, when former ambassador to China and governor of Utah Jon Huntsman Jr. was appointed. Former NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen called the Council a "pre-eminent think tank" with a "longstanding reputation", former U. S. Senator Richard Lugar noted that the Council is "held in high esteem within the Atlantic community". In September 2014, The Atlantic Council hired Call of Duty: Black Ops series director Dave Anthony as a nonresident senior fellow. In 2017, Tom Bossert a Nonresident Zurich Cyber Risk Fellow at the Atlantic Council's Cyber Security Initiative, was appointed Homeland Security Advisor to the Trump administration; the Atlantic Council has, since its inception, stated it is a nonpartisan institution, with members "from the moderate internationalist wings of both parties" in the United States. Despite its connections, the Council is by charter independent of the U.
S. government and NATO, a registered 501 nonprofit organization. In September 2014, Eric Lipton reported in The New York Times that since 2008, the US organization had received donations from more than twenty-five foreign governments. Lipton reports that major donor Bahaa Hariri complained to the Council about the founding head of the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East calling the overthrow of Mohammed Morsi in Egypt a military coup. Four months the founding head resigned from her position. Concerned that scholars from the organization could be covertly trying to push the agendas of foreign governments, legislation was proposed in response to The New York Times reporting requiring full disclosure of witnesses testifying before Congress; the Atlantic Council produced a report promoting the TTIP in 2014 with the financial backing of FedEx, who were lobbying Congress directly to decrease transatlantic tariffs. In 2015 and 2016, the three largest donors, giving over $1 million USD each, were US billionaire Adrienne Arsht, Lebanese billionaire Bahaa Hariri, the United Arab Emirates.
The full list of financial sponsors includes many military and corporate concerns. The Atlantic Council creates a meeting place for heads of state, military leaders, international leaders from both sides of the Atlantic; the Council hosted former NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen's first major U. S. speech, in which he discussed issues such as Afghanistan and the broader transatlantic relationship. Members of the U. S. Congress have appeared, including Senator Richard Lugar and Secretary of State John Kerry; the Council hosts events with sitting heads of state and government, including former Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk, former Latvian President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga. The Council has hosted military leaders from both sides of the Atlantic as well; the Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security has since January 2007 held periodic events known as the Commanders Series where it invites military leaders from the United States and Europe to speak about conflicts of interest to the Atlantic community.
As part of the Commanders Series, American military leaders such as former General George Casey and former Admiral Timothy Keating and European leaders like former French Chief of Def
Refugees of Sudan
Sudanese refugees are persons originating from the country of Sudan, but seeking refuge outside the borders of their native country. In recent history, Sudan has been the stage for prolonged conflicts and civil wars, as well as environmental changes, namely desertification; these forces have resulted not only in violence and famine, but the forced migration of large numbers of the Sudanese population, both inside and outside the country's borders. Given the expansive geographic territory of Sudan, the regional and ethnic tensions and conflicts, much of the forced migration in Sudan has been internal. Yet, these populations are not immune from similar issues that accompany refugeedom, including economic hardship and providing themselves and their families with sustenance and basic needs. With the creation of a South Sudanese state, questions surrounding southern Sudanese IDPs may become questions of South Sudanese refugees; the movement of populations within and around the territory of modern-day Sudan and its neighbors for trade, climatic variations and conflicts is not unique to recent or contemporary history.
But these movements have intensified and become more concentrated for because of prolonged civil war, violence between various populations along ethnic and political lines and subsequent famines in the 1980s, humanitarian emergencies and famine caused by improper responses to previous crises by international aid organizations. Movements of people are inherently more problematic across international boundaries, which may be contradictory to natural population flows within the region. An estimated 3.2 million Sudanese are internally displaced persons, another 78,000 are in IDP-like situations. 300,000 of these IDPs were newly displaced in the first months of 2013 due to renewed intertribal conflict. Continuing insecurity, combined with government restrictions on humanitarian access in the Darfur region, South Kordofan, Blue Nile States, has hampered UNHCR's activities. Refugee assistance programs in Sudan have relied on the definition of a refugee as one who has crossed an international frontier.
This definition is inappropriate worldwide and so in Sudanic Africa, where the number of internally displaced persons exceeds the number of refugees. Starting in the 1990s, the increase in refugees from Sudan has forced UNHCR RO Cairo to shift its focus from education and training to care and maintenance of refugees. In Cairo, the International Organization for Migration is involved in helping process refugees for resettlement, moving refugees, assisting with their medical examinations. IOM conducts cultural orientation for the refugees to prepare them for resettlement in third countries; the UNHCR regional office in Cairo is overextended, after Somalis the Sudanese represent the largest caseload. The large number of Sudanese refugees in Egypt reflects the fact that many Sudanese travel to Cairo to obtain official recognition of their refugee status from the UNHCR; the Sudanese refugees in Egypt fall under two categories: those who are waiting for their status-determination interview and those who have been rejected or who are self-settled.
Between 60 and 70 percent of Sudanese asylum seekers have their applications for refugee status rejected. Rejection and closure of a file have serious emotional implications for refugees. Many of those rejected men, turn to alcoholism as a way of overcoming their problems. Others become mentally disturbed and there have been reports of suicide or attempted suicide upon receiving news of the rejection; the unity of the family has been challenged by Sudanese refugees' quest for UNHCR recognition. Women and children wait in Cairo for their UNHCR applications to go through while husbands wait in Sudan; the difficulties of life in Cairo and the inability of some husbands to join their families in Egypt have forced some women refugees to abandon their husbands and leave for resettlement. In cases of rejection of a family application at the UNHCR, many men leave their wives and children and look for another single woman with UNHCR status in order to avoid responsibility. Additionally, UNHCR RO Cairo does not recognize polygamous unions, as such will not refer polygamists for resettlement to countries where polygamy is not permitted.
All of these factors have contributed to the break-up of families and the abandonment of children. The UNHCR identity cards issued to refugees are not always recognized by Egyptian authority. There have been situations in which people have been taken and detained from three to four days and released, despite their UNHCR status. A resident permit stamp on a valid Sudanese passport seems to offer more protection for refugees. In the last quarter of the 20th century, many Sudanese migrated to the Gulf countries to seek work in light of the oil boom in the Gulf and the deterioration of Sudan's economy; the allure of Gulf migration waned starting in the 1990s as the Government of Sudan's support for Iraq in the Gulf War meant that some expatriates were expelled while others lived under tight restrictions. As Sudan was amidst its second civil war, return was not an option, so many Gulf expatriates started moving to the United States and Canada on "lottery" or asylum and refugee tickets; as such, the traditional migration to Gulf countries is being used by some refugees to achieve further migration to Europe, the United States and Australia.
Due to the shortages in UNHCR assistance to Sudanese refugees, some Church groups have opened learning centers for refugee children. Furthermore, churches offer training programs for adult refugees, provide food rations to families, in addition to finan
Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. was the United States Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan and the White House chief of staff under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Prior to these cabinet-level positions, he retired as a general from the United States Army, having been Supreme Allied Commander Europe after serving as the vice chief of staff of the Army. Born in Bala Cynwyd, Haig served in the Korean War after graduating from the United States Military Academy. In the Korean War, he served as an aide to General Edward Almond. After the war, he served as an aide to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. During the Vietnam War, Haig commanded a battalion and a brigade of the 1st Infantry Division. For his service, Haig was a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, the Silver Star with oak leaf cluster, the Purple Heart. In 1969 Haig became an assistant to National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, he became vice chief of staff of the Army, the second-highest-ranking position in the Army, in 1972.
After the 1973 resignation of H. R. Haldeman, Haig became President Nixon's chief of staff. Serving in the wake of the Watergate scandal, he became influential in the final months of Nixon's tenure, played a role in persuading Nixon to resign in August 1974. Haig continued to serve as chief of staff for the first month of President Ford's tenure. From 1974 to 1979, Haig served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe, commanding all NATO forces in Europe, he pursued a career in business. After Reagan won the 1980 presidential election, he nominated Haig to be his secretary of state. After the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan, Haig asserted "I am in control here," suggesting that he served as acting president in Reagan's and Bush's absence iterating that he meant that he was functionally in control of the government. During the Falklands War, Haig sought to broker peace between Argentina, he resigned from Reagan's cabinet in July 1982. After leaving office, he unsuccessfully sought the presidential nomination in the 1988 Republican primaries.
He served as the head of a consulting firm and hosted the television program World Business Review. Haig was born in Bala Cynwyd, the middle of three children of Alexander Meigs Haig Sr. a Republican lawyer of Scottish descent, his wife, Regina Anne. When Haig was 9, his father, aged 41, died of cancer, his Irish American mother raised her children in the Catholic faith. Haig attended Saint Joseph's Preparatory School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on scholarship. Unable to secure his desired appointment to the United States Military Academy, Haig studied at the University of Notre Dame for two years before securing a congressional appointment to the Academy in 1944 at the behest of his uncle, who served as the Philadelphia municipal government's director of public works. Enrolled in an accelerated wartime curriculum that deemphasized the humanities and social sciences, Haig graduated in the bottom third of his class in 1947. Although a West Point superintendent characterized Haig as "the last man in his class anyone expected to become the first general," other classmates acknowledged his "strong convictions and stronger ambitions."
Haig earned an M. B. A. from the Columbia Business School in 1955 and an M. A. in international relations from Georgetown University in 1961. His thesis for the latter degree examined the role of military officers in making national policy; as a young officer, Haig served as an aide to Lieutenant General Alonzo Patrick Fox, a deputy chief of staff to General Douglas MacArthur. In 1950 Haig married Patricia. In the early days of the Korean War, Haig was responsible for maintaining General MacArthur's situation map and briefing MacArthur each evening on the day's battlefield events. Haig served with the X Corps, as aide to MacArthur's chief of staff, General Edward Almond, who awarded Haig two Silver Stars and a Bronze Star with Valor device. Haig participated in four Korean War campaigns, including the Battle of Inchon, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the evacuation of Hŭngnam, as Almond's aide. Haig served as a staff officer in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations at the Pentagon, was appointed military assistant to Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes in 1964.
He was appointed military assistant to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, continuing in that service until the end of 1965. In 1966, Haig graduated from the United States Army War College. In 1966 Haig took command of a battalion of the 1st Infantry Division in Vietnam. On May 22, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Haig was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the U. S. Army's second highest medal for valor, by General William Westmoreland as a result of his actions during the Battle of Ap Gu in March 1967. During the battle, Haig's troops became pinned down by a Viet Cong force that outnumbered U. S. forces by three to one. In an attempt to survey the battlefield, Haig flew to the point of contact, his helicopter was subsequently shot down. Two days of bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued. An exc
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
Chad the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south and Nigeria to the southwest, Niger to the west, it is the second-largest in Central Africa in terms of area. Chad has several regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanian Savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second-largest in Africa; the capital N'Djamena is the largest city. Chad's official languages are French. Chad is home to over 200 different linguistic groups; the most popular religion of Chad is Islam, followed by Christianity. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium AD, a series of states and empires had risen and fallen in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.
France incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves, he was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003 the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. An uneven inclusion into the global political economy as a site for colonial resource extraction, a global economic system that does not promote nor encourage the development of Chadian industrialization, the failure to support local agricultural production has meant that the majority of Chadians live in daily uncertainty and hunger. While many political parties are active, power lies in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement.
Chad remains plagued by recurrent attempted coups d'état. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the northern half of Chadian territory favored human settlement, the region experienced a strong population increase; some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region. For more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people; the region became a crossroads of civilizations. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, descendants of the Hyksos who conquered Ancient Egypt known for skills in designing weapons and artifacts, they are known for their oral histories. After a century of rule, the Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. Two other states in the region, Sultanate of Bagirmi and Wadai Empire emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. These states, at least tacitly Muslim, never extended their control to the southern grasslands except to raid for slaves. In Kanem, about a third of the population were slaves. French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. French rule in Chad was characterised by an absence of policies to unify the territory and sluggish modernisation compared to other French colonies; the French viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service. Only the Sara of the south was governed effectively; the educational system was affected by this neglect. After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the National Assembly and a Chadian assembly.
The largest political party was the Chadian Progressive Party, based in the southern half of the colony. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960 with the PPT's leader, Sara François Tombalbaye, as its first president. Two years Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. Tombalbaye's autocratic rule and insensitive mismanagement exacerbated inter-ethnic tensions. In 1965, Muslims in the north, led by the National Liberation Front of Chad, began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975. In 1979 the rebel factions led by Hissène Habré took the capital, all central authority in the country collapsed. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power; the disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country. Libya moved to fill the power vacuum and became involved in Chad