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Chaldean Catholic Church

The Chaldean Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic particular church in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been formed out of the Church of the East in 1552. Employing the East Syriac Rite in Syriac language in its liturgy, it is part of Syriac Christianity by heritage. Headquartered in the Cathedral of Mary Mother of Sorrows, Iraq, since 1950, it is headed by the Catholicos-Patriarch Louis Raphaël I Sako, it comprises 628,405 ethnic Assyrians living in northern Iraq, with smaller numbers in adjacent areas in northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran, a region corresponding to ancient Assyria. There are many Assyrians-Chaldeans in diaspora in the Western world; the background of the Chaldean Catholic Church is the Chaldean Patriarchate of the Church of Assyria and Mosul, formed out of the Assyrian Church of the East in 1552 by Patriarch Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa, recognized as "of the Chaldeans" by the Holy See in 1553.

However, his successors in the 17th and 18th centuries provoked a time of turbulence, with splits of varying connections to the Papacy. More than one claimant to the Catholic patriarchal seat left the Catholic Church unable to recognise either. In one patriarchal line, hereditary status of the office was reintroduced and relations with Rome formally broken, with this line forming the Assyrian Church of the East in 1692. Subsequently, the two then-remaining Catholic successors of the original patriarchal line unified in 1830 in Mosul, remaining in uninterrupted full communion with Rome until this day. Despite being known as "Chaldeans", their followers are accepted in an ethnic and historical sense to be indigenous Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian people of Iraq, northwest Iran, northeast Syria and southeast Turkey, with some five millennia of history in the region although a minority of Chaldeans have in recent times began to espouse an identity from the land of Chaldea, extant in southeast Mesopotamia between the 9th and 6th centuries BC, despite there being no accredited academic study or historical record which supports this.

In 2015, while the Patriarchate of the Assyrian Church of the East was vacant following the death of Dinkha IV, the Chaldean Catholic Patriarch Louis Raphaël I Sako proposed a "merger", or reunion, of the Chaldean Catholic Church with the other Churches that trace their origins to the Church of the East - namely, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East - in order to recreate one united "Church of the East" with a single Patriarch in full communion with the Pope. These efforts were halted, when the Assyrian Church of the East decided to elect a new Patriarch; the Chaldean Catholic Church traces its beginnings to the Church of the East, which it considers to have been founded between the 1st and 3rd centuries in Asōristān/Athura, in other words the province of Assyria in the Parthian Empire. In the 5th century BC, the region of Assyria was the birthplace of the Syriac language and Syriac script, the terms'Syriac' and'Syrian' being and etymologically derived from'Assyria' both of which remain important within all strands of Syriac Christianity as a liturgical language, similar to how Latin or Koine Greek may be used in the Latin Church or Greek Orthodoxy, the Old Church Slavonic in the Slavic Orthodoxy.

The Church of the East was considered an Apostolic Church established by Thomas the Apostle, Thaddeus of Edessa, Bartholomew the Apostle. Saint Peter, chief of the Apostles, added his blessing to the Church of the East at the time of his visit to the See at Babylon in the earliest days of the Church when stating, "The elect church, in Babylon, salutes you. Although considered founded in the 1st century by the adherents of its legacy, the Church first achieved official state recognition from Sasanian Iran in the fourth century with the accession of Yazdegerd I to the throne of the Sasanian Empire. In 410 the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, held at the Sasanian capital, allowed the Church's leading bishops to elect a formal Catholicos. Catholicos Isaac was required both to lead the Assyrian Christian community, to answer on its behalf to the Sasanian emperor. Under pressure from the Sasanian Emperor, the Church of the East sought to distance itself from the Greek Orthodox Church. Therefore, in 424, the bishops of the Sasanian Empire met in council under the leadership of Catholicos Dadishoʿ and determined that they would not, refer disciplinary or theological problems to any external power, not to any bishop or Church Council in the Roman Empire.

Thus, the Mesopotamian churches did not send representatives to the various Church Councils attended by representatives of the "Western Church". Accordingly, the leaders of the Church of the East did not feel bound by any decisions of what came to be regarded as Roman Imperial Councils. Despite this, the Creed and Canons of the First Council of Nicaea of 325, affirming the full divinity of Christ, were formally accepted at the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon; the Church's understanding of the term hypostasis differs from the definition of the term offered at the Council of Chalcedon of 451. For this reason, the Assyrian Church has never approved the Chalcedonian definition; the theological controvers

La Academia 6: Última Generación

La Academia Última Generación is the last generation of La Academia as stated by its producer Eva Borja. Auditions were held in many cities across Mexico and the United States in July; the program was broadcast on Televisión Azteca for 16 weeks from August 31 to December 14, 2008. The headmaster of La Academia is the same of the first two generations; the teachers are the same of the first generation, the host is Rafael Araneda from Chile, 20 is the number of contestants who are competing in the last generation of La Academia. The finale was on December 14, 2008, where the six generations sang all together closing the show and the reality forever; the winner was 21-year-old Maria Fernanda Alvo from Guadalajara, Fabiola Rodas from Guatemala was the runner-up, Luis Armando Lozano was 3rd place, Valeria Dessens 4th place and Perla Estrada was 5th. 1Lyanne Rebeca García Parra was expelled before Concert 1. This year, the Final 20 are composed by 11 girls and 9 guys, as of the Final 5, there are left 4 girls and only 1 guy:Maria Fernanda Alvo Díaz, 21, - Jalisco Mexico Jackeline Fabiola Rodas Valladares, 15, - Guatemala City Guatemala Luis Armando Lozano Acosta A.

K. A. Paolo Botti, 24, - Veracruz Mexico Valeria Argentina Dessens Cerdeña, 16, - Sonora Mexico Perla Isabel Estrada Hernández, 17, - Sonora Mexico Rosa Alejandra Garza Guizar, 21, - Nuevo León Mexico Julia Jacqueline González Padilla, 22, - California United States Gerardo Matías Aranda García, 23, - Córdoba Argentina Wilfredo Pineda Gastelum, 16, - Sinaloa Mexico Estebán Velázquez, 18, - Texas United States Cintia Maribel Urtiaga Peña, 17, - Jalisco Mexico Iván Estrada Quintanar, 18, Mexico City, Mexico Fátima Ileana Molina Vargas, 22, - Jalisco Mexico Héctor Silva del Castillo, 25, - Nuevo León Mexico Alba del Carmen Alcudia Oriano, 15, - Tabasco Mexico Gerardo Antonio Castillo Orellana, 22, - Guatemala City Guatemala Monserrat Monroy Cruz, 18, - Veracruz Mexico Dasahev López Saavedra, 19, - Sonora Mexico Alejandra Sandoval Llamas, 15, - Jalisco Mexico José Roberto Carrillo Pérez, 24, - Baja California Mexico Aired on August 31, 2008 The Final 24 performed the next songs: "Vuelvo A Comenzar" - Gerardo, Wilfredo "Un Montón De Estrellas - Alba, Monserrat "Estos Celos" - Esteban, José Roberto "Las De La Intuición" - Fabiola, Cintia, Fátima "Como Un Lobo" - Matias, Alejandra, Flor "El Tiempo De Ti" - Valeria, María Fernanda, Alex "Me Enamora" - Hector, Manuel "Mi Credo" - Dasahev, Luis Armando, Sergio The 25 contestants that made it to the propaedeutic course sang in trios, except of Lyanne, expelled before the concert.

The 5 eliminated were: Lyanne, Flor de María, Erick and Sergio. Aired on September 7, 2008 The 20 contestants will be performing for the first time in duets. For their development in Concert 1. Eliminated: Jose Roberto Aired on September 14, 2008 Guests: Raul Sandoval & Nadia Sentenced: Luis Armando and Alejandra Eliminated: Alejandra Aired on September 21, 2008 Guest: Victor Garcia Sentenced: Monserrat, Dasahev Eliminated: Dasahev Aired on September 28, 2008 The Final 17 performed the next songs: "Me Equivoqué" - Alex "Amargo Adiós" - Wilfredo "No Soy El Aire" - Luis Armando "Si Tú Te Atreves" - Iván "Yo Por él" - Maria Fernanda "Falsas Esperanzas" - Valeria "Tatuajes" - Fátima, Hector "Labios Compartidos" - Jackie, Matias "Daria" - Gerardo, Fabiola "Sin él" - Perla "Por Tu Amor" - Alba, Esteban "Devórame Otra Vez" - Cintia, Monserrat Guest: Carlos Rivera, winner of the 3rd generation performed "Que Nivel de Mujer" and "Te me Vas" Sentended: Monserrat, Cintia Eliminated: Monserrat Aired on October 5, 2008 The Final 16 performed the next songs individually or in duets:Guest: Samuel Castelán Marini Sentenced: Gerardo, Héctor Eliminated: Gerardo Aired on October 12, 2008 The Final 15 performed the next songs: "Besos De Ceniza" - Fátima, Cintia "Por Mujeres Como Tú" - Wilfredo "La Bomba" - Iván "Ya No Quiero" - Alex "Como Quien Pierde Una Estrella" - Esteban "Lloraré las penas" - Hector, Matias "Sueños Rotos" - Valeria "Quién Eres Tú " - Fabiola "Estés En Donde Estés " - Alba, Perla "Mala Hierba " - Maria Fernanda "Hazme Olvidarla " - Luis Armando "Que Ganas De No Verte Nunca Más " - Jackie Guest: Estrella, Aranza Sentenced: Alba and Luis Armando Eliminated: Alba Aired on October 19, 2008 The Final 14 performed the next songs: "Tú" - Maria Fernanda "Entra En Mi Vida" - Esteban "Si Una Vez" - Valeria "Sé Como Duele" - Fabiola "Una Noche De Copas" - Fátima "Bella" - Wilfredo "Tu De Que Vas" - Perla "Me Equivoqué" - Cintia "No Me Doy Por Vencido" - Iván "Gavilán O Paloma" - Luis Armando "A Que No Le Cuentas" (Ednita Naz

Prafulla Kumar Jena

Prafulla Kumar Jena is an Indian metallurgist and a former director of the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Bhubaneshwar. He held the TATA Chair for the Distinguished Professor of Metallurgical Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur; the Government of India honoured him with a Padma Shri in 1977. Born on 27 December 1931 in the Indian state of Odisha, P. K. Jena completed his graduate degree in chemistry with honours and a master's degree in physical chemistry from Utkal University, he stayed back at the university for his doctoral research to secure a PhD and shifted his studies to University of British Columbia from where he completed MS in metallurgical engineering. He started his career as a senior scientist at the metallurgy division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay but moved to Banares Hindu University as a professor of metallurgical engineering. Before holding the Tata Chair of the Distinguished Professor at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur at their department of metallurgical engineering, Jena served as the director of the Regional Research Laboratory of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and as the director general of CSIR.

He has been a senior visiting professor at two overseas universities, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro and Tohoku University, Japan. A former president of the Natural Resources Development Foundation, Jena holds the chair of the Institute of Advanced Technology and Environmental Studies, an organization engaged technical consultancy and training in the fields of mining and mineral processing, management of waste and water resources and material development; the research of P. K. Jena focused on the upgradation of ores and minerals, the recovery of metal values from industrial wastes and is known to have developed methods for recovery of coal fines from slime, iron values from tailings and the beneficiation of low grade iron and manganese ores, he is reported to have developed metallothermic reduction processes for Niobium, Vanadium and Molybdenum. He has contributed in the areas of chloride metallurgy of non ferrous ores and extraction of nickel, copper, zinc and manganese.

His researches have assisted in developing new waste management processes as well as value recovery processes from industrial and mining wastes. His researches are documented in 240 published research papers and he holds 55 patents. Jena's contributions are noted in the establishment of the Institute of Physics and Science Centre and was its founder chairman, he has been the founder president of the Natural Resources Development Foundation, Bhubaneswar and is the founder chairman of the Institute of Advance Technology & Environmental Studies, Bhubaneswar. He has been the founder editor-in-chief of the quarterly journal, Journal of Sustainable Planet of the IATES, started in 2010. Jena is an elected fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences and the Institution of Engineers, India and a fellow of the Indian Institute of Metals, he is a life member and former president of the Indian Science Congress Association, a former member of the Planning Board of Orissa and a former President of Orissa Bigyan Academy.

Jena received the National Metallurgist Award in 1969 from the Indian Institute of Metals and the civilian honour of Padma Shri from the Government of India in 1977. He is a recipient of the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries Award, Institution of Engineers Award, Odisha Bigyan Academy Senior Scientist Award, BHU Distinguished Services Award, Times of India Think Odisha Leadership Award, Rajiv Gandhi Professional Award and Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur Distinguished Scientist Award, he has received lifetime achievement awards from Ravenshaw Chemistry Alumni Association, Ravenshaw University and Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology