Chakras are the various focal points in the subtle body used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Hinduism. The concept is found in the early traditions of Hinduism. Beliefs differ between the Indian religions, with many Buddhist texts mentioning five chakras, while Hindu sources offer six or seven. Early Sanskrit texts speak of them both as meditative visualizations combining flowers and mantras and as physical entities in the body; some modern interpreters speak of them as complexes of electromagnetic variety, the precise degree and variety of which directly arise from a synthetic average of all positive and negative so-called "fields", thus eventuating the complex Nadi. Within kundalini yoga, the techniques of breath exercises, mudras, bandhas and mantras are focused on manipulating the flow of subtle energy through chakras. Lexically, cakra is the Indic reflex of an ancestral Indo-European form *kʷékʷlos, whence "wheel" and "cycle".
It has both literal and metaphorical uses, as in the "wheel of time" or "wheel of dharma", such as in Rigveda hymn verse 1.164.11, pervasive in the earliest Vedic texts. In Buddhism in Theravada, the Pali noun cakka connotes "wheel". Within the central "Tripitaka", the Buddha variously refers the "dhammacakka", or "wheel of dharma", connoting that this dharma, universal in its advocacy, should bear the marks characteristic of any temporal dispensation; the Buddha spoke of freedom from cycles in and of themselves, whether karmic, liberative, cognitive or emotional. In Jainism, the term chakra means "wheel" and appears in various contexts in its ancient literature; as in other Indian religions, chakra in esoteric theories in Jainism such as those by Buddhisagarsuri means a yogic energy center. The term chakra appears to first emerge within the Hindu Vedas, though not in the sense of psychic energy centers, rather as chakravartin or the king who "turns the wheel of his empire" in all directions from a center, representing his influence and power.
The iconography popular in representing the Chakras, states White, trace back to the five symbols of yajna, the Vedic fire altar: "square, triangle, half moon and dumpling". The hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda mentions a renunciate yogi with a female named kunamnama. It means "she, bent, coiled", representing both a minor goddess and one of many embedded enigmas and esoteric riddles within the Rigveda; some scholars, such as David Gordon White and Georg Feuerstein, interpret this might be related to kundalini shakti, an overt overature to the terms of esotericism that would emerge in Post-Aryan Bramhanism. The Upanishad. Breath channels are mentioned in the classical Upanishads of Hinduism from the 1st millennium BCE, but not psychic-energy chakra theories; the latter, states David Gordon White, were introduced about 8th-century CE in Buddhist texts as hierarchies of inner energy centers, such as in the Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti. These are called by various terms such as padma or pitha; these medieval Buddhist texts mention only four chakras, while Hindu texts such as the Kubjikāmata and Kaulajñānanirnaya expanded the list to many more.
In contrast to White, according to Georg Feuerstein, early Upanishads of Hinduism do mention cakra in the sense of "psychospiritual vortices", along with other terms found in tantra: prana or vayu along with nadi. According to Gavin Flood, the ancient texts do not present chakra and kundalini-style yoga theories although these words appear in the earliest Vedic literature in many contexts; the chakra in the sense of four or more vital energy centers appear in the medieval era Hindu and Buddhist texts. Chakra is a part of the esoteric medieval era theories about physiology and psychic centers that emerged across Indian traditions; the theory posited that human life exists in two parallel dimensions, one "physical body" and other "psychological, mind, non-physical" it is called the "subtle body". This subtle body is energy; the psyche or mind plane corresponds to and interacts with the body plane, the theory posits that the body and the mind mutually affect each other. The subtle body consists of nadi connected by nodes of psychic energy called chakra.
The theory grew into extensive elaboration, with some suggesting 88,000 chakras throughout the subtle body. The number of major chakras varied between various traditions, but they ranged between four and seven; the important chakras are stated in Hindu and Buddhist texts to be arranged in a column along the spinal cord, from its base to the top of the head, connected by vertical channels. The tantric traditions sought to master them and energize them through various breathing exercises or with assistance of a teacher; these chakras were symbolically mapped to specific human physiological capacity, seed syllables, subtle elements, in some cases deities and other motifs. The chakra theories of Hinduism and Buddhism differs from the historic Chinese system of meridians in acupuncture. Unlike the latter, the chakra relates to subtle body, wherein it has a position but no definite nervous node or precise physical connection; the tantric systems envision it as continually present relevant and a means to psychic and emotional energy.
Aneurin Bevan University Health Board is a local health board in Wales, headquartered in Caerleon. The Local Health Board was launched in October 2009 through the merger of Gwent Healthcare NHS Trust and Blaenau Gwent, Newport and Monmouthshire LHBs, it is named after Aneurin Bevan, a Member of Parliament who represented the area and, the government Minister of Health responsible for the foundation of the National Health Service. The total catchment area for healthcare services contains a population of 600,000. Acute, intermediate and community care and mental health services are all provided by the LHB. Services are delivered across a network of primary-care practices, community clinics, health centres, one learning disability hospital, a number of community hospitals, mental health facilities, one local general hospital and three district general hospitals – Royal Gwent, Nevill Hall and Ysbyty Ystrad Fawr. In 2010 Ysbyty Aneurin Bevan hospital replaced several small community hospitals in Blaenau Gwent.
In April 2012 it was fined £70,000 for breaching patient confidentially. This was the first NHS organisation to be fined under the Data Protection Act. In 2021, The Grange University Hospital in Llanfrechfa will open, centralising some acute services located at the Royal Gwent and Nevill Hall Hospitals. Current Chepstow Community Hospital, Chepstow Llanfrechfa Grange Hospital, Cwmbran Maindiff Court Hospital, Abergavenny Monnow Vale Integrated Health and Social Care Facility, Monmouth Nevill Hall Hospital, Abergavenny Redwood Memorial Hospital, Rhymney Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport St Cadoc's Hospital, Newport St Woolos Hospital, Newport Ysbyty Aneurin Bevan, Blaenau Gwent Ysbyty’r Tri Chwm, Ebbw Vale Ysbyty Ystrad Fawr, Ystrad MynachFormer Aberbargoed Hospital, Aberbargoed Abertillery and District Hospital, Abertillery Blaenavon Hospital, Blaenavon Blaina & District Hospital, Blaina Caerphilly District Miners Hospital, Caerphilly Cottage Hospital, Monmouth Oakdale Hospital, Oakdale Tredegar General Hospital, Tredegar Ystrad Mynach Hospital, Ystrad Mynach Official website
Whiteway is an historic estate in the parish of Kingsteignton, Devon. It should be distinguished from Whiteway House in the parish of Chudleigh, Devon, 4 3/4 miles to the north, in the 18th century a seat of the Parker family of Saltram. WITEWEI is a manor listed in the Domesday Book of 1068 as the 157th of the 176 Devonshire possessions of Baldwin de Moels, Sheriff of Devon, feudal baron of Okehampton, one of the Devon Domesday Book tenants-in-chief of King William the Conqueror, his tenant in 1068 was Ranulf and the manor was stated to include a salt-house, taxed at 12 d. per annum. Whiteway was a possession of the feudal barony of Plympton, of which the barons were the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon heirs of the de Moels's feudal barony of Okehampton; the tenants of Whyteweye listed in the Book of Fees were Martin de la Torre. According to the Devon topographer Rev. John Swete Whiteway was a seat of a branch of the prominent Devonshire gentry family of Yard, of which his mother was a member.
The Yard family had originated at the manor of Yarde in the parish of Malborough and according to Swete, split into three main branches: Bradley, in the parish of Kingsteignton. Other branches were seated at Teignwick, Kingsteignton and at Sharpham, Ashprington. In 1795 during one of his Picturesque Tours around Devon, Swete passed by Whiteway and made a watercolour painting of the larger mansion house, entitled "Whiteway, seat of the Yardes" and dated 10 July 1795; the painting is now in the collection of the Devon Records Office. Swete wrote of the visit as follows in his Travel Journal: "Of this mansion I took the following sketch, induced thereto not so much by its respectability or situation, both of which however have enough to attract notice, as from its having given birth to my mother and been the place of residence of her ancestors for centuries... Whiteway, the abode of farmers occupiers of the estates: such is the vicissitude of things; the buildings here for the period in which they were raised had rather a respectable appearance, situate as it is on a knoll, it had command of the little valley, looked full upon the picturesque wood from whence i was making my observations".
Today the remnant of Whiteway is a grade II listed farmhouse known as Whiteway Barton, situated in the grounds is the "Whiteway Barton Motocross Track", a "hardpack track in a steep valley, 3/4 mile in length, natural with a selection of jumps and tabletops"