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Chaff (countermeasure)

Chaff called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns. Modern armed forces use chaff to distract radar-guided missiles from their targets. Most military aircraft and warships have chaff dispensing systems for self-defense. An intercontinental ballistic missile may release in its midcourse phase several independent warheads as well as penetration aids such as decoy balloons and chaff; the idea of using chaff developed independently in the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan. In 1937, British researcher Gerald Touch, while working with Robert Watson-Watt on radar, suggested that lengths of wire suspended from balloons or parachutes might overwhelm a radar system with false echoes and R. V. Jones had suggested that pieces of metal foil falling through the air might do the same.

In early 1942, a Telecommunications Research Establishment researcher named Joan Curran investigated the idea and came up with a scheme for dumping packets of aluminium strips from aircraft to generate a cloud of false echoes. An early idea was to use sheets the size of a notebook page, it was found that the most effective version was strips of black paper backed with aluminium foil 27 cm × 2 cm and packed into bundles each weighing 1 pound. The head of the TRE, A. P. Rowe, code-named the device "Window". In Germany, similar research had led to the development of Düppel; the German code name came from the estate where the first German tests with chaff took place, circa 1942. Once the British had passed the idea to the US via the Tizard Mission, Fred Whipple developed a system for dispensing strips for the USAAF, but it is not known if this was used; the systems used the same concept of small aluminium strips cut to a half of the target radar's wavelength. When hit by the radar, such lengths of metal re-radiate the signal.

Opposing defences would find it impossible to distinguish the aircraft from the echoes caused by the chaff. Other radar-confusing techniques included airborne jamming devices codenamed Mandrel and Jostle. Ignorance about the extent of knowledge of the principle in the opposing air force led planners to judge that it was too dangerous to use, since the opponent could duplicate it; the British government's leading scientific adviser, Professor Lindemann, pointed out that if the Royal Air Force used it against the Germans, the Luftwaffe would copy it and could launch a new Blitz. This caused concern in RAF Fighter Command and Anti-Aircraft Command, who managed to suppress the use of Window until July 1943, it was felt that the new generation of centimetric radars available to Fighter Command would cope with Luftwaffe retaliation. Examination of the Würzburg radar equipment brought back to the UK during Operation Biting and subsequent reconnaissance revealed to the British that all German radars were operating in no more than three frequency ranges, making them prone to jamming.

"Bomber" Harris, Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command got approval to use Window as part of Operation Gomorrah, the fire raids against Hamburg. The first aircrew trained to use Window were in 76 Squadron. Twenty-four crews were briefed on how to drop the bundles of aluminised-paper strips, one every minute through the flare chute, using a stopwatch to time them; the results proved spectacular. The radar-guided master searchlights wandered aimlessly across the sky; the anti-aircraft guns fired randomly or not at all and the night fighters, their radar displays swamped with false echoes, utterly failed to find the bomber stream. Over a week of attacks, Allied attacks devastated a vast area of Hamburg, resulting in more than 40,000 civilian deaths, with the loss of only 12 out of the 791 bombers on the first night. Squadrons had special chutes fitted to their bombers to make chaff deployment easier. Seeing this as a development that made it safer to go on operations, many crews got in as many trips as they could before the Germans found a counter-countermeasure.

Although the metal strips puzzled the German civilians at first, German scientists knew what they were – Düppel – but had refrained from using it for the same reasons as Lindemann had pointed out to the British. For over a year the curious situation arose where both sides of the conflict knew how to use chaff to jam the other side's radar but had refrained from doing for fear of their opponent replying in kind. Window rendered the ground-controlled Himmelbett fighters of the Kammhuber Line unable to track their targets in the night sky and the early UHF-band versions of the airborne intercept Lichtenstein radar useless, blinding radar-guided guns and spotlights dependent on the ground-based radar. Oberst Hajo Herrmann developed Wilde Sau to cope with the lack of accurate ground guidance and led to the formation of three new fighter wings to use the tactic, numbered JG 300, JG 301 and JG 302. Ground operators would radio-direct single-seat fighters and night fighters to areas where the concentrations of chaff were greatest (which would indicate the source of the

Mount Currie, British Columbia

Mount Currie is a small First Nations, community in British Columbia, 164 kilometres north of Vancouver and 40 kilometres north-east of Whistler along Highway 99. "The Mount Currie settlement and mountain were named after Scottish settler John Currie, who located to Quebec in 1851. After failure as a gold seeker in California and the Cariboo, Currie turned to ranching and settled near Pemberton with his Lillooet Indian wife in 1885." The area is traditional territory of the Lil'wat, a subgroup of the St'at'imc people who with the communities of Skatin, Samahquam and Xa'xtsa to the south comprise the Lower St'at'imc or Lower Lillooet. The Mount Currie Indian Reserve hosts most of the population of Mount Currie, who are known as the Lil'wat, their name for the spot, but west of the reserve there are non-native farms, industrial sites and tourist resorts, on the mountain shoulder north of the reserve is Owl Creek, the site of the original Catholic mission school which drew the Lil'wat from their former homebase at Pemberton Meadows so as to be close to their children.

Owl Creek today is the name of a modern subdivision of non-natives, though Owl Creek remains on the rail crossing on the CNR just outside the reserve. Mount Currie has a total population of about 2018, it is the main centre of the Mount Currie Indian reserve, with a population of close to 800. Residents not inside the reserve are locally governed by the Squamish-Lillooet Regional District. Although it is close to Whistler, the community is not much reliant on the tourist industry. Most tourist industry in Mount Currie comes from outdoor activities in the nearby Joffre Lakes Provincial Park, the Birkenhead River or the Skookumchuck Hot Springs; the Lil ` wat Nation operate gas station and grocery store. Their government is the Mount Currie Indian Band of the Lillooet Tribal Council; the Lil'wat people are active in reviving their language and culture. Language is taught in the school, right from nursery to grade 12. There are resource elders; the "Clao7alcw" language nest program is conducted in the Lil’wat dialect."

St'at'imc Lil'wat In-SHUCK-ch Pemberton, British Columbia Lillooet Lake Pemberton Valley

The Special Duty Combat Unit Shinesman

The Special Duty Combat Unit Shinesman is a Japanese anime OVA of two episodes. It was released in Japan on February 21, 1996, it is based on the Manga comic art of Kaimu Tachibana and Hideki Sonoda, directed by Shinya Sadamitsu. The character designer was Akiharu Ishii; the video was produced by Gakken and Movic. The film has been dubbed into English by Media Blasters, released on both Region 1 and 2 DVD; the Special Duty Combat Unit Shinesman video is a parody of the famous Super Sentai series of Tokusatsu programs. The king of the alien planet, "Voice", has declared war against Earth. However, the war takes a peculiar form; the king's plan is to send Prince Sasaki and his strategist, Seki, to Earth, in order to form a corporation, large enough to rule Earth. The corporation would control its marketing. Earth, has The Special Duty Combat Unit Shinesman, a team of heroes ready to fight back; the opposing corporation, the "Right Trading Company" has created the Shinesman team along the lines of the superhero television programs of their day.

The team of heroes includes: Shinesman Red, Shinesman Sepia, Shinesman Moss Green, Shinesman Salmon Pink, Shinesman Gray. The heroes use weapons such as "Business Card Cutters" and "Tie Clip Bombs" to fight the aliens; the characters were created with particular well known Japanese actors in mind to voice them, both and if a series was filmed. Moreover, the characters were given names to represent these actors. Matsumoto is a young man devoted to Yota. Yota is a fan of the "Greatman" TV show the character, Greatman Red. Matsumoto joins the Right Trading Company, he is shocked to learn he must wear a superhero costume, called a "pro-suit", himself. During his job interview, Kyoko Sakakibara asks. Matsumoto remembers Yota's preference for Greatman Red, chooses "red"; as a curiosity, he shares his name with a real-life actor, a Super Sentai alumnus, having played Tsubasa Ozu/Magi Yellow in Mahou Sentai Magiranger and Masato Jin/Beet Buster in Tokumei Sentai Go-Busters. Voiced by: Yasunori Matsumoto.

He helps Matsumoto to learn the ways of the Right Trading Company. Voiced by: Shō Hayami, he becomes anxious if someone else is working on it. He believes his color, represents regal manliness. Voiced by: Kōichi Yamadera, he loves Tamari. He buys her a fish soft toy, he is unimpressed by the team's weapons. Voiced by: Kenichi Ono. Although she is an office girl she objects to being sent to get cigarettes or coffee, she tends to accidentally break things by crushing them. Voiced by: Noriko Hidaka, she is the team's deputy leader. She fantasizes about being a Shinesman herself one day, she dislikes the color of four of the team. Her assistant is Shi Nakamura. Voiced by: Yoshiko Sakakibara, she came to Earth in search of her brother. Only Sakakibara knows her secret. Voiced by: Hiroko Kasahara. Despite his leading role, Sasaki is angry at having to pose as a corporate employee, he is unhappy to be working with his cousin, Shiina. Voiced by: Nozomu Sasaki, they are from Voice. Seki once opposed Voice's invasion of Earth.

He now joins Sasaki's mission. He has forgotten his sister, so when Seki meets Hitomi/Lafure, he assumes that she is a spy; this particular plot point has not been resolved. Voiced by: Toshihiko Seki, she never shows any bare skin to men as she states, she would have to ` kill' them. Sakaki is annoyed. Shiina starts to oppose Voice's invasion of Earth. Shiina appears only as an anime character. However, she is drawn in manga form for the accompanying drama CD. Voiced by: Hekiru Shiina. Despite its short length, it has a fan base for the dubbed version; some appreciated the comedy elements of the program, others less so. Shinesman at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Tokuma sentai Shinesman on IMDb "Ming-Ling." Accessed 8 December 2013. "Special Duty Combat Unit Shinesman." Production I. G. official website. Accessed 8 December 2013

Collège des Frères Maristes Champville

The Collège des Frères Maristes Champville is a private French-language, Marist Catholic educational institution set in Dik El Mehdi, Lebanon, which teaches all scholar levels. It is one of the educational institutions in Lebanon, one of the remaining two Marist educational institutions in the country, the other one being Collège des Frères Maristes Jbeil - Amchit known as Collège Notre Dame de Lourdes; the school known as Champville took its name from Saint Marcellin Champagnat, founder of the Marist brothers, it means La Ville de Champagnat, or The City of Champagnat. The Collège des Frères Maristes Champville is a private, Christian institution which declares its role to be to "serve Lebanon's youth within its rules and following the priorities set within its Educational Project"; the College is directed by the Marist brothers with the help of an educative team. The College was founded in 1966 in continuation of the Collège du Sacré-Cœur located in Jounieh and founded in 1903, it lies upon a green hill in Northern Metn, Lebanon over about 22 hectares of surface.

It now holds around 3000 students. The College teaches fifteen scholar years, divided into eight couples; these eight are, in order: Nursery Benjamins Minimal Junior Sophomore Seniors Secondary Terminal The school averages in official exams, enjoys a high standing among the Lebanese schools As one of the leading educational institutions in Lebanon, the College prepares its students to two baccalaureates, the students can opt to take the Lebanese certificate only or both. The School provides a bilingual teaching of French languages since they start. In the fourth grade, the College provides English language courses. From another perspective, the College gives scientific subjects the utmost importance and teaches Math and Sciences in preparatory classes Math and Physics - Chemistry in secondary classes; the three forms of baccalaureate a Collège des Frères Maristes Champville student can get are General Sciences, Life Sciences and Social and Economic Sciences. There is no Linguistic baccalaureate formation within the College, why some people say that it is a purely scientific school.

In parallel, the College provides DIY courses for students between the eighth grades. The timetables of Maternelles and Benjamins spans over thirty weekly classes of fifty minutes' length each; the timetables of all other classes, except Double-Baccalaureated classes in Second Secondary and in Senior level, span over thirty-five weekly classes of fifty minutes' length each. A particularity of this College in its recesses is that after each fifty-minute class, the students get a ten minutes' break, but for the third and fifth fifty-minute classes. After the third class, they get a fifteen-minute break. Double-Baccalaureated classes get four additional classes, on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons, in order to be able to satisfy the required learning for their two official exams. A usual day at the College ends at 03:00 pm for usual classes. Maternelles and Benjamins start at 07:40 am as well, but leave at 02:30 pm, they have breakfast served at school; the College provides five options for extra-curricular activities: Sports, Cultural activities, Scouting, MEJ, GVX.

The Sports department of Champville organizes inter-grade tournaments in football and more ball games. It has the concept of Afternoon Athletism, which means that the sportsmen and sportswomen of the student body are able to train professionally with coaches after school. For the cultural angle, the school welcomes all types of people to activities such as ballet, painting, tae-kwon-do, other such activities, on Saturdays, between 9:00 am and 12:00 pm; every year, the Activities' members present a show in which they display what they have learnt during said year. To aid the formation of any young member of the society, the College provides three choices in Movements, which are optional to all students and to anyone not in Champville; these are Scouting, MEJ, Groupe Champagnat. All of them meet on Saturdays between 4:30 pm. Besides those two movements, the scouts are the biggest community in the college, they work on the youth personality, organize big fundraising events, use those funds in the service of the society


In physics and chemistry, effusion is the process in which a gas escapes from a container through a hole of diameter smaller than the mean free path of the molecules. Such a hole is described as a pinhole and the escape of the gas is due to the pressure difference between the container and the exterior. Under these conditions all molecules which arrive at the hole continue and pass through the hole, since collisions between molecules in the region of the hole are negligible. Conversely, when the diameter is larger than the mean free path of the gas, flow obeys the Sampson flow law. In medical terminology, an effusion refers to accumulation of fluid in an anatomic space without loculation. Specific examples include subdural, mastoid and pleural effusions. Effusion from an equilibrated container into outside vacuum can be calculated based on kinetic theory; the number of atomic or molecular collisions with a wall of a container per unit area per unit time is given by: J impingement = P 2 π m k B T If a small area A on the container is punched to become a small hole, the effusive flow rate will be: Q effusion = J impingement × A = P A 2 π m k B T = P A N A 2 π M R T ∝ 1 M Where M is the molar mass.

Note that the outside vacuum has zero pressure, hence P is the pressure difference between two sides of the hole. The average velocity of effused particles is: v x ¯ = v y ¯ = 0 v z ¯ = π k B T 2 m Combined with the effusive flow rate, the recoil/thrust force on the system itself is: F = m v z ¯ × Q effusion = P A 2 An example is the recoil force on a balloon with a small punched hole flying in vacuum. By the kinetic theory of gases, the kinetic energy for a gas at a temperature T, 1 2 m v r m s 2 = 3 2 k B T where m is the mass of one molecule, v r m s is the root-mean-square speed of the molecules and k B is the Boltzmann constant; the average molecular speed can be calculated from the Maxwell speed distribution as v a v g = 8 / 3 π v r m s ≈ 0.921 v r m s. The rate at which a gas of molar mass M effuses is R a t e = Δ P A N A 2 π M R T,Here ΔP is the gas pressure difference across the barrier, A is the area of the hole, NA is Avogadro's number, R is the gas constant and T is the absolute temperature.

Assuming the pressure difference between the two side

Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Limited

The Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation Limited or KSCDC is a model employer in the field of cashew industry to protect the interest of workers and to provide maximum employment to its workers and to give statutory benefits like minimum wages, etc. prevailing in the cashew industry. It is headquartered in Kollam city, called "Cashew Capital of the World"; the head office is situated at Mundakkal in Kollam City, Kerala. KSCDC was incorporated in July 1969 and started Commercial activities in the year 1971 as a company owned by the Government of Kerala. Corporation has now more than a turn over of Rs. 2.50 billion. A Central Export Promotion Council for Cashew, Cashew Export Promotion Council of India is situated at Kollam city; the industry provides livelihood for about 6–700,000 of employees and farmers, the cashew industry has national importance. In Kollam district alone there are more than 250,000 employees directly involved in the industry, which comes about 10 per cent of the population of the district, out of which 95 per cent are women workers.

Kollam is famous for its traditional Cashew business. More than 600 Cashew Processing Units are there in Kollam. About 800,000 tonnes of raw cashews are imported to Kollam for processing every year. An average of 130,000 tonnes of processed cashews are exported from Kollam to various countries like United States, UAE, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Singapore, Greece, Kuwait, Turkey, Canada, Russia, Norway and Hong Kong every year; that is. CEPCI is expecting a rise in export, i.e. 275,000 tonnes by 2020, a growth of 120 per cent over the present exports. To increase the production of indigenous raw nuts, Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation has started Cashew plantations in the State. Corporation has introduced four value added cashew products in the market, they are signing consignments for more than 6,000 tonnes of raw cashew nut from Guinea-Bissau etc. They are running more than 30 Cashew Processing Factories in Kerala state. Government of Kerala has chartered a vessel between Vallarpadam Terminal and Kollam Port by signing into an agreement with Indian Rare Earths Limited, Kerala State Cashew Development Corporation, Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd and various other cashew importers and business giants based out of Kollam city for moving their cargo