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Chaffee County, Colorado

Chaffee County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,809; the county seat is Salida. Chaffee County has a confusing origin. Between February 8 and February 10, 1879, Carbonate County was created by the Colorado legislature out of northern Lake County. On February 10 the two counties were renamed, with the southern part of Lake County becoming Chaffee County, Carbonate County becoming Lake County. Chaffee County is known as the “Heart of the Rockies”, it was named for Jerome B. Chaffee, Colorado's first United States Senator. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,015 square miles, of which 1,013 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Browns Canyon National Monument Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Collegiate Peaks Wilderness San Isabel National Forest Arkansas Headwaters Recreation Area American Discovery Trail Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Western Express Bicycle Route Lake County - north Park County - northeast Fremont County - southeast Saguache County - south Gunnison County - west Pitkin County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 16,242 people, 6,584 households, 4,365 families living in the county.

The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 8,392 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.94% White, 1.58% Black or African American, 1.09% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.21% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. 8.58 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 6,584 households out of which 25.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.70% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.60 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,368, the median income for a family was $42,043. Males had a median income of $30,770 versus $22,219 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,430. About 7.40% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Chaffee County is home to a source of water that Arrowhead water uses for some water bottles; the source is Ruby Mountain Springs. Salida Buena Vista Poncha Springs Garfield Johnson Village Maysville Smeltertown St. Elmo Vicksburg Winfield Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Chaffee County, Colorado Cultural and Archeological Resources Chaffee County Clerk of Court Chaffee County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Geologic Map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5ʹ Quadrangle and Chaffee Counties, Colorado United States Geological Survey

The Catwalk

"The Catwalk" is the thirty-eighth episode of the television series Star Trek: Enterprise. The entire crew is forced to find refuge inside one of the starship's warp nacelles to survive a radiation storm that the Enterprise encounters; this episode aired on December 18, 2002. In this science fiction story, a starship takes on some passengers and encounters a space storm, that necessitates them taking refuge in a cramped tube-like section of ship. However, as the time passes tensions rise and the motives of the passengers they took on are questioned by their behavior. Captain Archer prepares to lead a survey team to an uninhabited planet, when Enterprise is hailed by a trio of aliens, who warn him that a deadly neutronic wavefront, many light years across, is approaching at a speed close to warp 7. Since his warp 5 ship cannot outrun the storm, Archer soon concludes that everyone must take shelter in order to survive the storm's radiation. Commander Tucker suggests that the one shielded place on board that might suffice for the eight-day ordeal is the catwalk, a maintenance shaft that runs the length of each nacelle.

Only one problem – the temperature there can reach 300 °C degrees when the warp coils are online, so he will have to keep the main reactor offline. With only four hours to prepare, everyone evacuates to the catwalk; the storm soon envelops the ship, as the days wear on, nerves fray – with the alien guests, who start up a barbecue near a flammable conduit. To make matters worse and Archer discover a problem in Engineering as the injectors have come online. Tucker cannot shut them down from the catwalk, his EV suit will only protect him for 22 minutes. In Engineering, he soon notices an alien ship docked alongside, alien intruders, who appear to be interfering with the ship's systems. Doctor Phlox deduces that the aliens are immune to the effects of radiation; when confronted, the trio confesses that the other aliens are looking for them. They explain that they were officers in the Takret Militia, but they deserted when they learned that the commanding officers were corrupt. To defend the ship, Sub-Commander T'Pol, Lieutenant Reed suit up, while T'Pol and Reed work to shut down the warp reactor, Archer hails the alien leader, pretending to be the sole surviving crewmember from the effects of the storm.

He demands they leave, playing a game of chicken with the intruders, orders Ensign Mayweather to head straight for a plasma eddy. As T'Pol and Reed succeed in shutting the reactor down, the intruders abandon ship. Soon after, as they clear the storm, the original alien visitors apologize for all the trouble they have caused, depart; the first home media release of "The Catwalk" was as part of the season two DVD box set, released in the United States on July 26, 2005. A release on Blu-ray Disc for season two occurred on August 20, 2013. In a 2013 review of the season 2 Blu-ray box-set, The Morton Report felt this was one of the standout episodes of the season. In 2014, The A. V. Club noted this episode as one of ten of this series. In 2016, Vox rated this one of the top 25 essential episodes of all Star Trek, they remark "The Catwalk" is a fun look at the rough-and-tumble early days of Starfleet." "The Catwalk" on IMDb "The Catwalk" at "The Catwalk" at Memory Alpha "The Catwalk" at

Chrysanthemum morifolium

Chrysanthemum × morifolium is a species of perennial plant from family Asteraceae. In China, they have been around since 500 BC. Evidence. In 1630, more than 500 varieties were mentioned there. In Europe in Holland, they have been known since the mid-17th century, but their general dissemination took place only in the 19th century. Chrysanthemum was first appreciated in China as a medicinal plant, it is classified in the oldest Chinese medical material, Shennong Bencao Jing, in the category of superior drugs and is part of the products related to the search for immortality. "In prolonged use, it lifts the inhibition of blood and qi, alleviates the body, slows down ageing, prolongs life" says the classic. "Lightening the body" was a goal to reach the ethereal state of Immortals able to fly and "ride the clouds". From Jin and Tang dynasties, chrysanthemum began to be appreciated as an ornamental plant, while continuing to be used for dietary reasons; the first monograph on chrysanthemums was published in 1104 AD.

The author, Liu Mengquan 泉 蒙 泉 classifies the chrysanthemums according to their colors: the normal ones are yellow come the whites, the purples and the reds. It lists a total of 35 cultivated varieties that could be observed in the gardens near the Buddhist shrines of Longmen Grottoes. In the 1th century, the famous physician and herbalist Li Shizhen 李时珍 in his Great Treaty of Medical Matter, reports a hundred cultivars, he attributes to them some medicinal properties such as "eliminating heat and toxins", "improving visual acuity" and so on. In 1630, a survey of over 500 cultivars 17 and about 2000 at the beginning of 20th century; the first European author to mention chrysanthemum is Jacobus Breynius in 1689 in his Prodromus Plantarum Rariorum. This merchant and botanist Danzig describes as the Matricaria japonica maxima, as a elegant flowering plant, pink or light red 20 and existing in several varieties; the first botanical description of the florists' chrysanthemum goes to Thomas d'Audibert de Ramatuelle.

In 1792, in the Journal of Natural History, this botanist describes the cultivated plant, with big purpurine flowers, brought back from China by the navigator Marseillais Blancard, under the names of "Camomile with large flowers", Anthemis grandiflora. He insists on distinguishing it from the Chrysanthemum indicum of Linnaeus with small yellow heads, he proposes in a note to call it Chrysanthemum morifolium. From this first cultivated plant brought back from China in 1789 by Blancard from those brought back will be created in Europe thousands of cultivars and hybrids. Joined thousands of cultivars developed independently in China and Japan, there is a huge complex cultivars. Author Wilhelm Miller writes, "The common chrysanthemums of the florists are called'large-flowering' and'autumn chrysanthemums,' to distinguish them from the hardy outdoor species, they are the blended product of C. indicum and C. morifolium, two species of plants that grow wild in China and Japan. The outdoor or hardy chrysanthemums are derived from the same species, being less developed forms.

The florist's chrysanthemum is not a glasshouse subject."The more than 1,000 varieties that have existed in Europe since the 19th century are divided into numerous varieties. The indicum hybrids as the oldest group have the chrysanthemum chrysanthemum as the parent; the plant is 30–90 centimetres high and wide, which grows as a perennial herbaceous or woody plant on the ground. The stems stand upright; the leaves are broad ovate in outline and wedge-shaped in the petiole, the length of the leaves is more than 6 inches. The lower leaves are plumed, further up the stems they are entire. Deciduous leaves appear in the spring, they are lobed pinnatifid and toothed. They are up to 12 cm long and covered with gray hairs, they exhale a strong smell. The plant's texture is leathery; the many branches, which are silky and covered with a short down, form a dense tuft. The typical flower heads are radiated, to say formed of peripheral florets, zygomorphous, with ligules and central florets actinomorphous, bisexual.

The external bracts are herbaceous, with a narrow scariety margin. In complex total inflorescences are some to many cup-shaped partial inflorescences together; the tongue flowers can have in the many varieties of colors of green, white, or yellow, pink to purple. There are varieties with simple flowers that look like daisies and varieties with double flowers, looking like pompoms more or less big; the plant starts to bloom. To note, during the millennia and a half of cultivation, tens of thousands of different cultivars have been obtained, with flower heads of different shapes and colors, it is by looking at the leaves that one can know that it is a chrysanthemum. This plant can be noted for its popularity as an indoor houseplant in part because of its air cleaning qualities as per a study done by NASA, removing trichloroethylene, formaldehyde and other chemicals from the air. In general, the plant is best fertilized once a month and watered two to three times a week depending on climate. In terms of stems produced per year in 1997, Japan was by far the largest producer with 2 billion stalks, followed by the Netherlands, Italy.

C. × morifolium is hardy to USDA zones 5–9. In natural medicine the "flower" is used against impure skin, it a

2002 South Dakota gubernatorial election

The 2002 South Dakota gubernatorial election took place on November 2, 2002 to elect a Governor of South Dakota. Republican nominee Mike Rounds was elected. Jim Abbott, President of the University of South Dakota, former South Dakota State Representative Ron J. Volesky, South Dakota State Senator Jim Hutmacher, South Dakota State Senator Robert Hockett Mike Rounds, former South Dakota State Senator Mark Barnett, Attorney General of South Dakota Steve T. Kirby, former Lieutenant Governor of South Dakota Rounds' victory was one of South Dakota's greatest political upsets; until late in 2001, then-Congressman John Thune was the front-runner for the nomination. When Thune passed on the race in order to challenge Senator Tim Johnson, state Attorney General Mark Barnett and former Lieutenant Governor Steve T. Kirby became candidates. Rounds declared his candidacy late, in December 2001 and was out-raised and outspent ten-to-one by each of his opponents. However, the contest between Kirby and Barnett soon became negative and "dirty".

Barnett attacked Kirby for not investing in companies based in South Dakota and for his involvement with Collagenesis, a company which removed skin from donated human cadavers and processed them for use. It became the subject of a massive scandal when it was revealed that the company was using the skins for much more lucrative cosmetic surgery like lip and penis enhancements while burn victims "lie waiting in hospitals as nurses scour the country for skin to cover their wounds though skin is in plentiful supply for plastic surgeons". Kirby invested in the company after the scandal broke and Barnett attacked him for it in television advertisements. However, the advertisements backfired because "the claims were so outlandish, that people thought for sure that they were exaggerated or fabricated."As the two front-runners concentrated on attacking each other, Rounds insisted on running a positive campaign and was not attacked by his opponents. Rounds' positive image and extensive knowledge of state government won him many supporters who were alienated by the front-runners.

On the day of the primary election, Rounds won a stunning victory, with 44.3% of the vote to Barnett's 29.5% and Kirby's 26.1%


Agathias or Agathias Scholasticus, of Myrina, an Aeolian city in western Asia Minor, was a Greek poet and the principal historian of part of the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian I between 552 and 558. Agathias was a native of Myrina, his father was Memnonius. His mother was Pericleia. A brother of Agathias is mentioned in primary sources, their probable sister Eugenia is known by name. The Suda clarifies that Agathias was active in the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian I, mentioning him as a contemporary of Paul the Silentiary, Macedonius of Thessalonica and Tribonian. Agathias mentions being present in Alexandria as a law student at the time when an earthquake destroyed Berytus; the law school of Berytus had been recognized as one of the three official law schools of the empire. Within a few years, as the result of the disastrous earthquake of 551, the students were transferred to Sidon; the dating of the event to 551: as a law student, Agathias could be in his early twenties, which would place his birth to c.

530. He mentions leaving Alexandria for Constantinople shortly following the earthquake. Agathias visited the island of Kos, where "he witnessed the devastation caused by the earthquake". At the fourth year of his legal studies and fellow students Aemilianus and Rufinus are mentioned making a joint offering to Michael the Archangel at Sosthenium, where they prayed for a "prosperous future", he returned to Constantinople in 554 to finish his training, practised as an advocatus in the courts. John of Epiphania reports. Evagrius Scholasticus and Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos describe Agathias as a rhetor; the Suda and a passage of John of Nikiû call him "Agathias the scholastic". He is known to have served as pater civitatis of Smyrna, he is credited with constructing public latrines for the city. While Agathias mentions these buildings, he fails to mention his own role in constructing them. Myrina is known to have erected statues to honor Agathias, his father Memnonius, Agathias' unnamed brother.

He seems to have been known to his contemporaries more as a poet. There are few mentions of Agathias as a historian. Few details survive of his personal life – in his extant poems. One of them tells the story of his pet cat eating his partridge. Another responds to his seeing the tomb of the courtesan Lais of Corinth, implying a visit to that city, which he refers to using the poetic name Ephyra. No full account of his life survives. Literature, was Agathias' favorite pursuit, he remains best known as a poet. Of his Daphniaca, a collection of short poems in hexameter on'love and romance' in nine books, only the introduction has survived, but he composed over a hundred epigrams, which he published together with epigrams by friends and contemporaries in a Cycle of New Epigrams or Cycle of Agathias early in the reign of emperor Justin II. This work survives in the Greek Anthology—the edition by Maximus Planudes preserves examples not found elsewhere. Agathias's poems exhibit considerable elegance, he wrote marginal notes on the Description of Greece of Pausanias.

Valued are Agathias's Histories, which he started in the reign of Justin II. He explains his own motivation in writing it, as being unwilling to let "the momentous events of his own times" go unrecorded, he credits his friends with encouraging him to start this endeavor one Eutychianus. This work in five books, On the Reign of Justinian, continues the history of Procopius, whose style it imitates, is the chief authority for the period 552–558, it deals chiefly with the struggles of the Imperial army, under the command of general Narses, against the Goths, Vandals and Persians. The work seems incomplete. Passages of his history indicate that Agathias had planned to cover both the final years of Justin II and the fall of the Huns but the work in its known form includes neither. Menander Protector implies; the latest event mentioned in the Histories is the death of the Persian king Khosrau I. The emperor Maurice is never mentioned, suggesting that Agathias was dead by 582. Menander Protector continued the history of Agathias, covering the period from 558 to 582.

Evagrius Scholasticus alludes to Agathias' work, but he doesn't seem to have had access to the full History. "His pages abound in philosophic reflection. He is able and reliable, though he gathered his information from eye- witnesses, not, as Procopius, in the exercise of high military and political offices, he delights in depicting the manners and religion of the foreign peoples of whom he writes. Many of his facts are not to be found elsewhere, he has always been looked on as a valuable authority for the period he describes." —Catholic Encyclopedia. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, "The author prides himself on his honesty and impartiality, but he is lacking in judgment and knowledge of facts. Britannica noted that Edward Gibbon contrasted Agathias as "a po

Pauline Dohn Rudolph

Pauline Dohn Rudolph was an American painter. She was a founder of the Chicago Palette Club. Dohn was born in Chicago in 1865, she studied art at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts and at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia where she studied with Thomas Eakins and Thomas Anschutz. This was followed by a move to Paris where she enrolled in the Académie Julian and studied with Boulanger and Lefebvre. Returning to Chicago she founded and exhibited at the Palette Club before accepting a teaching position at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Dohn exhibited at least four works at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago—the mural Industrial Arts for the Reception Room of the Illinois State Building, paintings in the Palace of Fine Arts and The Woman's Building. Dohn married Franklin Rudolph in 1901, with, she moved to California in 1933, where she died on June 19, 1934. List of American painters exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition Media related to Pauline Dohn Rudolph at Wikimedia Commons