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Manto Tshabalala-Msimang

Mantombazana'Manto' Edmie Tshabalala-Msimang was a South African politician. She was Deputy Minister of Justice from 1996 to 1999 and served as Minister of Health from 1999 to 2008 under President Thabo Mbeki, she served as Minister in the Presidency under President Kgalema Motlanthe from September 2008 to May 2009. Her emphasis on treating South Africa's AIDS epidemic with accessible vegetables such as African potato and beetroot, rather than with antiretroviral medicines, was the subject of local and international criticism; these policies led to the deaths of over 300,000 infected South Africans. Born in Durban, Tshabalala-Msimang graduated from Fort Hare University in 1961; as one of a number of young African National Congress cadres sent into exile for education, she received medical training at the First Leningrad Medical Institute in the Soviet Union from 1962 to 1969. She trained as a registrar in obstetrics and gynaecology in Tanzania, finishing there in 1972. In 1980 she received a master's in public health from the University of Antwerp in Belgium.

She was an official within the exiled ANC leadership in Tanzania and Zambia during the latter decade of apartheid, with job responsibilities focused on the health and well-being of ANC militants there. Tshabalala-Msimang's administration as Minister of Health was controversial, because of her reluctance to adopt a public sector plan for treating AIDS with anti-retroviral medicines. In a 2000 interview by Radio 702 presenter John Robbie, Tshabalala-Msimang refused to say whether she believed HIV caused AIDS, she was called Dr Beetroot for promoting the benefits of beetroot, garlic and African potatoes as well as good general nutrition, while referring to possible toxicities of AIDS medicines. She was seen as following an AIDS policy in line with the ideas of South African President Thabo Mbeki, who for a time publicly expressed doubts about whether HIV caused AIDS. In 2002, the South African Cabinet affirmed the policy that "HIV causes AIDS" which as an official statement silenced any further speculation on this topic by Cabinet members, including the President.

In August 2003 the cabinet voted to make anti-retrovirals available in the public sector, instructed Tshabalala-Msimang to carry out the policy. The Treatment Action Campaign and its founder Zackie Achmat targeted the minister for criticism, accusing the government and the Ministry of Health in particular of an inadequate response to the AIDS epidemic; the TAC led a campaign calling for her dismissal. The TAC accused Tshabalala-Msimang of being aligned with Matthias Rath, a German physician and vitamin entrepreneur, who had charges laid against him for discouraging the use of ARVs. Tshabalala-Msimang placed her emphasis on broad public health goals, seeing AIDS as only one aspect of that effort and one which, because of the incurable nature of HIV and financial costs of HIV treatment, might impede broader efforts to improve public health. A report making the case that AIDS is such a burden on the public health system that treating it would free up costs was sent back for clarification and not released in the summer of 2003, until it was obtained and leaked by TAC.

After the cabinet vote to accept the findings of this report, Tshabalala-Msimang was in charge of the ARV roll-out, but continued to emphasise the importance of nutrition in AIDS and to urge others to see AIDS as only one problem among many in South African health. A case that attracted much public attention was Nozipho Bhengu, daughter of an African National Congress legislator, who rejected anti-retroviral treatments for AIDS in favour of Tshabalala-Msimang's garlic and lemon diet; the minister declined to attend her funeral, her stand-in was booed off the podium. In February 2005, the Congress of South African Trade Unions criticised the health department for their failure to ensure that most of the 30 million rand used to establish the government's AIDS trust in 2002 had been spent, they said only R520,000 of this money was used and of this a large portion had been squandered on unoccupied offices for the SANAC secretariat, something that drew criticism from the auditor-general. In August 2006, at the International AIDS Conference in Toronto, Stephen Lewis, the United Nations special envoy for AIDS in Africa, closed the conference with a sharp critique of South Africa's government.

He said South Africa promoted a "lunatic fringe" attitude toward HIV and AIDS, describing the government as "obtuse and negligent about rolling out treatment". After the conference, sixty-five of the world's leading HIV/AIDS scientists asked in a letter that Thabo Mbeki dismiss Tshabalala-Msimang. At a meeting with traditional healers to discuss future legislation in February 2008, Tshabalala-Msimang argued that traditional remedies should not become "bogged down" in clinical trials, saying, "We cannot use Western models of protocols for research and development". In September 2008, Tshabalala-Msimang called for greater protection of the intellectual rights of Africa's traditional medicines. Speaking at the 6th commemoration of The African Traditional Medicine Day in Cameroon's capital of Yaoundé, she said that the continent should benefit more from its ancient traditional knowledge. Tshabalala-Msimang married her first husband, Mandla Tshabalala, while both were in exile in the Soviet Union.

She married Mendi Msimang, the treasurer of the African National Congress. Concern over Tshabalala-Msimang's health came to the fore in late 2006, she was admitted to the Johannesburg Hospital on 20 February 2007, suffering from anaemia and pleural effusion. The Department of Health

Sutton Mandeville

Sutton Mandeville is a village and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. The village lies off the A30 road in the Nadder valley between the city of Salisbury in Wiltshire and the town of Shaftesbury in neighbouring Dorset; the parish includes the hamlets of Sutton Row. The parish has a locally-elected parish council, created in 1974 to replace the earlier parish meeting; this is consulted on all parish matters, while most significant local government functions are carried out by the Wiltshire Council unitary authority. Until 1986 Sutton Mandeville was part of Tisbury parish; the Anglican Church of All Saints has a 15th-century tower. It was restored in 1862 by T. H. Wyatt and is Grade II* listed. There is a pub called The Compasses Inn at Lower Chicksgrove. John Wyndham, cricketer Nikolaus Pevsner, revised by Bridget Cherry, Wiltshire in The Buildings of England Sutton Mandeville at genuki.org.uk "Sutton Mandeville". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Media related to Sutton Mandeville at Wikimedia Commons

Republic of Ireland national football B team

Republic of Ireland B is the reserve team of the Republic of Ireland national football team. There are no competitions for B teams. However, since 1957 the Football Association of Ireland has arranged occasional friendlies; the FAI first introduced B internationals during the 1950s. In an era when League of Ireland players were getting fewer opportunities to break into the senior team, these games were seen as a chance for these players to gain some international experience; the Republic of Ireland B played their first game on October 20, 1957 at Dalymount Park against Romania B. They held the visitors to a 1–1 draw. Three days on October 23, the Romanians lost 6–0 to a Northern Ireland B team. In August 1958 a Republic of Ireland B team travelled to Reykjavík and beat Iceland 3–2. In September 1960, Iceland made a return visit to Dalymount Park, this time losing 2–1. On both occasions Iceland fielded their senior team and the Football Association of Iceland regard these games as full internationals.

In between the two games against Iceland, the Republic of Ireland B beat South Africa 1–0 at Dalymount Park. The South Africans regard this as a full international. Several League of Ireland players who played in these games subsequently played for the senior Republic of Ireland team; these included Christy Doyle, who had scored against both Iceland and South Africa, Jackie Hennessy who had scored twice against Iceland and Liam Tuohy. After the game against Iceland in 1960 it would be thirty years before a Republic of Ireland B team played again. However, on May 24, 1971, the FAI, celebrating its Golden Jubilee arranged a special game at Lansdowne Road; this should have been a full international, however their opponents, only sent a B team. Steve Heighway scored for an unofficial Republic of Ireland B team in the subsequent 1–1 draw. Under Jack Charlton, B internationals were revived and during the 1990s the Republic of Ireland B played England B twice, they recorded their biggest win to date when they beat England B 4-1 at Turner's Cross on March 27, 1990.

However four years England B avenged this defeat when they beat the Republic of Ireland B 2–0 at Anfield on December 1, 1994. This remains their biggest defeat to date. In between the two games against England B, the Republic of Ireland B beat Denmark B 2–0 at Tolka Park on February 12, 1992. Under Mick McCarthy, the Republic of Ireland B played a further three games, including two against a League of Ireland XI and one against a Northern Ireland B team. In April 2006 the FAI announced that Pat Devlin would join the management team of Steve Staunton as manager of the Republic of Ireland B and as League of Ireland co-ordinator; the intention was for Devlin to monitor players in the league, report on potential international players and introduce them to international football at B level. Since the Republic of Ireland B has played and drawn with Scotland B twice. In 2008, a team playing as Republic of Ireland XI overcame Nottingham Forest at Dalymount Park; this team was, in effect, an Ireland B team.

Category:Republic of Ireland B international footballers

Hemamala Karunadasa

Hemamala Indivari Karunadasa is an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Stanford University. She works on hybrid organic – inorganic materials, such as perovskites, for clean energy and large area lighting. Karunadasa grew up in Colombo, she was a student at Ladies' College, Colombo. She thought that she would become a doctor, decided to apply to university in America, she was an undergraduate student at Princeton University, where she majored in chemistry and materials science. She was awarded a Certificate in Materials Science for her undergraduate project in 2003. During her undergraduate degree, Karunadasa worked with Robert Cava on the geometric magnetic frustration of metal oxides, his excitement about research inspired her to continue her own academic career. Karunadasa joined the University of California, Berkeley for her doctoral studies, working in inorganic chemistry with Jeffrey R. Long. During her PhD research Karunadasa developed catalysts for water splitting as well as exploring heavy atom building blocks for magnetic molecules.

The molybdenum-oxo metal complex created by Karunadasa is around seventy times cheaper than platinum, the most used metal catalyst in water splitting. Karunadasa worked on electrocatalysts with Christopher Chang at the University of California, Berkeley, she was a postdoctoral fellow with Harry B. Gray at the California Institute of Technology, where she worked on catalysts for hydrocarbon oxidation, she was appointed to the faculty at Stanford University in 2012. Her group creates hybrid perovskite materials that combine small organic molecules with inorganic solids. Three-dimensional lead iodide perovskites are being investigated for solar cells, but they can be both unstable and toxic. For example, their sensitivity to water makes them difficult materials to use in the fabrication of large-scale devices. Karunadasa is interested in ways to mitigate for these shortcomings, any transient changes that may occur when these materials absorb light. In particular, Karunadasa has created two-dimensional perovskites, with thin inorganic sheets, that can be tuned to emit every colour of visible light.

In these systems the organic small molecules are sandwiched between the sheets. In the case of thick inorganic sheets, the inorganic materials act as absorbers, enhance the stability of the perovskite materials; the organo-metal-halide perovskites created by Karunadasa and her collaborator Michael McGehee can be processed in solution. She believes that through careful chemical design it is possible to determine the fate of photogenerated charge carriers. Karunadasa has investigated the lifetimes of acoustic phonons in lead iodide perovskites with Michael Toney and Aron Walsh, her awards and honours include. "A layered hybrid perovskite solar‐cell absorber with enhanced moisture stability". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 53: 11232–11235. Doi:10.1002/anie.201406466. PMID 25196933. Karunadasa, Hemamala. "A molecular MoS2 edge site mimic for catalytic hydrogen generation". Science. 335: 698–702. Doi:10.1126/science.1215868. Hoke, Erik. "Reversible photo-induced trap formation in mixed-halide hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics".

Chemical Science. 6: 613–617. Doi:10.1039/C4SC03141E. Her work was featured in the Journal of the American Chemical Society Young Investigators Issue in 2019, she serves on the editorial board of Inorganic Chemistry

Lemon (U2 song)

"Lemon" is a song by Irish rock band U2. It is the fourth track on their 1993 album and was released as its second single in September 1993. Inspired by old video footage of lead vocalist Bono's late mother, the lyrics describe an attempt to preserve memory through film. More than any previous U2 song, "Lemon" showcases Bono's falsetto skills, aided by atmospheric vocals from the Edge and Brian Eno, is among the band's longest songs; the single and promo releases were complete with different dance remixes, as well as a shortened edit of the title track. The "Perfecto Mix" by Paul Oakenfold and Steve Osborne was used on the PopMart Tour, being played as the band walked out of their Spinal Tap-like rock prop, a 40-foot mirrorball lemon, onto the B-stage for an encore, was reworked into "Skin on Skin" by Oakenfold's band Grace. "Lemon" was written late during the Zooropa sessions between March–May 1993 during the band's break in the Zoo TV Tour. Guitarist the Edge said the song originated from something he "worked up with a drum machine and bass rhythmic."

He explained that he found it difficult to compose a guitar part to the song until he utilized an "unusual gated guitar effect which worked with the rhythm."Lead vocalist Bono wrote the lyrics with his late mother in mind. He explains that it was a "strange experience to receive, in the post, from a distant relative, early Super 8 footage of my mother, aged 24, younger than me, playing a game of rounders in slow motion." The footage showed Bono's mother at a wedding as the maid of honour. The film footage inspired Bono to write lyrics about using film to preserve memory; the song was played live at 10 different Zoo TV Tour shows in Australia, New Zealand, Japan, during the show's encore. During each performance, Bono would perform the song dressed as Zoo TV character "MacPhisto," a former cabaret performer with devilish horns; each performance was followed by the band's "With or Without You". As with most of Zooropa’s material, "Lemon" has never been performed live by U2 since the close of the Zoo TV tour.

The music video for "Lemon", directed by Mark Neale, was filmed in black and white with a grid-like background as a tribute to Eadweard Muybridge. Muybridge was a photographer, the first person to capture fast motion on film, using his device, coincidentally named the Zoopraxiscope, a reference to the lyrics; the video features a sequence of clips of the band members playing their instruments and performing a series of distinct actions, with captions for each one. In the background of the video, a pendulum can be seen swinging, a clock can be seen ticking, as well as dollars falling from the sky, various scientific objects, a cross. All of these symbols seem to be representing man's attempt to preserve time, via money, religion, or technology; the video featured Bono dressed as both "The Fly" and "MacPhisto". CD Single"Lemon" – 4:42 "Lemon" – 5:32 "Lemon" – 6:58 "Lemon" – 6:36UK 12""Lemon" – 8:47 "Lemon" – 4:34 "Lemon" – 6:46 "Lemon" – 6:42 Note: The "Bad Yard Club Mix" has differing durations depending on the release.

The original version is well over 10 minutes long, an edited version that fades out around the 8 minute mark exists on some releases. The "Version Dub" remix is titled differently on certain releases, such as "BYC Version Dub" or "Morales BYC Version Dub", but these are all the same. Footnotes Bibliography U2. McCormick, Neil. U2 by U2. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-719668-7. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics