Central Superior Services
The Central Superior Services is a permanent elite bureaucratic authority, the civil service, responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan. The Prime Minister is the final authority on all matters regarding the civil service; the civil service defined itself as "key wheels on which the entire engine of the state has to move." Derived from the colonial legacy of the former Indian Civil Service, the civil service came into its modern formation after the establishment of Pakistan as a "Civil Service of Pakistan". During its time of formation, the bureaucracy produced Ghulam Ishaq Khan who would go on to become the President of Pakistan, it had influence on many of the state's defence, internal and financial policies. In 1971, it was re-organized and reestablished under "Chapter I: Part-XII, Article 240" of the Constitution of Pakistan which gave it foundation and constitutional status; the civil bureaucracy collaborated with the military establishments of Pakistani Armed Forces in issues concerning the national security.
The bureaucracy consists of 12 directorates that provide vital office and secretariat related duties to the Government of Pakistan. The provincial bureaucracies are headed by the respective Chief Secretaries of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Balochistan; the highest attainable rank for an officer who serves in the country's bureaucracy is BPS-22 grade. The Civil Service of Pakistan selects only 7.5% of the applicants by merit, education and experience while the 92.5% are selected by a quota system. The civil service exams are competitive and provides equal opportunities to males and females, depending on their qualifications; the CSS Examinations are held at the start of every year. The exams are conducted and supervised by the Federal Public Service Commission. CSS exams have a reputation of a low pass percentage, in 2015, only 3% of the 12,176 participants cleared the multi-staged exam; the Constitution of Pakistan lays down separate services for the central government and the provincial governments.
Although, both types of the governments are required to regulate their civil services through the "Article 240 of Chapter I of Part XII", in case of the central reservation of the government and by the provisional assembly decrees for officers subjected in legislative list of the provinces. The idea of civil service was established by the British Empire during the colonial period of the British Indian Empire, it was derived into as "Pakistan Civil Service" in 1947 and reorganised and re-established into its modern form in 1973. The Constitution of Pakistan describes the constitutional status as below: Appointment to service of Pakistan and conditions of service: in the case of the civil services of the Federation, posts in connection with the affairs of the Federation and Civil Services by the Parliament). in the case of the services of a provinces, the posts in connection with the affairs of the provinces, by act of the Provincial Assembly. Existing rules: All rules and orders in force before the commencing day shall, so far as consistent with the provisions of the Constitution.
Public Service Commission: The Parliament in relation to the affairs of the Federation, the Provincial Assemblies of the Provinces in relation to affairs of the Provinces, may, by law, provide for the establishment and constitution of a Public Service Commission. The Constitution of Pakistan does not set the legal name for the civil service and there is no service named as "Central Superior Services of Pakistan"; the constitution allowed the government appointed officer and chairman of the Federal Public Service Commission to choose the name. The term "CSS" emerged during the first public examination of the civil service for the appointment on posts at officer entry level in the occupational groups of All-Pakistan Unified Group; the FPSC holds the combine competitive exam annually under the title advertised as exam for "Central Superior Services"— the term of colonial days which survived reforms. The use of word "Central" instead of that "Federal"; these were relevant when there was central government under 1956 constitution and classes existed in the civil service.
The 1973 constitution abolished all classes in the civil service as the concept of occupational groups was introduced. Following the foundations laid in the Constitution, the federal government promulgated The Civil Servants Act, 1973 and each province enacted its own Civil Servants Acts; the law allow civil service of federation, of provinces, to be regulated as per rules notified under these enactments. Both sets of governments have notified Civil Servants Rules, 1974; the qualification and method of filling of all posts is regulated by these rules. The posts at initial officer level i.e. BS-17, are classified to be filled by way of promotion or transfer and by direct recruitment under share fixed for each category; the recommendation for appointment in BS-17, under direct recruitment share, is done by FPSC, established under its own law as a requirement of the Constitution. The rest of posts reserved for departmental officers under promotion quota and posts under appointment by transfer is confined for officers inducted through lateral entry or for hardship cases coming from surplus pool.
In practical terms, those appointed on posts in direct appointment quota in each occupational groups through CCS Exam have natural advantage. They join service at young age as compared to departmental officers, therefore reach to the highest slots. Since the number of direct officers at
Gilgit-Baltistan known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost territory administered by Pakistan. It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast. Gilgit-Baltistan is part of the greater Kashmir region, the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan and India; the territory shares a border with Azad Kashmir, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations and other international organisations as "Pakistan administered Kashmir". Gilgit-Baltistan is six times the size of Azad Kashmir; the territory borders Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state to the south and is separated from it by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India and Pakistan. The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas".
It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan district and several small former princely states, the larger of which being Hunza and Nagar. In 2009, it was granted limited autonomy and renamed to Gilgit-Baltistan via the Self-Governance Order signed by Pakistan president Asif Ali Zardari, which aimed to empower the people of Gilgit-Baltistan. However, scholars state that the real power rests with the governor and not with chief minister or elected assembly; the population of Gilgit-Baltistan wants to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province and opposes integration with Kashmir. The Pakistani government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions. Gilgit-Baltistan covers an area of over 72,971 km² and is mountainous, it had an estimated population of 1,800,000 in 2015. Its capital city is Gilgit. Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres.
Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan. The main tourism activities are trekking and mountaineering, this industry is growing in importance; the rock carvings found in various places in Gilgit-Baltistan those found in the Passu village of Hunza, suggest a human presence since 2000 BC. Within the next few centuries after human settlement in the Tibetan plateau, this region became inhabited by Tibetans, who preceded the Balti people of Baltistan. Today Baltistan bears similarity to culturally. Dards are found in the western areas; these people are the Shina-speaking peoples of Gilgit, Chilas and Diamir while in Hunza and in the upper regions Burushaski and Khowar speakers dominate. The Dards find mention in the works of Herodotus, Megasthenes, Pliny and the geographical lists of the Puranas. In the 1st century the people of these regions were followers of the Bon religion while in the 2nd century they followed Buddhism. Between 399 and 414, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited Gilgit-Baltistan, while in the 6th century Somana Palola was ruled by an unknown king.
Between 627 and 645, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang travelled through this region on his pilgrimage to India. According to Chinese records from the Tang dynasty, between the 600s and the 700s, the region was governed by a Buddhist dynasty referred to as Bolü transliterated as Palola, Balur, they are believed to be the Palola Sāhi dynasty mentioned in a Brahmi inscription, are devout adherents of Vajrayana Buddhism. At the time, Little Palola was used to refer to Gilgit, while Great Palola was used to refer to Baltistan. However, the records do not disambiguate the two. In mid-600s, Gilgit came under Chinese suzerainty after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate due to Tang military campaigns in the region. In late 600s CE, the rising Tibetan Empire wrestled control of the region from the Chinese. However, faced with growing influence of the Umayyad Caliphate and the Abbasid Caliphate to the west, the Tibetans were forced to ally themselves with the Islamic caliphates; the region was contested by Chinese and Tibetan forces, their respective vassal states, until the mid-700s.
Rulers of Gilgit held back the Arabs with their help. Between 644 and 655, Navasurendrāditya-nandin became king of Palola Sāhi dynasty in Gilgit. Numerous Sanskrit inscriptions, including the Danyor Rock Inscriptions, were discovered to be from his reign. In late 600s and early 700s, Jayamaṅgalavikramāditya-nandin was king of Gilgit. According to Chinese court records, in 717 and 719 delegations of a ruler of Great Palola named Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni reached the Chinese imperial court. By at least 719/720, Ladakh became part of the Tibetan Empire. By that time, Buddhism was practiced in Baltistan, Sanskrit was the written language. In 720, the delegation of Surendrāditya reached the Chinese imperial court, he was referred to by the Chinese records as the king of Great Palola. The Chinese emperor granted the ruler of Cashmere, Chandrāpīḍa, the title of "King of Cashmere". By 721/722, Baltistan had came under the influence of the Tibetan Empire. In 721–722, Tibetan army attempted but failed to capture Gilgit or Bru
Imran Ahmed Khan Niazi is a Pakistani politician and former international cricketer, the 22nd and incumbent Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is the founder of the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, he was a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan from 2002 to 2007, again from 2013 to 2018. He played international cricket for two decades, developed philanthropic projects such as the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre and Namal College. Khan was born to an upper-middle class Pashtun family in Lahore, Punjab, in 1952, he started playing cricket at the age of 13. Playing for his college and for Worcestershire, Khan made his debut for the Pakistan national cricket team at the age of 18, during the 1971 series against England at Edgbaston, Birmingham. After graduating from Oxford, he made his home debut for Pakistan in 1976, played until 1992, he served as the team's captain intermittently between 1982 and 1992. Notably, he led Pakistan to victory at the 1992 Cricket World Cup, Pakistan's first and only victory in the Cricket World Cup.
Khan retired from cricket as one of Pakistan's most successful players. In total he made 3,807 runs and took 362 wickets in Test cricket, is one of eight world cricketers to have achieved an'All-rounder's Triple' in Test matches. After his retirement, in his 1994 autobiography, Imran Khan admitted that he tampered with the ball to the extent of using a bottle top. In 2003, he became a coach in Pakistan domestic circuit. In 2010, he was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. In 1991, he launched a fundraising campaign to set up a cancer hospital in memory of his mother, he raised $25 million to set up a hospital in Lahore in 1994, in 2015 a second hospital in Peshawar. Khan remains a prominent philanthropist and commentator, served as the chancellor of Bradford University between 2005 and 2014 and was the recipient of an honorary fellowship by the Royal College of Physicians in 2012. In April 1996, Khan founded the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf, a centrist political party, became the party's national leader.
Khan contested for a seat in the National Assembly in October 2002 and served as an opposition member from Mianwali until 2007. He was again elected to the parliament in the 2013 elections, when his party emerged as the second largest in the country by popular vote. Khan served as the parliamentary leader of the party and led the third-largest block of parliamentarians in the National Assembly from 2013 to 2018, his party led a coalition government in the north-western province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In the 2018 general elections, his party won the largest number of seats and defeated the ruling PML-N, bringing Khan to premiership and the PTI into federal government for the first time. Khan remains a popular public figure and is the author of, among other publications, Pakistan: A Personal History. Khan was born in Lahore on 5 October 1952; some reports suggest he was born on 25 November 1952. It was reported that 25 November was wrongly mentioned by Pakistan Cricket Board officials on his passport.
He was the only son of Ikramullah Khan Niazi, a civil engineer, his wife Shaukat Khanum, has four sisters. Long settled in Mianwali in northwestern Punjab, his paternal family are of Pashtun ethnicity and belong to the Niazi tribe, one of his ancestors, Haibat Khan Niazi, in the 16th century, "was one of Sher Shah Suri's leading generals, as well as being the governor of Punjab." Khan's mother hailed from the Pashtun tribe of Burki, which had produced several successful cricketers in Pakistan's history, including his cousins Javed Burki and Majid Khan. Maternally, Khan is a descendant of the Sufi warrior-poet and inventor of the Pashto alphabet, Pir Roshan, who hailed from his maternal family's ancestral Kaniguram town located in South Waziristan in the tribal areas of northwest Pakistan, his maternal family was based in Basti Danishmanda, British India for about 600 years. A quiet and shy boy in his youth, Khan grew up with his sisters in affluent, upper middle-class circumstances and received a privileged education.
He was educated at the Aitchison College and Cathedral School in Lahore, the Royal Grammar School Worcester in England, where he excelled at cricket. In 1972, he enrolled in Keble College, Oxford where he studied Philosophy and Economics, graduating with a third-class degree in 1975. Khan made his first-class cricket debut at the age of 16 in Lahore. By the start of the 1970s, he was playing for his home teams of Lahore A, Lahore B, Lahore Greens and Lahore. Khan was part of the University of Oxford's Blues Cricket team during the 1973–1975 seasons. At Worcestershire, where he played county cricket from 1971 to 1976, he was regarded as only an average medium-pace bowler. During this decade, other teams represented by Khan included Dawood Industries and Pakistan International Airlines. From 1983 to 1988, he played for Sussex. Khan made his Test cricket debut against England in June 1971 at Edgbaston. Three years in August 1974, he debuted in the One Day International match, once again playing against England at Trent Bridge for the Prudential Trophy.
After graduating from Oxford and finishing his tenure at Worcestershire, he returned to Pakistan in 1976 and secured a permanent place on his native national team starting from the 1976–1977 season, during which they faced New Zealand and Australia. Following the Australian series, he toured t
Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan. The territory is bounded by Punjab on the south and east and by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on the north; the territory includes Islamabad, the federal capital of Pakistan, which covers 906 km2 out of the total of 1165.5 km2. The territory is represented in the National Assembly constituencies NA-52, NA-53 and NA-54. In 1960, land was transferred from Rawalpindi District of Punjab province to establish Pakistan's new capital. According to the 1960 master plan, the Capital Territory included Rawalpindi, was to be composed of the following parts: Rawalpindi, 259 square kilometres Islamabad, 220.15 square kilometres Margalla Hills, 220.15 square kilometres Islamabad rural, 446.20 square kilometres However, Rawalpindi was excluded from the Islamabad master plan in the 1980s. Islamabad is subdivided into five zones: Zone I: Designated for urban development and federal government institutions Zone II: Designated for urban development Zone III: Designated for rural development Zone IV: Designated for rural development Zone V: Designated for rural development Islamabad Capital Territory comprises urban and rural areas.
The rural consists of 23 union councils, comprising 133 villages. The climate of Islamabad has a humid subtropical climate, with five seasons: Winter, Summer, Rainy Monsoon and Autumn; the hottest month is June, where average highs exceed 38 °C. Wettest month is July, with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudburst and flooding. Coolest month is January. Islamabad's micro-climate is regulated by three artificial reservoirs: Rawal and Khanpur Dam. Last one is located on the Haro River near the town of about 40 kilometres from Islamabad. Simli Dam is 30 kilometres north of Islamabad. 220 acres of the city consists of Margalla Hills National Park. Loi Bher Forest is situated along the Islamabad Highway. Highest monthly rainfall of 743.3 millimetres was recorded during July 1995. Winters feature dense fog in the mornings and sunny afternoons. In the city, temperatures stay mild, with snowfall over the higher elevations points on nearby hill stations, notably Murree and Nathia Gali.
The temperatures range from 13 °C in January to 38 °C in June. The highest recorded temperature was 46.6 °C on 23 June 2005 while the lowest temperature was −6 °C on 17 January 1967. The city has "recorded" snowfall. On 23 July 2001, Islamabad received a record breaking 620 millimetres of rainfall in just 10 hours, it was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in the past 100 years and the highest rainfall in 24 hours as well. The main administrative authority of the city is Islamabad Capital Territory Administration with some help from Capital Development Authority, which oversees the planning, development and administration of the city. Islamabad Capital Territory is divided into eight zones: Administrative Zone, Commercial District, Educational Sector, Industrial Sector, Diplomatic Enclave, Residential Areas, Rural Areas and Green Area. Islamabad city is divided into five major zones: Zone I, Zone II, Zone III, Zone IV, Zone V. Out of these, Zone IV is the largest in area. All sectors of ghouri town are located in this zone.
Zone I consists of all the developed residential sectors, while Zone II consists of the under-developed residential sectors. Each residential sector is identified by a letter of the alphabet and a number, covers an area of 4 square kilometers; the sectors are lettered from A to I, each sector is divided into four numbered sub-sectors. Series A, B, C are still underdeveloped; the D series has seven sectors, of which only sector D-12 is developed. This series is located at the foot of Margalla Hills; the E Sectors are named from E-7 to E-17. Many foreigners and diplomatic personnel are housed in these sectors. In the revised Master Plan of the city, CDA has decided to develop a park on the pattern of Fatima Jinnah Park in sector E-14. Sectors E-8 and E-9 contain the campuses of Bahria University, Air University, the National Defence University; the F and G series contains the most developed sectors. F series contains sectors F-5 to F-17. F-5 is an important sector for the software industry in Islamabad, as the two software technology parks are located here.
The entire F-9 sector is covered with Fatima Jinnah Park. The Centaurus complex will be one of the major landmarks of the F-8 sector. G sectors are numbered G-5 through G-17; some important places include the Jinnah Convention Center and Serena Hotel in G-5, the Red Mosque in G-6, the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, the largest medical complex in the capital, located in G-8. The H sectors are numbered H-8 through H-17; the H sectors are dedicated to educational and health institutions. National University of Sciences and Technology covers a major portion of sector H-12; the I sectors are numbered from I-8 to I-18. With the exception of I-8, a well-developed residential area, these sectors are part of the industrial zone. Two sub-sectors of I-9 and one sub-sector of I-10 are used as industrial areas. CDA is planning to set up Islamabad Railway Station in Sector I-18 and Industrial City in sector I-17. Zone III consists of the Margalla Hills and Margalla Hills Na
2013 Pakistani presidential election
Presidential elections were held on 30 July 2013 in Pakistan to elect the 12th President of Pakistan. Incumbent President Asif Ali Zardari’s term was scheduled to expire on 8 September 2013; the Electoral College of Pakistan – a joint sitting of the Senate, National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies – were tasked with electing a new President to succeed President Zardari, who declined to seek a second term in office. After the Pakistan Peoples Party and its allies boycotted the presidential election, the two candidates were Mamnoon Hussain backed by the Pakistan Muslim League, Wajihuddin Ahmed backed by Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf. Agra-born Hussain was elected president by a majority securing 432 votes; the elections were the first time in Pakistani history where a civilian President was elected while an incumbent civilian President was still in office, completing a historic and democratic transition of power that began with the 2013 General Elections. Following the 2013 general elections, it was expected that the new president would be chosen by the party that won a plurality and thus headed by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, the Pakistan Muslim League.
It is the first time in the country that a president elect has been chosen in the presence of a sitting president. The Election Commission of Pakistan announced the initial election schedule on 17 July 2013. All nomination papers for candidates had to be submitted by 24 July, with scrutiny occurring on 26 July. Candidates had an additional 3 days to withdraw their nomination, after which the official candidate list was announced; the elections were to take place via secret ballot on 6 August, official results confirmed the next day. The elections would be presided by the Chief Justices of the Islamabad High Court and the 4 provincial High Courts; the Supreme Court of Pakistan on 24 July, revised the date for the presidential election on the appeal of the ruling party, PML, asking the election commission to hold it on 30 July instead of 6 August. The court made the order as many of the lawmakers who will elect a replacement for President Asif Ali Zardari will be paying pilgrimages or offering special prayers on 6 August for the holy month of Ramadan, which ends a few days thus making it difficult for some lawmakers to oblige with their religious duties along with the election.
The petition was filed by the leader of the house in the Senate Raja Zafarul Haq on the same day. The court ordered the Election Commission of Pakistan to change the election schedule on the appeal of the Federal government: nomination papers were filed on 24 July, their scrutiny was held on 26 July, the withdrawal of candidature up to 12 noon on 27 July and the final list of candidates was published at 5pm on 27 July; the polling was held on 30 July. The PML nominated former Sindh Governor Mamnoon Hussain as its candidate. Hussain is an Agra-born business man, he owns a textile business in Karachi. He was born in Uttar Pradesh, India, in 1940, he started his political career in the 60s as a Muslim Leaguer. He is considered loyal to the current Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. In 1999, he was elected as the president of the Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industries and was soon selected by Nawaz Sharif to become governor of Sindh in June 1999, but lost the post after the Army Chief Gen Pervez Musharraf overthrew the PML-N government in a military coup in October 1999.
Ahmed is a retired senior justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, human rights activist, Jurist Doctor and former professor of law at the Sindh Muslim Law College. Prior to be elevated as Senior Justice of the Supreme Court, he tenured as the Chief Justice of the Sindh High Court from 1998 until refusing take oath in opposition to martial law in 1999, he remained a strong critic of President Pervez Musharraf taking up a leading role in Lawyer's movement in 2007 to oppose President Musharraf. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidential elections held in 2007. Since 2011, he has been active in national politicsthrough Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf and became a forerunner on PTI platform for the presidential election. On 26 July, the PPP announced its decision to boycott the election; the Awami National Party and the Balochistan National Party announced a boycott. They cited as their reason the Supreme Court of Pakistan's decision to change the election date from 6 August without consulting all parties.
The Electoral College of Pakistan is formed by a joint sitting of the six leading political bodies in Pakistan: the Senate of Pakistan, the National Assembly of Pakistan, the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab, the Provincial Assembly of Sindh, the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan and the Provincial Assembly of Khyber PaktunkhwaSo that each province has an equal vote, all provincial assemblies are given 65 votes in the electoral college. This mean that the each member of the Punjab Assembly has 65/370 = 0.176 votes, each member of the Sindh Assembly has 65/168 = 0.387 votes, each member of the KPK Assembly has 65/124 = 0.524 votes and each member of the Balochistan Assembly has 65/65 = 1 vote. The political composition of these bodies is as follows: The country went to the polls at 10:00, 30 July amidst tight security arrangements. Over 1,174 members of the electoral college cast their votes to elect the ceremonial head of the state. Polling was held in the Parliament and provincial assemblies.
The legislative assemblies were pronounced polling stations at the outset of polling. Voting ended a
Supreme Court of Pakistan
The Supreme Court of Pakistan is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan. Established in accordance to the Part VII of the Constitution of Pakistan, it has ultimate and extensive appellate and advisory jurisdictions on all courts, involving issues of laws and may act on the verdicts rendered on the cases in context in which it enjoys jurisdiction. In the court system of Pakistan, the Supreme Court is the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes as well as final interpreter of constitutional law, the highest court of appeal in Pakistan. In its modern composition, the Supreme Court is incorporated of Chief Justice of Pakistan, sixteen justices and two ad-hoc who are confirmed to their appointment by the President upon their nominations from the Prime Minister's selection based on their merited qualifications. Once appointed, justices are expected to completed a designated term and retire at 65 years old, unless their term is terminated through resignation or impeachment by the Supreme Judicial Council resulted in a presidential reference in regards to the misconduct of judge.
In their discourse judgement, the justices are categorized as having the conservative, textual and liberal philosophies of law in their judicial interpretation of law and judgements. The Supreme Court has a permanent seat in Islamabad and meets at the Supreme Court Building at the Constitution Avenue. In 1861, the British government in India enacted the Indian High Courts Act that created the high courts in all over the Indian subcontinent in various provinces while abolishing the supreme courts Calcutta, Madras and the Panchayati system in autonomous presidencies; until the enactment of the Government of India Act in 1935 that created the Federal Court, these new high courts had the distinctionary powers of being the highest Courts for all cases. The Federal Court had wide range of jurisdictions to resolve disputes between the provinces and the British government of India hearing appeals against judgements of the High Courts. After the independence of Pakistan as an aftermath of British partition of India in 1947, the Federal Court was partitioned between India and Pakistan as Justice Sir Harilal Kania became the first Chief Justice of India and Justice Sir Abdul Rashid becoming the first Chief Justice of Pakistan.
While the tradition of British law culture continues to remain an integral part of the judiciary, the modern existence of the Supreme Court of Pakistan came when the first set of the Constitution of Pakistan was promulgated on 23 March 1956. The ratification of the Constitution of Pakistan reestablished the Supreme Court in 1956, replacing the name "Federal Court" to "Supreme Court" had its seat in Karachi where the Sindh High Court exists now. In successive years, the Supreme Court was moved to Lahore High Court until the Supreme Court was permanently moved into its new building constructed in Islamabad in 1964. Although the Supreme Court was established pursuant to the Government of India Act, 1947, the modern structure of the court was reestablished by the second set in 1956, restructured by the Constitution of Pakistan in 1973 where a significant part of the Constitution is dedicated towards the restructuring of the Supreme Court; the Part VII of the Constitution, ranges from articles 176 through 191, deals with the powers, composition and responsibilities of the Supreme Court.
These articles concern: Article 176 – Composition of the Court Article 177 – Appointment and qualifications of the Chief Justice Article 178 – Oath of office Article 179 – Retirement Article 180 – Vacancy, absence, or inability of the Chief Justice Article 181 – Vacancy, absence, or inability of other justices Article 182 – Ad hoc appointments of justices Article 183 – Location of Court Article 184 – Jurisdiction in a dispute between two or more governments Article 185 – Jurisdiction to hear and determine appeals Article 186 – If requested, advise the President on important matters of law Article 186A – Authority to transfer venue Article 187 – Orders and subpoenas Article 188 – Power to review its own judgements and orders Article 189 – Binding nature of Supreme Court's decisions on all other Pakistani Courts Article 190 – All executive and judicial authorities in Pakistan bound to aid the Supreme Court The Part VII of the Constitution of Pakistan reconstituted the composition of Supreme Court and the high courts but it does not specify the number of justices to be served in the Supreme Court.
Qualifications to be served as a supreme court justice are imposed that are based on merit, personal intellecutualism, experiences as a judge in the high courts. In 1947, the Supreme Court consisted of a Chief Justice and six senior judges from Sindh, Punjab, NWFP, East Bengal. Over the several successive years, the work of the Court increased and cases began to accumulate, leading the Supreme Court requesting the Parliament to increase the number of judges; as the number of the justices has increased, they sit in smaller benches of two or three, coming together in larger benches of five or more when required to settle fundamental questions of law. The nomination of justices in the Supreme Court comes from an executive selection made by the Prime Minister based on judges' merited qualifications, personal intellectualism, experiences as judge in high courts; the President confirms the nomination summary and appoints the Chief Justice and judges in the Supreme Court. The Constitution states that a nominee is not eligible unless he is: A citizen of Pakistan who: has for a
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan. Affiliated with the Socialist International, Its political philosophy and position, in the country's political spectrum, is considered centre-left, involves supporting public ownership, equality, a strong national defence. Since its foundation in 1967, it had been a major and influential political left-wing force in the country and the party's leadership has been dominated by the members of the Bhutto family, its centre of power lies in the southern province of Sindh. Since its formation in 1967, the PPP has been voted into power on five separate occasions, it dominated the politics of Pakistan during the 1970s, suffering a temporary decline during the military dictatorship of Zia-ul-Haq. After the re-establishment of democracy in 1988 following Zia's death, a two-party system developed, with the PPP and IJI as the two major sides; the party served as the principal opposition to the Musharraf-led liberal government from 1999 to 2008.
Until the disqualification of Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani by the Supreme Court in 2012, the PPP was regarded as the most influential political party in the country. It emerged as the largest opposition party in the National Assembly, during the 2013 Elections as well as the governing party of Sindh; the PPP was launched at its founding convention held in Lahore on November 30 and December 1, 1967. At the same meeting, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was elected as its chairman. Among the expressed goals of the party were the establishment of an "egalitarian democracy" and the "application of socialistic ideas to realize economic and social justice". A more immediate task was the struggle against the dictatorship of General Ayub Khan, at the height of his power when the PPP was formed. In 1970s Ayub Khan's policies nourished capitalist class at the expense of ordinary people; this period saw drastic increase in income poverty. In April 1968, Dr. Mahbub ul Haq, the Chief Economist of the Planning Commission reported 22 families who controlled 66% of the industries and owned 87% share in country's banking and insurance industry.
Due to Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, economy collapsed, investment growth in Pakistan saw 20% decline in following years. Due to Pakistan Army's badly planned misadventures and blunders, Pakistan was not able to win war of 1965 but victory was propagated. Under influence of Soviet Union, both country signed Tashkent Declaration at Uzbekistan. Tashkent Declaration shocked the people of Pakistan, who were expecting something different - because a public perception was built in Pakistan that they were going to win the war. Ayub Khan fiercely called it in best interests of people; this led to confrontation between Ayub Khan and his Foreign minister Zulifqar Ali Bhutto which led to resignation of later. He went on accused Ayub of ‘losing the war on the negotiating table’. Opposition parties decided to protest against the declaration, however State resorted with imposing ban upon public gatherings and arresting activists; the resignation of Bhutto further dismayed the public and the democratic-socialists.
On 5 February 1966, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman publicly announced his program of regional autonomy at a news conference. Bhutto's passionate stance against Ayub regime was hailed by leftists groups thus Bhutto gallivanted towards finding a position for himself in the National Awami Party; when Bhutto saw no space for him in the party, he decided to launch his own party. On 30 November 1967, a convention was held in Lahore, where democratic-socialists and left-wing intellectuals gathered to meet with Bhutto at the residence of Dr. Mubashir Hassan, the Pakistan Peoples Party was formed; the newly formed party's members elected Quaid-i-Awam Z. A Bhutoo as its first chairman, its manifesto, titled "Islam is our Religion; the main objective of party was to establish a classless society and it adopted a clear Socialist program. The document declared that “Only socialism, which creates equal opportunities for all, protects from exploitation, removes the barriers of class distinction, is capable of establishing economic and social justice.
Socialism is the highest expression of democracy and its logical fulfillment”. Although it was believed to be a socialist party however according to Philip E. Jones, party had three main ideological camps within they were Marxists, Islamic socialists and landed elite. In 1968, when Ayub Khan was celebrating its "Decade of Development", demonstrations erupted in all the country. Same year spontaneous students’ movement erupted in country due to unemployment and economic hardship which saw beginning of 1968 movement in Pakistan. In the same time, ideological differences emerged within NAP, which led to major split between pro-Soviet faction and pro-China. Pro-Soviet faction, led by Wali Khan suggested to adopt democratic path whereas pro-China faction led by Moulana Bhashani rejected and advocated a peasantry revolution to overthrow regime. Due these factional splits; the Bhutto filled this vacuum. While these sections of the left were playing'party - party' and juggling with democratic change the revolutionary blizzard bypassed them without noticing their existence.
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, being shrewder in sensing the mood of the mass movement, had embarked upon the'need for socialism' and other radical slogans