Chalcis or Chalkida is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek χαλκός, in the late Middle Ages, it was known as Negropont, a name that was applied to the entire island of Euboea as well. The earliest recorded mention of Chalcis is in the Iliad, where it is mentioned in the line as its rival Eretria. It is documented that the set for the Trojan War gathered at Aulis. Chamber tombs at Trypa and Vromousa dated to the Mycenaean period were excavated by Papavasiliou in 1910. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, colonists from Chalcis founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice and several important cities in Magna Graecia, such as Naxos and Cumae. Its mineral produce, metal-work and pottery not only found markets among these settlements, early in the 6th century BC, its prosperity was broken by a disastrous war with the Athenians, who expelled the ruling aristocracy and settled a cleruchy on the site.
Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues, in the Hellenistic period, it gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece. It was used by kings Antiochus III of Syria and Mithradates VI of Pontus as a base for invading Greece, under Roman rule, Chalcis retained a measure of commercial prosperity. The city is recorded as a city in the 6th-century Synecdemus and mentioned by the contemporary historian Procopius of Caesarea, the town survived an Arab naval raid in the 880s and its bishop is attested in the 869–70 Church council held at Constantinople. By the 12th century, the featured a Venetian trading station, being attacked by the Venetian fleet in 1171 and eventually seized by Venice in 1209. For Westerners, its name was Negropont or Negroponte. The town was a condominium between Venice and the Veronese barons of the rest of Euboea, known as the triarchs, who resided there. Chalcis or Negroponte became a Latin Church diocese, the first bishop being Theodorus, the Greek bishop of the see, a large hoard of late medieval jewellery dating from Venetian times was found in Chalcis Castle in the nineteenth century and is now in the British Museum.
The synagogue dated to around 1400 and that siege is the subject of the Rossini opera Maometto II. The Ottomans made it the seat of the Admiral of the Archipelago, in 1688, it was successfully held by the Ottomans against a strong Venetian attack. The modern town received an impetus in its trade from the establishment of railway connection with Athens. The old town, called the Castro, was surrounded by a circuit of defense walls until they were completely razed for urban development around the start of the 20th century
Davleia is a village and a former municipality in Boeotia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Livadeia and its name comes from the ancient settlement Daulis. The municipal unit has an area of 94.985 km2, the municipality includes the eastern portion of Mount Parnassos. Davleia is located ESE of Lamia, SW of Kamena Vourla, W of Livadeia and Thiva, NE of Itea, in ancient Greece, this city in Phocis was called Daulis and at a stage Daulia and Daulion. Mentioned by Homer, it was said to be named either in reference to the character of the area or after a nymph Daulis. In Greek mythology, Daulis was the hometown of Tereus, Daulis was the city at the end of the road not taken by Oedipus. During the Greco-Persian Wars, Daulis was destroyed for the first time in 480 BC, in 395 BC, the city was attacked by Thebes. In 346 BC, Daulis was destroyed again during the so-called Third Sacred War, in 220 BC, the city was attacked by the Aetolians. In 198 BC, the Romans occupied Daulis by a stratagem, in Late Antiquity, Daulia was a seat of a bishop and is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.
Remains of the walls of the citys acropolis can be seen today above the modern town, list of settlements in Boeotia Local website
Livadeia is a town in central Greece. It is the capital of the Boeotia regional district, Livadeia lies 90 km north-west of Athens,64 km west of Chalkida,63 km south-east of Lamia,44 km east-south-east of Amfissa, and 91 km east-north-east of Nafpaktos. The town lies five kilometres west of Greek National Road 3. The area around Livadeia is mountainous, with farming activities mainly confined to the valleys, the area has traditionally been associated with the production and processing of cotton and tobacco, as well as the cultivation of cereal crops and the raising of livestock. Livadeia is home to Levadiakos FC, members of the Greek Superleague, the municipality of Livadeia covers an area of 694.016 km2, the municipal unit of Livadeia 166.691 km2 and the community 139.614 km2. The sacred protector of the city was the hero/god Trophonios, whose oracle, at the springs of the Herkyna river are shallow grottos with niches and marble remnants said to be the site of the oracle. On the hill above is a medieval castle, mostly the work of the Catalan Company during the 14th century.
Further west, commanding a view from the hill of Profitis Ilias, are the remains of a large temple of Zeus Basileus, perhaps begun in the 3rd century BC. The cathedral church of St. George houses an important relic, in medieval times the river was lined by a series of water mills, one of which is preserved. During the Byzantine times Livadeia, enters a period of decline, during the Frankish Livadeia came back on track, it passes in Catalan sovereignty. An important source for the economy is the tourism, Livadeia hosts two sports club with presence in the higher national divisions, Levadiakos F. C. a football club and Livadeia B. C. a basketball club. Livadiya, Crimea University of Central Greece Livadiya, Ukraine Municipality of Livadeia official website The Castle of Levadia Greek Ministry of Culture Public Central Library of Livadeia
Delphi is famous as the ancient sanctuary that grew rich as the seat of the oracle that was consulted on important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. Moreover, it was considered as the navel of the world by the Greeks as represented by the Omphalos and it occupies an impressive site on the south-western slope of Mount Parnassus overlooking the coastal plain to the south and the valley of Phocis. It is now an archaeological site and the modern town is nearby. The site of Delphi is located in upper central Greece, on multiple plateaux/terraces along the slope of Mount Parnassus, and includes the Sanctuary of Apollo and this semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades, and overlooks the Pleistos Valley. In myths dating to the period of Ancient Greece, the site of Delphi was believed to be determined by Zeus when he sought to find the centre of his Grandmother Earth. He sent two eagles flying from the eastern and western extremities, and the path of the eagles crossed over Delphi where the omphalos, Apollo was said to have slain Python, a drako a serpent or a dragon who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth.
Python is claimed by some to be the name of the site in recognition of Python which Apollo defeated. The Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo recalled that the ancient name of this site had been Krisa, others relate that it was named Pytho and that Pythia, the priestess serving as the oracle, was chosen from their ranks by a group of priestesses who officiated at the temple. At the settlement site in Delphi, which was a settlement of the late 9th century. Pottery and bronze work as well as tripod dedications continue in a steady stream, the victors at Delphi were presented with a laurel crown which was ceremonially cut from a tree by a boy who re-enacted the slaying of the Python. Delphi was set apart from the other sites because it hosted the mousikos agon. These Pythian Games rank second among the four stephanitic games chronologically and these games, were different from the games at Olympia in that they were not of such vast importance to the city of Delphi as the games at Olympia were to the area surrounding Olympia.
Delphi would have been a renowned city whether or not it hosted these games, it had other attractions that led to it being labeled the omphalos of the earth, in other words, in the inner hestia of the Temple of Apollo, an eternal flame burned. The name Delphoi comes from the root as δελφύς delphys, womb. Apollo is connected with the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios, the epithet is connected with dolphins in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, recounting the legend of how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin, carrying Cretan priests on his back. The Homeric name of the oracle is Pytho, another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe, a city in Thessaly, to pick laurel which he considered to be a sacred plant. In commemoration of this legend, the winners at the Pythian Games received a wreath of laurel picked in the Temple, Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo, as well as the Pythian Games and the famous prehistoric oracle.
Even in Roman times, hundreds of votive statues remained, described by Pliny the Younger, according to Plutarchs essay on the meaning of the E at Delphi—the only literary source for the inscription—there was inscribed at the temple a large letter E
Thebes is a city in Boeotia, central Greece. It played an important role in Greek myths, as the site of the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus and others. Archaeological excavations in and around Thebes have revealed a Mycenaean settlement and clay tablets written in the Linear B script, Thebes was the largest city of the ancient region of Boeotia and was the leader of the Boeotian confederacy. It was a rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes. Theban forces ended the power of Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC under the command of Epaminondas, the Sacred Band of Thebes famously fell at the battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC against Philip II and Alexander the Great. Prior to its destruction by Alexander in 335 BC, Thebes was a force in Greek history. During the Byzantine period, the city was famous for its silks, the modern city contains an Archaeological Museum, the remains of the Cadmea, and scattered ancient remains. Modern Thebes is the largest town of the unit of Boeotia.
Thebes is situated in a plain, between Lake Yliki to the north, and the Cithaeron mountains, which divide Boeotia from Attica and its elevation is 215 metres above mean sea level. It is about 50 kilometres northwest of Athens, and 100 kilometres southeast of Lamia, motorway 1 and the Athens–Thessaloniki railway connect Thebes with Athens and northern Greece. The municipality of Thebes covers an area of 830.112 square kilometres, the unit of Thebes 321.015 square kilometres. In 2011, as a consequence of the Kallikratis reform, Thebes was merged with Plataies and Vagia to form a larger municipality, the other three become units of the larger municipality. Five main cycles of story may be distinguished, The foundation of the citadel Cadmea by Cadmus, the building of a seven-gated wall by Amphion, and the cognate stories of Zethus and Dirce. See Theban pederasty and Pederasty in ancient Greece for detailed discussion, the immolation of Semele and the advent of Dionysus. The Greeks attributed the foundation of Thebes to Cadmus, a Phoenician king from Tyre, Cadmus was famous for teaching the Phoenician alphabet and building the Acropolis, which was named the Cadmeia in his honor and was an intellectual and cultural center.
Archaeological excavations in and around Thebes have revealed cist graves dated to Mycenaean times containing weapons, ivory, *Tʰēgʷai in LHIIIB lost contact with Egypt but gained it with Miletus and Cyprus. In the late LHIIIB, according to Palaima, *Tʰēgʷai was able to pull resources from Lamos near Mount Helicon, and from Karystos and Amarynthos on the Greek side of the isle of Euboia. As a fortified community, it attracted attention from the invading Dorians, and this centralizing policy is as much the cardinal fact of Theban history as the counteracting effort of the smaller towns to resist absorption forms the main chapter of the story of Boeotia
Mithridates VI of Pontus
He is often considered the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus. Mithridates VI was a prince of Persian and Greek ancestry, Mithridates was born in the Pontic city of Sinope, and was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus. He was the first son among the children born to Laodice VI and his father, Mithridates V, was a prince and the son of the former Pontic monarchs Pharnaces I of Pontus and his wife-cousin Nysa. His mother, Laodice VI, was a Seleucid princess and the daughter of the Seleucid monarchs Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Mithridates V was assassinated in about 120 BC in Sinope, poisoned by unknown persons at a lavish banquet which he held. He left the kingdom to the joint rule of Mithridates mother, Laodice VI, neither Mithridates nor his younger brother were of age, and their mother retained all power as regent for the time being. Laodice VI’s regency over Pontus was from 120 BC to 116 BC, during his mother’s regency, he escaped from his mothers plots against him, and went into hiding. Mithridates emerged from hiding, returning to Pontus between 116 BC and 113 BC and was hailed as king and he removed his mother and brother from the throne, imprisoning both, becoming the sole ruler of Pontus.
Laodice VI died in prison, ostensibly of natural causes, Mithridates Chrestus may have died in prison also, or may have been tried for treason and executed. Mithridates first married his younger sister Laodice, aged 16 and his goal was to preserve the purity of their bloodline, solidify his claim to the throne, to co-rule over Pontus, and to ensure the succession to his legitimate children. Mithridates entertained ambitions of making his state the dominant power in the Black Sea and he first subjugated Colchis, a region east of the Black Sea, and prior to 164 BC, an independent kingdom. He clashed for supremacy on the Pontic steppe with the Scythian King Palacus, the young king turned his attention to Anatolia, where Roman power was on the rise. He contrived to partition Paphlagonia and Galatia with King Nicomedes III of Bithynia and it soon became clear to Mithridates that Nicomedes was steering his country into an anti-Pontic alliance with the expanding Roman Republic. When Mithridates fell out with Nicomedes over control of Cappadocia, and defeated him in a series of battles, the next ruler of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, was a figurehead manipulated by the Romans.
Mithridates plotted to overthrow him, but his attempts failed and Nicomedes IV, instigated by his Roman advisors, Rome itself was involved in the Social War, a civil war with its Italian allies. Thus, in all of Roman Asia Province there were two legions present in Macedonia. These legions combined with Nicomedes IVs army to invade Mithridates kingdom of Pontus in 89 BC, however, won a decisive victory, scattering the Roman-led forces. His victorious forces were welcomed throughout Anatolia, the following year,88 BC, Mithridates orchestrated a massacre of Roman and Italian settlers remaining in several Anatolian cities, essentially wiping out the Roman presence in the region. This episode is known as the Asiatic Vespers, the Kingdom of Pontus comprised a mixed population in its Ionian Greek and Anatolian cities
Kyriaki is a village and a community of the Livadeia municipality, Greece. Before the 2011 local government reform Kyriaki was an independent community, the 2011 census recorded 2,298 in the community of Kyriaki and 2,185 in the village proper. The community of Kyriaki covers an area of 130.36 km2, Kyriaki Agios Athanasios Karyoti Tarsos Panagia Kalamiotissa A few farmlands are around the area. The mountains that are filled with grasslands and rocks covers around the area. The Gulf of Corinth is approximately 5 to 6 km southwest, list of settlements in Boeotia Kyriaki on GTP Travel Pages
Parori, formerly Beskeni is a small village located about 27 kilometres north of Livadeia, the capital of Boeotia in Central Greece. Today, Parori is inhabited by only a number of full-time residents. Located east of Davleia at the foot of Parnassus mountain, the village was named Bescheni until 1930, when it was renamed to Parori. The Parori a sample of the architecture of Parnassus area, with its stone houses, narrow cobbled streets, beautiful tiled roofs. It is worth seeing the traditional stone floors for cereals, the name Parori become from two possible scenarios. The first theory posits that it derives from its location at the foot of Mount Parnassus, from 1930 to 1998, the village was a separate community. In 1998 it was integrated into the Municipality of Davleia, and with the 2011 Kallikratis plan, Parori Village in www ΠΑΡΟΡΙ ΒΟΙΩΤΙΑΣ Facebook Account Information to trip here. Soultanis Panagiotis Facebook Account List of settlements in Boeotia
De Flor recruited soldiers left unemployed with the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302 by the Crown of Aragon, who opposed the French dynasty of Anjou. In 1303 de Flor offered the services of his Company to the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus, the Orthodox Byzantine Empire was under threat by the Turks, who were invading Anatolia and established the mighty Sultanate of Rum, whose name expressed succeeding to the Roman empire. Roger de Flors offer was accepted by both Byzantium and by the Crown of Aragon, rulers in Sicily and southern Italy, who were eager to rid themselves of unemployed. Roger de Flor arrived in Constantinople with the help of king Frederick III of Sicily in 1303, and married the niece of Andronicus, daughter of the Tsar of Bulgaria, and was named Megas Doux. Roger de Flor campaigned with his Company in Anatolia, defeating the Turks but engaging in widespread violence, by this point, the Catalans, who had recruited nearly 3000 Turkic horse into their ranks, were considered by the Byzantines to be little better than brigands and freebooters.
The successes had inflated the already arrogant De Flor, leading him to entertain plans of establishing his own dominion in Anatolia and this put him at odds with the Byzantine Emperor, and the indiscipline of the Almogavars marked the end of Roger de Flor. On 30 April 1305, he was slain along with 300 cavalry and 1,000 infantry by the Alans, Roger had been in Adrianopolis attending a banquet offered by Emperor Michael. The emperor attacked Gallipoli attempting to conquer the city from the remnants of the Company under the command of Berenguer dEntença who had arrived with 9 Catalan galleys, the attack was unsuccessful, but it largely decimated the Company. Berenguer dEntença was captured by the Genoese shortly after, and liberated, until recently no Catalans were allowed on the Athos peninsula by the Athonite monks. However, in the past few years and following the payment of reparations by the Catalan government this situation has changed, harassed by the Byzantine army under the general Chandrenos, the Catalans eventually left Macedonia, and in spring 1309 invaded Thessaly.
The Company was an asset in the political arena and Frederick III of Sicily tried to gain control over it. He assigned the Infante Ferdinand of Majorca to Gallipoli to become its Captain, however one of the leaders of the Company, Bernat de Rocafort, opposed this move, and faced Berenguer dEntença, Ferran Ximenis dArenós, and others who had accepted the Infante. The struggle ended with the departure of both the Infante and Ferran, and with Bernat de Rocafort becoming leader of the Company, the administrator, Ramon Muntaner left and wrote a chronicle about exploits of the Company. In 1309, Charles of Valois deputy Thibault de Chepoy ended the leadership of Rocafort, arresting him, the Company avenged itself and killing Brienne in the Battle of Halmyros on 15 March 1311, taking control of the duchy of Athens. Around this time, the Company conquered the city of Thebes, in 1318 the Company expanded its power into Thessaly, taking control of the Duchy of Neopatria. His descendants controlled them until 1456 when they were conquered by the Ottoman Empire, by that time, like many military enterprises, the Great Company had faded out of history.
The early history of the Catalan Company was chronicled by Ramon Muntaner, a History of the Crusades, Volume III — The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,1975, Kenneth M. Catalan Domination of Athens 1311–1380
Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)
The battle was the culmination of Philips campaign in Greece and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians. Philips much expanded kingdom, powerful army and plentiful resources now made him the de facto leader of Greece, in 340 BC Demosthenes convinced the Athenian assembly to sanction action against Philips territories and to ally with Byzantium, which Philip was besieging. These actions were against the terms of their treaty oaths and amounted to a declaration of war. In summer 339 BC, Philip therefore led his army towards South Greece, prompting the formation of an alliance of a few southern Greek states opposed to him, led by Athens and Thebes. After several months of stalemate, Philip finally advanced into Boeotia in an attempt to march on Thebes, opposing him, and blocking the road near Chaeronea, was the allied Greek army, similar in size and occupying a strong position. Details of the battle are scarce, but after a long fight the Macedonians crushed both flanks of the allied line, which dissolved into a rout.
The battle has been described as one of the most decisive of the ancient world, the forces of Athens and Thebes were destroyed, and continued resistance was impossible, the war therefore came to an abrupt end. Philip was able to impose a settlement upon Greece, which all states accepted, the League of Corinth, formed as a result, made all participants allies of Macedon and each other, with Philip as the guarantor of the peace. In turn, Philip was voted as strategos for a war against the Persian Empire. However, before he was able to charge of the campaign, Philip was assassinated. In the decade following his accession in 359 BC, the Macedonian king, Philip II, had strengthened and expanded his kingdom into Thrace. He was aided in this process by the distraction of Athens and Thebes, Philip was not originally a belligerent in the Sacred War, but became involved at the request of the Thessalians. Seeing an opportunity to expand his influence into Greece proper, Philip obliged, in the aftermath, Philip was made archon of Thessaly, which gave him control of the levies and revenues of the Thessalian Confederation, thereby greatly increasing his power.
However, Philip did not intervene further in the Sacred War until 346 BC. Early in that year, the Thebans, who had borne the brunt of the Sacred War, together with the Thessalians, asked Philip to assume the leadership of Greece and join them in fighting the Phocians. By 346 BC, the Athenians were war-weary, unable to match Philips strength, the Athenians had successfully used this tactic to prevent Philip attacking Phocis itself after his victory at Crocus Field. The occupation of Thermopylae was not only for the benefit of Phocis, however, by the end of February, the general Phalaikos was restored to power in Phocis, and he refused to allow the Athenians access to Thermopylae. Suddenly unable to guarantee their own security, the Athenians were forced instead into making peace with Philip and their peace treaty, known as the Peace of Philocrates, made Athens reluctant allies of Macedon
Battle of Chaeronea (86 BC)
The battle ended with a complete rout of the Pontic army and a decisive victory for the Romans. The Pontic numbers present at the battle are varied in estimates ranging from a modest 76,500 up to a total of 120,000. Of these, anywhere between 75,000 and 110,000 are infantry troops while the rest,1,500 to 10,000, are cavalry and chariot troops. Roman numbers are stable at an estimated 30,000 men total, with around 17,000 of these being Romans. One of Mithridates generals, and a force of around 110,000 men and 10,000 cavalry were sent to join up with Archelaus and his forces in the Elatean plains. Delbruck presents both a supposed figure of 120,000 troops and a figure of a more modest 60,000 Asiatics,15,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry. Sullas forces are approximated to have been around 30,000 men, with Baker commenting that of less than 17,000 were Romans. The Roman forces were composed of veteran Roman legions and some cavalry, Sulla advanced his army from Athens and into Boeotia, where he met up with Hortensius, who had advanced southward from Thessaly, at Philoboetus.
Hortensius himself had moved through the mountains with an intent on avoiding an ambush. Baker describes this position as commanding the Elatean plain and the valley of Cephisus, Sulla was determined to dictate the time and place of the battle. Taxiles and his force had to go north through a defile, before turning into the narrower valley. The consequence of this was that once Taxiles and his forces arrived, it impossible for the forces to retreat and instead had to stand. This force was encamped in the valley in a position which allowed the commanders to watch the Roman army, the Pontic forces, encamped in the valley, sent out numerous foraging parties which plundered and burned the countryside. Sulla was unable to defend the region with his far smaller force, the exercise was twofold in intention, first Sulla sought to ensure the discipline of his soldiers and second, he hoped to tire the soldiers out so that they were more willing to battle. When his troops came to him requesting battle, Sulla challenged the men, citing that their new found will to fight was a response to inherent laziness to work, to occupy the hill of Parapotamii.
The men agreed to this task, Archelaus had already marked the position for his own men, finally and one full legion were sent to occupy the town of Chaeronea itself. For Mithridates, Archelaus was in command, Archelaus in response marched forth to occupy a position facing Chaeronea and extended a flanking force to occupy Murenas troops at Thurium. Sulla linked up with Chaeronea and extended the Roman line across the valley, Murenas position was the weakest, possibly untenable, to strengthen the position Gabinius recruited some of the locals to help deal with the danger, a proposition which Sulla approved