Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Dispatch is an American indie/roots band. The band consists of Brad Corrigan, Pete Francis Heimbold, Chad Urmston; the band, based in the Boston area, was active from 1996 until 2002. The members announced a hiatus, which would last for a decade. C.. The hiatus ended in the beginning of 2011. In May of the same year, Dispatch released an EP containing six new songs, their first all-new release since 2000; the band released both their first studio album in over a decade, Circles Around the Sun, an iTunes session in 2012 and toured North America that summer in support of the album. On April 22, 2013, Dispatch announced a double-disc live album called "Ain't No Trip to Cleveland Vol. 1", released on June 4, 2013. After a long hiatus, Dispatch returned with their new album, Location 12, released on June 2, 2017. Hermit Thrush and Woodriver Bandits merged into an all-acoustic band in the early 1990s as One Fell Swoop, they soon changed their name to Dispatch after a dispute with another band of the same name.
Chad Urmston, Brad Corrigan, Pete Heimbold, who were all attending Middlebury College, comprised the band's lineup throughout their entire schooling. Their music drew upon several genres, such as acoustic folk-rock and funk, they did several concerts in their early years both in and around Middlebury, gaining a name for themselves at the college. However with their Middlebury roots, Dispatch's first show was not near their home campus, they first performed at Cosmic Cantina in Durham, North Carolina, while on a trip to visit the younger sister of one of the band members at Duke University. After graduating from college the members of Dispatch relocated to the greater Boston, area to continue the strong touring effort that would characterize their sound, their live show progressed through the years to include extended jams, guest appearances, mash ups of their songs with other popular artists' songs such as Sublime. The musicians displayed their versatility at live performances, with each member of the band switching instruments throughout the set.
Dispatch gained much recognition outside of New England, without any help from a label, thanks to peer-to-peer file sharing programs such as Napster, as well as word-of-mouth. During their rise to indie fame, they put out four studio albums, which progressed from acoustic albums to full band records with electric guitar. After the release of their last album, Who Are We Living For?, painted and designed by artist William Quigley, they began to tour extensively nationwide. Tensions began to run high between the band members, they announced an indefinite hiatus in 2002 after a performance on The Late Late Show with Craig Kilborn; the band scheduled a farewell concert to their fans, in order to get closure on the Dispatch portion of their lives. The free show was performed at the Hatch Shell in Boston on July 31, 2004, was called "The Last Dispatch." The original prediction of the turnout was between 10,000 and 30,000. Fans flocked from Italy, South Africa, Mexico, New Zealand, Australia among others, making up an estimated total audience of 166,000.
Corrigan told the fans near the end of the performance, "Somebody said, that we were shooting for, I don't know, 20,000, 30,000 people would be considered a huge success. And um, we were kind of excited about the idea of trying to get enough of you guys in here that they'd start shutting down Storrow Drive. Well we got our wish." The performance was released as a three-disc set that year, entitled All Points Bulletin, along with recordings from a warm-up show in Somerville, Massachusetts. Special guest appearances at the Somerville performance included Craig Dreyer on saxophone and Brian Sayers on drums. For some of their songs at the Hatch Shell, Dispatch shared the stage with Phil Keaggy, Paul Tillotson, Brian Sayers, Reinaldo DeJesus. Dispatch released a documentary film The Last Dispatch which chronicles their final twelve days together as a band and tells the story of how they became "the band that redefined independent music history"; the film was released and previewed in Somerville, at the same theater they used for the Last Dispatch warm-up shows.
Urmston and Heimbold attended the showing and celebrated throughout the weekend with their fans. The film was released on DVD September 26, 2006. All three of the band's members stayed in the music industry. Urmston became the front man of State Radio, while Heimbold were pursuing solo efforts. On January 5, 2007, the band announced a benefit concert entitled "Dispatch: Zimbabwe" which reunited the band on July 14, 2007, at Madison Square Garden in New York City. All of the money raised from ticket sales went directly to charities that are fighting disease and social injustice. S. On January 10, during the first half-hour of the exclusive presale, available to their MySpace friends only, the band announced that the show was "officially sold out." Dispatch scheduled another show for Friday, July 13, 2007. This show sold out within 24 hours, resulting in the addition of yet another night: July 15, 2007. Tickets for
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Matthew Embree is a singer and guitarist best known as the front-man of the Rx Bandits. He played lead guitar/vocals for The Sound of Animals Fighting, in which he was known as "The Walrus." He produced their last album the Sun. In 2008, he released his first solo album, under the name Love You Moon, he is in other acts such as Coke vs. Bills and Apotheke. Embree has, in the past ten years of his career, established himself as a outspoken and musically diverse singer/songwriter/musician, he has contributed to a number of Hip Hop,alternative, art and psychedelic rock bands and musical groups such as Rx Bandits, Seekret Socyetee, The Sound of Animals Fighting, Apotheke and Biceratops, among others. Embree has developed a strong following that thrives on experiencing his musically explosive live shows. For Embree, musicianship is paramount. Many of his recordings are done live, including the Rx Bandits albums... And The Battle Begun and The Resignation. Sense of community is important to Embree, who started MDB Records in 2002.
Operated out of a garage referred to as The Elizabethan in Seal Beach, California, MDB releases the music of musicians and artists from Embree's circle of friends. In 2006, Embree began collaborating with management/label Sargent House, who helped MDB release of one of Embree’s other band's albums. Love You Moon’s debut album Waxwane was released by Sargent House/MDB Digitally on May 20, 2008 with a physical release that August. Spin.com: Rx Bandits NME.com: Rx Bandits http://www.pledgemusic.com/projects/rxbandits https://web.archive.org/web/20091102034300/http://www.rxbandits.com/matt-embree/ Rx Bandits Official Love You Moon The Sound of Animals Fighting Coke vs. Bills Biceratops
Brad Corrigan is a musician, a member of the indie band Dispatch, which reunited in 2011 after a hiatus of several years. He is known by the stage name Braddigan and has been pursuing a successful solo effort since 2003 under that name, having released two albums independently on his own label, Third Surfer Music. Corrigan was born in Denver, is a graduate of Littleton High School. After playing lacrosse at Middlebury College, he joined Pete Heimbold in Woodriver Bandits, they got together with Chad Urmston to create the band Dispatch. Braddigan bandmates include Reinaldo DeJesus from Puerto Rico, Tiago Machado from Brazil, Paul Stivitts from New York City. Corrigan has made numerous visits to Managua, where poverty and social injustice are prevalent, he founded a non-profit organization, Love Light & Melody, dedicated to battling physical and spiritual effects of extreme poverty. Corrigan believes. In his own words, “It’s never what you do in life, but the heart with which you do it." His second studio album, The Captive, draws its inspiration from the band's experiences in Managua.
On December 17, 2013, he released his first solo album in six years, titled Someday is Today, which took three years to make. Taylor Acoustic w/cutaway For discography of Dispatch, see Dispatch Discography 2002: Dirt Level Demos 2003: Take Two 2007: Braddigan and Friends 2005: Watchfires - Third Surfer Music 2007: The Captive - Third Surfer Music 2013: Someday is Today - Third Surfer Music 2002: Live at the Gothic 2006: Live at Goucher College 2008: Live at the Belly Up - Third Surfer Music 2007: Side of the Road - Third Surfer Music, Kasey Kirby 2005: The Relief Project: Vol. I by Various Artists Braddigan.com, Official Braddigan website Braddigan collection on the Internet Archive's live music archive
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International. It is a major nonprofit group with an extensive collection of operations. Winnie Byanyima has been the executive director of Oxfam International since 2013. Founded at 17 Broad Street, Oxford, as the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief by a group of Quakers, social activists, Oxford academics in 1942 and registered in accordance with UK law in 1943, the original Oxford Committee for Famine Relief was a group of concerned citizens including Henry Gillett, Theodore Richard Milford, Gilbert Murray and his wife Mary, Cecil Jackson-Cole and Alan Pim; the Committee met in the Old Library of University Church of St Mary the Virgin, for the first time in 1942, its aim was to help starving citizens of occupied Greece, a famine caused by the Axis occupation of Greece and Allied naval blockades and to persuade the British government to allow food relief through the blockade.
The Oxford committee was one of several local committees formed in support of the National Famine Relief Committee. Oxfam's first paid employee was Joe Mitty, who began working at the Oxfam shop on Broad Street, Oxford on 9 November 1949. Engaged to manage the accounts and distribute donated clothing, he originated the policy of selling anything which people were willing to donate, developed the shop into a national chain. By 1960, it was a major international non-governmental aid organization; the first overseas committee was founded in Canada in 1963, in 1965 the organization changed its name to its telegraphic address, OXFAM. The Oxford committee became known as Oxfam Great Britain or Oxfam GB. In 1995 Oxfam International was formed by a group of independent non-governmental organizations, their aim was to work together for greater impact on the international stage to reduce poverty and injustice. Stichting Oxfam International was registered as a non-profit foundation at The Hague, Netherlands in 1996.
Oxfam's programmes address the structural causes of poverty and related injustice and work through local accountable organizations, seeking to enhance their effectiveness. Oxfam's stated goal is to help people directly when local capacity is insufficient or inappropriate for Oxfam's purposes, to assist in the development of structures which directly benefit people facing the realities of poverty and injustice. In November 2000, Oxfam adopted the rights-based approach as the framework for all the work of the Confederation and its partners. Oxfam recognizes the universality and indivisibility of human rights and has adopted these overarching aims to express these rights in practical terms: the right to a sustainable livelihood the right to basic social services the right to life and security the right to be heard the right to an identityOxfam believes that poverty and powerlessness are avoidable and can be eradicated by human action and political will, it believes in the right to a sustainable livelihood, the right and capacity to participate in societies and make positive changes to people's lives as basic human needs and rights which can be met.
Oxfam believes that peace and substantial arms reduction are essential conditions for development and that inequalities can be reduced both between rich and poor nations and within nations. Although Oxfam's initial concern was the provision of food to relieve famine, over the years the organization has developed strategies to combat the causes of famine. In addition to food and medicine, Oxfam provides tools to enable people to become self-supporting and opens markets of international trade where crafts and produce from poorer regions of the world can be sold at a fair price to benefit the producer. Oxfam's programme has three main points of focus: development work, which tries to lift communities out of poverty with long-term, sustainable solutions based on their needs. Oxfam has four main focuses for its resources: economic justice, essential services, rights in crisis, gender justice. "Economic justice" focuses on making agriculture work for farmers and labourers living in poverty, fairer trade rules for poor countries, reducing the impact of climate change and energy shocks.
"Essential services" focuses on, inter alia, demanding that national governments fulfil their responsibilities for equitable delivery of good-quality health, education and sanitation. "Rights in crisis" focuses on improving the ability to deliver better protection and greater assistance. "Gender justice" focuses on supporting women's leadership and education and ending gender-based violence. Oxfam works on trade justice, fair trade, education and aid, health, HIV/AIDS, gender equality and natural disasters and human rights, climate change. Through programmes like "Saving for Change", Oxfam helps communities become more self-sufficient financially; the Saving for Change initiative is a programme whereby communities are taught how to form collective, informal credit groups. Through these mutually beneficial groups, members—who tend to be women—pool their savings into a fund, used to give loans for activities such as paying for medical care and paying school fees, in addition to using the loans to fund small-scale business ventures.
The goal of the programme is to leave the community with
Iron & Wine
Samuel "Sam" Ervin Beam, better known by his stage and recording name Iron & Wine, is an American singer-songwriter. He has released six studio albums, several EPs and singles, as well as a few download-only releases, which include a live album, he tours with a full band. Beam was raised in South Carolina before moving to Virginia and Florida to attend school, he now resides in North Carolina. The name Iron & Wine is taken from a dietary supplement named "Beef, Iron & Wine" that he found in a general store while shooting a film. Beam was raised in Chapin, South Carolina, where his father worked in land management and his mother was a schoolteacher; when he was a child, his family took regular trips to the country. He attended Chapin High School. While home from college, he was a waiter at California Dreaming restaurant in Columbia. Beam earned a bachelor's degree in art from Virginia Commonwealth University in Virginia, he specialized in painting before graduating from the Florida State University Film School with an MFA degree.
Before the release of the first Iron & Wine album, Beam's main source of income was as a professor of film and cinematography at the University of Miami and Miami International University of Art & Design. He had been writing songs for over seven years, he began making demos and gave one to his friend Michael Bridwell, brother of Band of Horses lead singer, Ben Bridwell. Michael handed it to Mike McGonigal, editor of Yeti magazine, who chose "Dead Man's Will" released on In the Reins, for inclusion on one of his magazine's compilation CDs. Beam came to the attention of Sub Pop Records co-owner, Jonathan Poneman, who contacted Beam to propose a deal. Beam released his first Iron & Wine album, The Creek Drank the Cradle, on the Sub Pop label in 2002. Beam wrote, performed and produced the album in his home studio. Featuring acoustic guitars and slide guitar, the album's music has been compared to that of Nick Drake and Garfunkel, Elliott Smith, Neil Young and John Fahey. In 2002, Beam recorded a cover of The Postal Service's then-unreleased song "Such Great Heights".
Rather than being included on an Iron & Wine release, the track was included as a b-side of the original version by The Postal Service. It was included on the B-sides and rarities album, Around the Well, he followed up on his debut album in 2003 with The Sea & The Rhythm, an EP containing other home-recorded tracks with a similar style to the songs on the debut. Beam's second full-length album, Our Endless Numbered Days, was recorded in a professional studio with a significant increase in fidelity. Produced in Chicago by Brian Deck, the focus was still on acoustic material, but the inclusion of other band members gave rise to a different sound; that same year, he recorded the song "The Trapeze Swinger" for the film In Good Company, had his version of "Such Great Heights" featured in an advertisement for M&M's and in the film and soundtrack for Garden State. This version was used in a 2006 Ask.com advertisement, released as a single in 2006 backed with recordings of "The Trapeze Swinger" and "Naked as We Came" made for Radio Vienna.
In February 2005, he released an EP entitled Woman King, which expanded on the sounds of his previous LP with the addition of electric guitars. Each track features a spiritual female figure, had subtle Biblical undertones; the EP In the Reins, a collaboration with the Arizona-based rock band Calexico, was released in September 2005. Beam wrote all of the EP's songs years earlier, but Calexico added their trademark fusion of southwestern rock, traditional Mexican music and jazz to the songs' arrangements. Several tracks, most notably, "Burn That Broken Bed", feature brass instruments, a first for Beam's music; the third full-length Iron & Wine album, entitled The Shepherd's Dog, was released September 25, 2007. This album was voted one of the ten best of 2007 by Paste magazine. Contributors included Joey Burns and Paul Niehaus of Calexico, as well as jazz musicians Matt Lux and Rob Burger; when asked to describe the album to The Independent, Beam remarked that "it's not a political propaganda record, but it's inspired by political confusion, because I was taken aback when Bush got reelected."Beam has released most of his music on iTunes, including several exclusive EPs.
The Iron & Wine iTunes Exclusive EP features unreleased studio recordings, including a Stereolab cover and two tracks which had only appeared on vinyl. The Live Session features Beam and his sister, Sarah Beam, performing a number of tracks from his albums, as well as a cover of New Order's "Love Vigilantes". Sarah Beam has contributed backing vocals on many of Beam's studio recordings. Beam's music has appeared in television series such as Grey's Anatomy, The L Word and House M. D. "Flightless Bird, American Mouth" was used in the film Twilight. The song was chosen for the film's prom scene by Kristen Stewart, the female lead, appears on the film's soundtrack; the B-sides and rarities album Around the Well was released in 2009. Iron & Wine contributed the song "Stolen Houses" to the AIDS benefit album Dark Was the Night produced by the Red Hot Organization. On November 26, 2010 Iron & Wine released a special edition Record Store Day Black Friday 12" vinyl and CD single called, Walking Far From Home for independent record stores.
Kiss Each Other Clean, Iron & Wine's fourth full-length album, was released on January 25, 2011 on Warner Bros. Records in North America and 4AD for the rest of the world. With this album, Be