Presidential Administration of Russia
Other staff is appointed by the chief of the presidential administration. On 25 March 2004, Vladimir Putin undertook a reorganisation of this institution by a decree. Only two deputy chiefs remained out of seven, the Territorial Directorate was included in the Domestic policy Directorate. The Economic Directorate was abolished, the Civil Service Directorate was created, the Presidential Administration of Russia is situated in Moscow where it holds offices in several buildings of Kitay-gorod and inside the Kremlin. They are not the constituent units of Russia, each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Law enforcement in Russia
Law enforcement in the Russian Federation is the responsibility of a variety of different agencies. Ministry of Internal Affairs, The Police of Russia provide public security functions, formerly the militsiya The Investigative Committee of Russia is an investigative body, sometimes described as the Russian FBI. The Federal Border Guard Service is subordinate to the FSB and responsible for protection, surveillance. Ministry of Defence Russian Military Police provides the police function for all Russian armed forces. President of Russia ** The National Guard provide a function, supporting the Politsiya and dealing with large-scale riots. They provide security for highly-important facilities, the Federal Protective Service of Russia is responsible for the protection of Russian state property and high-ranking government personnel, including the President of Russia. Presidential Security Service - concerned with the related to the protection of the President of Russia. The corrective colony is the most common, with 760 institutions in 2004 across the administrative divisions of Russia.
There were 8 prisons,62 juvenile facilities, and 192 pre-trial facilities in 2004, Russian Intelligence Community Crime in Russia Polizia, an equivalent law enforcement agency in Italy
Constitutional Court of Russia
Before the 1980s in the USSR the importance of judicial supervision over compatibility of legislation and executive actions with the provisions and principles of the constitution was not recognized. It was not until December 25,1989 when Constitutional Control in the USSR Act was passed, the Constitutional Supervision Committee was created. It started functioning mid-1990 and was dissolved towards the end of 1991, in December 1990 the Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was amended with provisions which provided for creation of Constitutional Court. On July 12,1991 Constitutional Court of the RSFSR Act was adopted, in October the Fifth Congress of Peoples Deputies of the Russian SFSR has elected 13 members of the Court and the Constitutional Court de facto started functioning. From November 1991 till October 1993 it rendered some decisions of great significance, for example, it declared unconstitutional certain decrees of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which were adopted ultra vires, and forbade the practice of extrajudicial eviction.
On October 7,1993 Boris Yeltsins decree suspended work of the Constitutional Court, according to the decree, the Constitutional Court was in deep crisis. On December 24 another presidential decree repealed the Constitutional Court of the RSFSR Act itself, in July 1994 the new Constitutional Court Act was adopted. However, the new Constitutional Court started working only in February 1995, in 2005 the federal authorities proposed to transfer the court from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. The Constitutional Court forced Kononov to step down from the Constitutional Court on January 1,2010,7 years ahead of schedule, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation consists of 19 judges, one being the Chairman and another one being Deputy Chairman. The judges are nominated by the President and appointed by the Federation Council for 12 years, the Constitutional Court consists of two chambers with 10 and 9 judges respectively. The Chairman presides over one of the chambers, the Deputy Chairman presides over the other chamber, Constitutional Court may by its discretion submit to plenary sessions any other issue.
Certain powers of the Constitutional Court are enumerated in the Constitution of Russia, the Constitutional Court declares laws and governmental decrees and laws of federal subjects unconstitutional if it finds that they are contrary to the Constitution. In such instances, that particular law becomes unenforceable, and governmental agencies are barred from implementing it, before an international treaty is ratified by the State Duma, the constitutionality of the treaty may be observed by the Constitutional Court. Another power of the Constitutional Court is to resolve disputes concerning competence of governmental agencies, whenever the President of Russia is impeached, the Constitutional Court renders a resolution concerning complying with the due order of indictment. The Constitutional Court deals with either in chambers or in plenary sessions. All judges must be present unless he or she is sick or may have interest in the case, apart from judges and his representatives governmental agencies involved are present.
In order for resolution or decision to pass two-thirds of judges must be in favor of it
Constitution of Russia
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by national referendum on December 12,1993. Russias constitution came into force on December 25,1993, at the moment of its official publication, the current Constitution is the most long-lived in the history of Russia, except for Stalins constitution. The 1993 Constitutional Conference was attended by over 800 participants, sergei Alexeyev, Sergey Shakhray and sometimes Anatoly Sobchak are considered as co-authors of the constitution. The text of the constitution was inspired by Mikhail Speranskys constitutional project, a constitutional referendum was held in Russia on 12 December 1993. Of all registered voters,58,187,755 people participated in the referendum, of those,32,937,630 voted for adoption of the Constitution. It replaced the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12,1978 of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the constitution is divided into two sections
Prime Minister of Russia
The official residence of the prime minister is Gorki-9 in Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, but his working residence is in Moscow. Under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law On the Government of the Russian Federation, the Russian Prime Minister is considered the second highest position in the government, after the President. Due to the role of the President of Russia in the political system. The use of the term Prime Minister is strictly informal and is never used by the Russian Constitution, Federal Laws, the current prime minister is Dmitry Medvedev of United Russia, who was appointed on May 8,2012. Since the office evolved rather than being created, it may not be totally clear-cut who was the first Prime Minister. However, these bodies had been only Advisory functions, and had no independence, the office of Chairman of those bodies were more decorative and do not bear any responsibility, simultaneously the position of Chairman could hold several people. For example, from 1726 to 1727, the government headed by six people simultaneously, Alexander Menshikov, Fyodor Apraksin, Gavriil Golovkin, Andrey Osterman, Dmitry Golitsyn and Pyotr Tolstoy.
From 1905 to 1917, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the modern post of Prime Minister appeared in 1905, after the transformation of the Committee of Ministers to the Council of Ministers. 6 November 1905, Sergei Witte was appointed the first Prime Minister of Russia, the position of Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire, lasted 12 years, during this time,7 people took this post. The position was abolished after the Russian revolution, the abdication of Nicholas II from the throne, during the Russian Provisional Government in 1917, the official title of the prime minister was Minister-Chairman of the Russian Provisional Government. This position was held by two people, Georgy Lvov and Alexander Kerensky. The position lasted about six months, and after the October Revolution, was replaced by Chairman of the Council of peoples Commissars of the Russian SFSR. In the era of the Soviet Union, the head of government was the Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars, people who held those positions are sometimes referred to as the prime ministers.
They may have referred to as Premier of Ministers. Currently, the title is the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation. After the election of Boris Yeltsin, President of Russia, the head of the government was personally Yeltsin and he headed the Russian SFSR Council of Ministers about six months. In fact, Yeltsin was the first Head of Government of Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, after Yeltsin, Acting Prime Minister became Yegor Gaidar, but the Russian Supreme Soviet refused to approve him as Prime Minister. 14 December 1992, the Prime Minister was appointed Viktor Chernomyrdin, in general, the Prime Minister serves more of an administrative role, nominating members of the Cabinet and implementing domestic policy
Judiciary of Russia
The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia. It is defined under the Constitution and law with a structure with the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court. The district courts are the criminal trial courts, and the regional courts are the primary appellate courts. And although there are officers of the court, including jurors. The judiciary faces many problems and a lack of confidence but has made much progress in recent times. Russia has a court system, with constitutional, ordinary. The Constitutional Court of Russia is considered a separate, independent court, the district courts are the primary criminal trial courts, and the regional courts are the primary appellate courts.5 million civil cases. It is composed of 19 judges, and may sit in plenary sessions but is divided into 2 chambers. The Constitutional Court consists of two chambers with 10 and 9 judges respectively, the Chairman presides over one of the chambers, the Deputy Chairman presides over the other chamber. The Constitutional Court may submit to the plenary session any other issue at its discretion and it hears complains by citizens of allegations of constitutional rights violations.
The Supreme Court of Russia is the highest court, and supervises inferior courts of general jurisdiction, there are 115 members of the Supreme Court. The Presidium of the Russian Supreme Court represents Russias final court of appeal, the Presidium consists of thirteen judges, the Chairman of the Supreme Court, its first deputy chairman, its six deputy chairmen and five other Supreme Court judges. Only the Prosecutor General has the right to appeal to the Presidium, only 0. 4% of criminal cases in 1998 ended with an acquittal in the Presidium. There are several attached to the Supreme Court. The members of the Academic Consultative Council are elected at plenary sessions of the Supreme Court, the Judicial Department is responsible for administration of the courts. Regional courts are the courts at the level, though are not all named as such. The courts sit as both courts of first instance and appellate courts, as courts of first instance, they hear more complex civil cases and serious criminal cases. A judge and a jury, or alternatively 3 judges, hear these cases, as appellate courts, they hear decisions of district courts that have not yet entered into force, and consist of 3 judges
President of Russia
The President of the Russian Federation is the elected head of state, Supreme Commander-in-Chief and holder of the highest office within the Russian Federation. The current President of Russia is Vladimir Putin, in 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch, according to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, the Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the house of parliament becomes acting head of state. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves.
The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation, the president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a consecutive term. In all,3 individuals have served 4 presidencies spanning 6 full terms, on May 7,2012, Vladimir Putin became the 4th and current president. A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation who is at least 35 years old and has resided in Russia for at least 10 years. The Constitution of Russia limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms, since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term. The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law, the Federation Council calls the presidential elections. If it does not call an election that is due. The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole.
Each faction in the State Duma, the house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000. Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedevs administration, the President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation. If no candidate wins by an majority in the first round
Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko, is a Russian politician who was Governor of Saint Petersburg from 2003 to 2011, and has served as Chairman of the Federation Council since 2011. Matviyenko was considered, until recent years, to be the highest-ranking female politician in Russia, born in Ukraine, Matviyenko started her political career in the 1980s in Leningrad, and was the First Secretary of the Krasnogvardeysky District Communist Party of the City from 1984 to 1986. In the 1990s, Matviyenko served as the Russian Ambassador to Malta, from 1998 to 2003, Matviyenko was Deputy Prime Minister for Welfare, and briefly the Presidential Envoy to the Northwestern Federal District in 2003. By that time, Matviyenko was firmly allied with Russian President Vladimir Putin, Matviyenko became the first female leader of Saint Petersburg. The profile of Saint Petersburg in Russian politics has risen, marked by the transfer of the Constitutional Court of Russia from Moscow in 2008, some actions and practices of Governor Matviyenko have drawn significant criticisms from the Saint Petersburg public, the media, and opposition groups.
Another major point of criticism was Matviyenkos handling of the snow removal problems during the unusually cold and snowy winters of 2009–10. On 22 August 2011, soon after completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam, as a member of the ruling United Russia Party, on 21 September 2011, Matviyenko was elected as Chairman of the Federation Council, the countrys third-highest elected office. Valentina Tyutina was born in Shepetivka in the Khmelnytskyi Oblast of Western Ukrainian SSR, in 1972, Matviyenko graduated from Leningrad Institute of Chemistry and Pharmaceutics, where she met her husband, Vladimir Vasiyevich Matviyenko. They had a son, Sergey, in 1973, Matviyenko held various leadership positions within the Komsomol organization until 1984. In 1985 Valentina Matviyenko graduated from the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Academy, in 1984–1986 she was the First Secretary of the Krasnogvardeysky District Committee of the Party. Matviyenko was elected as a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and headed the committee on women, family.
Between 1991 and 1998 Matviyenko served in the service and held several diplomatic positions including posts of Russian ambassador to Malta. On 24 September 1998, Matviyenko was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of Russia for Welfare, in June 1999 she worked on the Board of Directors of the ORT TV channel. Matvyenko was involved in a car accident on 20 November 1999. On 3 February 2000 she was nominated for the presidency, on 29 February 2000, she announced that she was considering running in the St. Petersburg governor elections to be held on 14 May, and on 10 March announced that she was indeed launching her campaign. However, on 4 April she claimed that Vladimir Putin had asked her to withdraw from the elections, on 11 March 2003 she left the Deputy PM position and was appointed presidential envoy to the Northwestern Federal District by Vladimir Putin. On 24 June 2003, after Saint Petersburg governor Vladimir Yakovlev resigned ahead of schedule and her nomination was supported by the United Russia political party and President Vladimir Putin.
Putin publicly supported her candidacy on 2 September in a meeting that was broadcast by two state-owned TV stations
Prosecutor General of Russia
The Prosecutor General of Russia heads the system of official prosecution in courts known and heads the Office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation. The Prosecutor General remains the most powerful component of the Russian judicial system, the Prosecutor General is nominated to the office by the President of Russia and appointed by the majority of Federation Council of Russia. If the nomination falls the President must nominate another candidate within the 30 days, the term of authority of the Prosecutor General is five years. The resignation of the Prosecutor General before the end of his term should be approved by both the majority of Federation Council of Russia and the President, the Prosecutor General and his office are independent from the Executive and Judicial branches of government. Offices similar to Prosecutor General of Russia have existed in the Soviet Union and in the Russian Empire since January 12,1722
The State Duma in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square and its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma was introduced in 1906 and was Russias first elected parliament, the first two attempts by Tsar Nicholas II to make it active were ineffective. Subsequently, each of these Dumas was dissolved only a few months. The third Duma was the one to last to the end of its 5-year term. After the 1907 electoral reform, the third Duma, elected in November 1907, was made up of members of the upper classes. The establishment of the Duma after the 1905 Revolution was to herald significant changes to the Russian autocratic system, in the December 1993 elections pro-Yeltsin parties won 175 seats in the Duma versus 125 seats for the left bloc. The balance of power lay with the sixty four deputies of the ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, only parties that won more than five percent of the vote were given party-list seats, eight passed the threshold in 1993.
In addition to eight parties, a pool of thirty five deputies was entitled to form a registered group to reflect regional or sectoral interests. Business was governed by a committee, the Duma Council. The most important task was dividing up the positions in the Duma’s twenty three committees, which was done as part of a power-sharing package deal. During the second half of the 1990s the Duma became an important forum for lobbying by regional leaders and businessmen looking for tax breaks and legislative favors. The work of the committees, such as those for defense, foreign affairs, or budget, attracted a good deal of media attention. In the early 2000s, following the 1999 parliamentary elections, the pro-presidential Unity party, a 2016 exposé by Dissernet showed that 1 in 9 members of the State Duma had obtained academic degrees with theses that were substantially plagiarized and likely ghostwritten. The State Duma has special powers enumerated by the Constitution of Russia, decrees of the State Duma are adopted by a majority of the total number of deputies of the State Duma, unless another procedure is envisaged by the Constitution.
All bills are first approved by the State Duma and are debated and approved by the Federation Council. Relatively few roll call votes have been published that identify individual deputies votes, the votes of individuals are recorded only if the voting is open and the electronic method is used. While not all votes are officially roll call votes, every time a deputy electronically votes a computer registers the individual deputys vote, the State Duma forms committees and commissions