Akanthos was an ancient Greek city on the Athos peninsula. It was located near the town of Ierissos on the north-east side of Akti. The name of the ancient city is due to the nature of the area or to the thorny nature of the towns foundation. It was founded by 7th century BC by colonists from Andros, plutarch, on the other hand, referred to it as a mixed colony of Andrians and local Chalcidians, which was founded on the Coast of Drakontos, in place of a preexisting civilization. He writes that settlers from Andros and Chalcis arrived on the shore at the same time, the natives of Acanthus, seeing the crowd of settlers, became frightened and left the city. The settlers sent an explorer each to see what had happened and, as they approached the city and realized it was empty, ran to be the first to take over the land for their fellow countrymen. The Chalcidian was the fastest but the Andrian, seeing he was losing and threw his spear on the walls gate, a court case followed, which was won by the Andrians, because as they protested, they had just about taken over the city first.
Its economic resources emanated from the mining and wood from the nearby forests and they declared one of his relatives who died in the area, named Artahei, a hero, and willingly took part in the expedition against Greece. After the Persian wars Acanthus became a member of the Athenian Alliance, in the initial phase of the establishment of the Chalcidice League, it was mainly smaller towns and cities in Macedonia that were enrolled. Only when it was established was an offer made to Acanthus. When this was refuse an offer was made but with the threat that force would be used should Acanthus refuse to join the federation. The townsfolk refused to join it, in due to the old quarrel with the Chalcidians. Under threat from the Chalcidians, Acanthus called in Spartas help, which came in 382 BC when the Spartans and Acanthians captured and destroyed Olynthos and the alliance, at least temporarily. Acanthuss staying-out of the alliance meant that in 350 BC, when it was conquered by Philip II of Macedon, it was incorporated to the region of Ouranoupolis, a new city that was founded by Alexarchos, in the isthmus, between the Strymoinan and the Singitic gulfs.
According to Livy, Acanthus was attacked by a Roman-Pergamene fleet in 199 BC during the Second Macedonian War, the Romans exploited all the natural sources of wealth and its harbor, and the town continued through the Roman and Byzantine period. The ancient city extended along a hillside, about 0.6 km south-east of modern Ierissos. Remains of walls, a citadel, and Hellenistic buildings survive, along with a deserted Byzantine church. The city itself has not been excavated, but the necropolis has, starting in 1973, particularly extensive is the sight of the cemetery along the seaside of Ierissos
Nikiti is a village located 100 kilometers south-east from Thessaloniki on the Chalkidiki peninsula in Macedonia, Greece. It is the seat of the unit of Sithonia. The old part of Nikiti is located on the area a few hundred meters from the sea. In the 1950s the village started to expand downwards to the coast significantly, in the 1970s the coastal plain was included into plans for villages development and many new buildings were built there. The most important economic sector in Nikiti is tourism, other important economic activities in Nikiti are beekeeping and olive growing. Chalkidiki is popular summer tourist destination since the late 1950s when people from Thessaloniki started spending their holidays at the coastal villages like Nikiti. At the beginning tourists rented rooms in the houses of the villagers, by the 1970s tourists from Austria and Germany started to visit Chalkidiki more frequently. In the 1980s the big tourist boom started, history of Nikiti Media related to Nikiti at Wikimedia Commons
The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i. e. between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles, the Aegean Islands are within the sea and some bound it on its southern periphery, including Crete and Rhodes. The sea was known as Archipelago, but in English this words meaning has changed to refer to the Aegean Islands and, generally. In ancient times, there were various explanations for the name Aegean, a possible etymology is a derivation from the Greek word αἶγες – aiges = waves, hence wavy sea, cf. αἰγιαλός, hence meaning sea-shore. The Venetians, who ruled many Greek islands in the High and Late Middle Ages, popularized the name Archipelago, in some South Slavic languages the Aegean is often called White Sea. The Aegean Sea covers about 214,000 square kilometres in area, the seas maximum depth is 3,543 metres, east of Crete. The Aegean Islands are found within its waters, with the following islands delimiting the sea on the south, Antikythera, Kasos, many of the Aegean Islands, or chains of islands, are actually extensions of the mountains on the mainland.
One chain extends across the sea to Chios, another extends across Euboea to Samos, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Aegean Sea as follows, On the South. In the Dardanelles. A line joining Kum Kale and Cape Helles, the dense Mediterranean water sinks below the Black Sea inflow to a depth of 23–30 metres, flows through the Dardanelles Strait and into the Sea of Marmara at velocities of 5–15 cm/s. The Black Sea outflow moves westward along the northern Aegean Sea, Aegean Sea Intermediate Water – Aegean Sea Intermediate Water extends from 40–50 m to 200–300 metres with temperatures ranging from 11–18 °C. Aegean Sea Bottom Water – occurring at depths below 500–1000 m with a uniform temperature. The current coastline dates back to about 4000 BC, before that time, at the peak of the last ice age sea levels everywhere were 130 metres lower, and there were large well-watered coastal plains instead of much of the northern Aegean. When they were first occupied, the islands including Milos with its important obsidian production were probably still connected to the mainland.
The present coastal arrangement appeared c.7000 BC, with post-ice age sea levels continuing to rise for another 3,000 years after that, the subsequent Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean Sea have given rise to the general term Aegean civilization. In ancient times, the sea was the birthplace of two ancient civilizations – the Minoans of Crete and the Mycenean Civilization of the Peloponnese, arose the city-states of Athens and Sparta among many others that constituted the Athenian Empire and Hellenic Civilization. Plato described the Greeks living round the Aegean like frogs around a pond, the Aegean Sea was invaded by the Persians and the Romans, and inhabited by the Byzantine Empire, the Bulgarians, the Venetians, the Genoese, the Seljuq Turks, and the Ottoman Empire. The Aegean was the site of the democracies, and its seaways were the means of contact among several diverse civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean. Many of the islands in the Aegean have safe harbours and bays, in ancient times, navigation through the sea was easier than travelling across the rough terrain of the Greek mainland
Euboea or Evia is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece, in general outline it is a long and narrow, seahorse-shaped island, it is about 180 kilometres long, and varies in breadth from 50 kilometres to 6 kilometres. It forms most of the unit of Euboea, which includes Skyros. Its ancient and current name, Εὔβοια, derives from the words εὖ good, the phrase στὸν Εὔριπον to Evripos, rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον to Nevripos, became Negroponte in Italian by folk etymology, the ponte bridge being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis. That name entered common use in the West in the 13th century, with variants being Egripons, Negripo. Under Ottoman rule, the island and its capital were known as Eğriboz or Ağriboz, Euboea was believed to have originally formed part of the mainland, and to have been separated from it by an earthquake. This is fairly probable, because it lies in the neighbourhood of a fault line, in the neighbourhood of Chalcis, both to the north and the south, the bays are so confined as to make plausible the story of Agamemnons fleet having been detained there by contrary winds.
At Chalcis itself, where the strait is narrowest at only 40 m, the extraordinary changes of tide that take place in this passage have been a subject of note since classical times. At one moment the current runs like a river in one direction, a bridge was first constructed here in the twenty-first year of the Peloponnesian War. Geography and nature divide the island itself into three parts, the fertile and forested north, the mountainous centre, with agriculture limited to the coastal valleys. The main mountains include Dirfi, Pyxaria in the northeast and Ochi, the neighboring gulfs are the Pagasetic Gulf in the north, Malian Gulf, North Euboean Gulf in the west, the Euboic Sea and the Petalion Gulf. At the 2001 census the island had a population of 198,130, the history of the island of Euboea is largely that of its two principal cities and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by Ionian Greeks from Attica, and would eventually settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium and this opened new trade routes to the Greeks, and extended the reach of western civilization.
The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, 775-750 BC, and that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island. Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, and appear to have been equally powerful for a while, one of the earliest major military conflicts in Greek history took place between them, known as the Lelantine War, in which many other Greek city-states took part. Following the infamous battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Persian forces captured and sacked Athens, and took Euboea, Boeotia, in 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia. Though it was restored nearby its original site after the Battle of Marathon, both cities gradually lost influence to Athens, which saw Euboea as a strategic territory. Euboea was an important source of grain and cattle, and controlling the island meant Athens could prevent invasion, Athens invaded Chalcis in 506 BC and settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands
For the butterfly genus, see Olynthus.5 kilometers from the sea, and about 60 stadia from Poteidaea. Artefacts found during the excavations of the site are exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Olynthos, son of Heracles, or the river god Strymon, was considered the mythological founder of the town. The South Hill bore a small Neolithic settlement, was abandoned during the Bronze Age, the town was captured by the Bottiaeans, a Thracian tribe ejected from Macedon by Alexander I. Following the Persian defeat at Salamis and with Xerxes having been escorted to the Hellespont by his general Artabazus, the Persian authority in the Balkans must have significantly decreased at the time, which encouraged the inhabitants of the Pallene peninsula to break away. Suspecting that a revolt against the Great King was meditated, in order to control the situation, Artabazus captured Olynthus, which was thought to be disloyal, and killed its inhabitants. The town had priorly been given to Kritovoulos from Toroni and to a population consisting of Greeks from the neighboring region of Chalcidice.
Though Herodotus reports that Artabazus slaughtered them, Boetiaeans continued to live in the area, Olynthus became a Greek polis, but it remained insignificant. In 432 King Perdiccas II of Macedon encouraged several nearby towns to disband and remove their population to Olynthus. This synoecism was effected, though against Perdiccass wishes the contributing cities were preserved and this increase in population led to the settlement of the North Hill, which was developed on a Hippodamian grid plan. In 423 Olynthus became the head of a formal Chalkidian League, during the Peloponnesian war it formed a base for Brasidas in his expedition of 424 and refuge for the citizens of Mende and Poteidaea that had rebelled against the Athenians. After the end of the Peloponnesian War the development of the league was rapid, in this year Sparta was induced by an embassy from Acanthus and Apollonia, which anticipated conquest by the league, to send an expedition against Olynthus. After three years of indecisive warfare Olynthus consented to dissolve the confederacy and it is clear, that the dissolution was little more than formal, as the Chalcidians appear, only a year or two later, among the members of the Athenian naval confederacy of 378-377.
Twenty years later, in the reign of Philip, the power of Olynthus is asserted by Demosthenes to have much greater than before the Spartan expedition. The town itself at this period is spoken of as a city of the first rank, when the Social War broke out between Athens and its allies, Olynthus was at first in alliance with Philip. Subsequently, in alarm at the growth of his power, it concluded an alliance with Athens, Olynthus made three embassies to Athens, the occasions of Demostheness three Olynthiac Orations. On the third, the Athenians sent soldiers from among its citizens, after Philip had deprived Olynthus of the rest of the League, by force and by the treachery of sympathetic factions, he besieged Olynthus in 348. The siege was short, he bought Olynthuss two principal citizens and Lasthenes, who betrayed the city to him and he looted and razed the city and sold its population—including the Athenian garrison—into slavery. According to the latest researches only an area of the North Hill was ever re-occupied, up to 318
Neos Marmaras is a village on the Sithonia peninsula, in the Chalkidiki peninsula, Greece. In 2011, Neos Marmaras had 3,352 permanent residents, the main industries are tourism and fishing. Situated on three hills, below the two mountains and Tragoudeli, Neos Marmaras is located 125 kilometres from Thessaloniki, and 55 kilometres from Poligyro. Most of the residents are originally from Marmara Island, in the Sea of Marmara, and from Parthenona, Neos Marmaras was formed by refugees from Marmara Island in 1925. Porto Carras is a big 5 star resort outside Neos Marmaras and it is one of the biggest in northern Greece. There is a wine from Porto Carras called Domaine Porto Carras. Neos Marmaras has numerous settlements and islands including, Paradeisos, a settlement close to Neos Marmaras. It has approximately 40 people and lies just downhill of Marmaras in a low-lying area, agia Kyriaki, a very small marina and fishing settlement in a small bay outside Marmaras with some 20 people living there in the summertime.
Imeri Elia is a settlement close to Porto Carras. Some older mills are found in the river, Potamos Neou Marmara near Imeri Elia, the area has some 20 people living there in summer. Azapiko Beach, a beach outside Marmaras, with only 5 people living there in summertime. Kelyfos Island, meaning Shield Island in Greek, is a located just outside the bay of Neos Marmaras. Also called Turtle Island, the island is said to look like a turtle, the island was a strategic hiding point during the ancient days of Greece and in some cases during the second world war. This island is located near Azapiko beach and it is the biggest island on the west side of Sithonia peninsula. The climate is hot in the summer and mild in the winter and it rains a lot in the village, specially winter time but the village has seen snow several times. The areas surrounding Neos Marmaras, specially the village of Parthenonas has seen snow almost every winter. Official website Find information for Neos Marmaras and every city of Halkidiki http, //www. portocarras. com/domain-porto-carras. html http
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, a monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. These may include a hospice, a school and a range of agricultural and manufacturing such as a barn. In English usage, the monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics, historically, a convent denoted a house of friars, now more commonly called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in specific ways. The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, in England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community.
Most cathedrals were not monasteries, and were served by canons secular, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a time a cathedral, and was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St Georges Chapel, in most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a more specific definition of the term. Buddhist monasteries are generally called vihara, viharas may be occupied by males or females, and in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may often be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple, in Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are often called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat, in Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be an abbey, or a priory and it may be a community of men or of women.
A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order, in Eastern Christianity, a very small monastic community can be called a skete, and a very large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra. The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the life of an anchorite. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most commonly an ashram, jains use the Buddhist term vihara
Mount Athos is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism. It is governed as an autonomous polity within the Greek Republic under the official name Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain, Mount Athos is home to 20 monasteries under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Mount Athos is commonly referred to in Greek as the Holy Mountain, other languages of orthodox tradition use names translating to Holy Mountain. In the classical era, while the mountain was called Athos, the free movement of people and goods in its territory is prohibited, unless formal permission is granted by the Monastic States authorities, and only males are allowed to enter.6 square kilometres. The actual Mount Athos has steep, densely forested slopes reaching up to 2,033 metres, the surrounding seas, especially at the end of the peninsula, can be dangerous. In ancient Greek history two fleet disasters in the area are recorded, In 492 BC Darius, the king of Persia, in 411 BC the Spartans lost a fleet of 50 ships under admiral Epicleas.
Though land-linked, Mount Athos is practically only by ferry. The Agios Panteleimon and Axion Estin travel daily between Ouranoupolis and Dafni, with stops at some monasteries on the western coast, there is a smaller speed boat, the Agia Anna, which travels the same route, but with no intermediate stops. It is possible to travel by ferry to and from Ierissos for direct access to monasteries along the eastern coast, the number of daily visitors to Mount Athos is restricted, and all are required to obtain a special entrance permit valid for a limited period. Only males are permitted to visit the territory, which is called the Garden of Virgin Mary by the monks, residents on the peninsula must be males aged 18 and over who are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church and either monks or workers. Athos in Greek mythology is the name of one of the Gigantes that challenged the Greek gods during the Gigantomachia, Athos threw a massive rock against Poseidon which fell in the Aegean sea and became Mount Athos.
According to another version of the story, Poseidon used the mountain to bury the defeated giant, homer mentions the mountain Athos in the Iliad. Herodotus mentions the peninsula, called Acte, telling us that Pelasgians from the island of Lemnos populated it and naming five cities thereon, Cleonae, Olophyxos, Strabo mentions the cities of Dion and Acrothoï. Eretria established colonies on Acte, at least one other city was established in the Classical period, Acanthus. Some of these cities minted their own coins, the peninsula was on the invasion route of Xerxes I, who spent three years excavating a channel across the isthmus to allow the passage of his invasion fleet in 483 BC. After the death of Alexander the Great, the architect Dinocrates proposed carvingg the entire mountain into a statue of Alexander, the history of the peninsula during latter ages is shrouded by the lack of historical accounts. Archaeologists have not been able to determine the location of the cities reported by Strabo.
It is believed that they must have been deserted when Athos new inhabitants, according to the Athonite tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was sailing accompanied by St John the Evangelist from Joppa to Cyprus to visit Lazarus