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Challenger Deep

The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the Earth's seabed hydrosphere, with a depth of 10,902 to 10,929 m by direct measurement from deep-diving submersibles, remotely operated vehicles and benthic landers and more by sonar bathymetry. The Challenger Deep is located in the Western Pacific Ocean, at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands group. According to the August 2011 version of the GEBCO Gazetteer of Undersea Feature Names, the Challenger Deep is 10,920 m ±10 m deep at 11°22.4′N 142°35.5′E. This location is in the ocean territory of the Federated States of Micronesia; the depression is named after the British Royal Navy survey ship HMS Challenger, whose expedition of 1872–1876 made the first recordings of its depth. The high water pressure at this depth makes operating exploratory craft difficult; the first descent by any vehicle was by the manned bathyscaphe Trieste in January 1960. In March 2012 a manned solo descent was made by film director James Cameron in the deep-submergence vehicle Deepsea Challenger.

Between 28 April and 4 May 2019, the DSV Limiting Factor completed four manned dives to the bottom of Challenger Deep. The Challenger Deep is a small slot-shaped depression in the bottom of a larger crescent-shaped oceanic trench, which itself is an unusually deep feature in the ocean floor; the Challenger Deep consists of three 6 to 10 km long about 2 km wide basins, each over 10,850 m in depth, oriented in echelon from west to east, separated by mounds between the basins 200 to 300 m higher. The three basins feature extends about 48 km west to east. Both the western and eastern basins have recorded depths in excess of 10,920 m, while the center basin is shallower; the closest land to the Challenger Deep is Fais Island, 287 km southwest, Guam, 304 km to the northeast. Over many years, the search for, investigation of, the location of the maximum depth of the world's oceans has involved many different vessels, continues into the twenty-first century; the accuracy of determining geographical location, the beamwidth of echosounder systems, limits the horizontal and vertical bathymetric sensor resolution hydrographers can obtain from onsite data.

This is important when sounding in deep water, as the resulting footprint of an acoustic pulse gets large once it reaches a distant sea floor. Further, sonar operation is affected by variations in sound speed in the vertical plane; the speed is determined by the water's bulk modulus and density. The bulk modulus is affected by temperature and dissolved impurities. 1875 – HMS Challenger –– In 1875, during her transit from the Admiralty Islands to Yokohama, the three-masted sailing corvette HMS Challenger attempted to make landfall at Guam, but was set to the west by “baffling winds” preventing them from “visiting either the Carolines or the Ladrones.” These winds pushed her track to the west, across the 35-mile-long depression which, 85-years would achieve prominence as the Challenger Deep. More amazing, one of her thirteen sampling stations on that 2,300 nm track to Japan was within fifteen miles of the deepest depression in the world’s oceans. On 23 March 1875, at sample station number #225, HMS Challenger recorded the bottom at 4,475 fathoms deep, at 11°24′N 143°16′E—and confirmed it with a second sounding at the same location.

Depth soundings were by Baillie-weighted marked rope, geographical locations were determined by celestial navigation. The serendipitous discovery of Earth’s deepest depression by history’s first major scientific expedition devoted to the emerging science of oceanography, was good fortune, notable when compared to the Earth’s third deepest site, which would remain undiscovered for another 122 years. 1951 – SV HMS Challenger II –– Seventy-five years the 1,140-ton British survey vessel HMS Challenger II, on her three-year westward circumnavigation of Earth, investigated the extreme depths southwest of Guam reported in 1875 by her predecessor, HMS Challenger. On her southbound track from Japan to New Zealand, Challenger II conducted a survey of “the Marianas Trench between Guam and Ulithi,” using seismic-sized bomb-soundings and recorded a maximum depth of 5,663 fathoms; the depth was beyond Challenger II's echo sounder capability to verify, so they resorted to using a taut wire with “140-lbs of scrap iron”, documented a depth of 5,899 fathoms.

In New Zealand, the Challenger II team gained the assistance of the Royal New Zealand Dockyard, “who managed to boost the echo sounder to record at the greatest depths.” They returned to the “Marianas Deep” in October, 1951. Using their newly improved echo sounder, they ran survey lines at right angles to the axis of the trench and discovered “a considerable area of a depth greater than 5,900 fathoms ” -- identified as the Challenger Deep’s western basin; the greatest depth recorded was 5,940 fathoms, at 11°19′N 142°15′E. Navigational accuracy of several hundred meters was attained by celestial navigation and LORAN-A. Note that the term “Challenger Deep” came into use after this 1951-52 Chal

Ill Blood

Ill Blood is the second studio album by Canadian hardcore band No Warning. It was released on November 2002 on Bridge 9 Records, it is the band's last album on the indie hardcore label Bridge 9. This album was produced by Dean Baltulonis. "Behind These Walls" - 2:36 "No Time For You" - 2:48 "Answer The Call" - 1:20 "Short Fuse" - 3:08 "Wound Up" - 1:36 "Growing Silent - 2:01 "Caught In The Web" - 2:28 "All New Low" - 2:25 "Over My Shoulder" - 0:56 "Leech" - 2:12 "Pushing On" - 1:47 "Ill Blood" - 3:04 Ben Cook - vocals Matt Delong - guitar Jordan Posner - guitar Ryan Gavel - bass Dj Jacobs - drums Mark Porter - vocals Matt Henderson - guitar Dean Baltalonis - guitar

Calabrian Greek

The Calabrian dialect of Greek, or Grecanico is the variety of Italiot Greek used by the ethnic Griko people in Calabria, as opposed to the Italiot Greek dialect spoken in the Grecìa Salentina. Both are remnants of the Byzantine Greek colonization of the region. Calabrian Greek is mentioned in the Red Book of UNESCO on endangered languages, together with Griko. In addition, Euromosaic analyses and recognizes it as being an endangered and minority language in the European Union, it is mentioned by Ethnologue as a dialect of Modern Greek in the sense of a modern vernacular language of the Hellenic family. The use of Calabrian Greek can trace its roots to the ancient colonies of Magna Grecia, earlier. Calabria was once a territory of the Byzantine empire from 536 AD until it was conquered by the Normans in 1071 AD. During Byzantine rule the territory was referred to as Catepanate of Italy. Calabrian Greek was spoken throughout the whole of south Calabria until the 15th to 16th century, when it was replaced by a Romance dialect, but there are influences of Calabrian Greek on the grammar and in a large part of the latter's vocabulary.

During the Angevin Age the Greek dialect was spoken in a large area between Seminara, the Mésima's valley and the plateau of Poro. A brief historical analysis illustrates quite the progressive disappearance of the Greek dialect in different Calabrian areas from the 16th century onwards. Around the mid-16th century, it had disappeared from the fields of Petrace from the high valley of Diverso and Tasi. During the 17th century the regression spread to some valleys in the western side of Aspromonte near the Straits of Messina, such as the Catona and Gallico Valleys. During the 19th century, it was lost in some villages like Pentedattilo, Brancaleone, Motta San Giovanni and San Lorenzo, on the Ionic side of Aspromonte. During the fascist period in Italy, linguistic minorities were discouraged from using their mother tongues, which affected the use of Calabrian Greek. Today, Calabrian Greek is spoken in nine towns of Bovesìa including Bova Superiore, Gallicianò, Chorìo di Roghudi, Bova Marina, the city of Reggio di Calabria in its neighborhoods of San Giorgio Extra and Rione Modena.

Several hundred Griko people continue to speak the Calabrian-Greek dialect in the Arangea and Sbarre neighbourhoods of Reggio Calabria and another small number has been reported in Melito di Porto Salvo from migration from Roghudi and from Chorìo after the severe floods that occurred there in 1971. About 2,000 Griko people now speak and understand the language, but only about 50 of them are under the age of thirty-five, despite the efforts of cultural associations and administrative agencies to reinvigorate the language. In Bova, many people now learn Modern Greek rather than Calabrian Greek. Calabrian Greek has much in common with Modern Standard Greek. With respect to its origins, some philologists assert that it is derived from Koine Greek by Medieval Greek, but others assert that it comes directly from Ancient Greek and from the Doric Greek spoken in Magna Graecia, with an independent evolution uninfluenced by Koine Greek; the evidence is based on archaisms in this language, including the presence of words from Doric Greek but no longer used in Greece.

There are quite a few distinctive characteristics in comparison with Standard Modern Greek. For example, in many cases, the final "-s" in most words has been lost. Moreover, a future tense does not exist in this dialect. Speakers write the language using the Latin alphabet, not the Greek alphabet; the literature is scarce and consists of books of poetry, local history or calendars in three languages. In the absence of a linguistic authority, in the late 1970s, the association Jalò tu Vúa initiated a research group to set up methodological standards to teach Calabrian Greek and draft a grammar for the schools; the commune of Bova published it as pamphlet in 1979 with the title La Glossa di Bova. Calabrians were well represented in the Renaissance. Indeed, the Greek scholars of that period came from Calabria, maybe because of the influence of spoken Greek; the rediscovery of Ancient Greek in Western Christianity was difficult because this language had been forgotten. The presence of Calabrian humanists as well as refugees from Constantinople was fundamental.

The study of Ancient Greek was a work of two monks of the monastery of Seminara: Barlaam, bishop of Gerace, his disciple, Leonzio Pilato. Leonzio Pilato, in particular, was an ethnic Greek Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria, he was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer's works. Calabrian Greek has never had a broad tradition in music, but there are a number of local folk groups that sing in this dialect. An annual festival called "Palea riza" of world and Calabrian Greek music is held in Bova and other picturesque towns of the area. Inspired by the efforts of Rohlfs, a group of university students looked to further increase the exposure of this dialect by publishing a pamphlet entitled La Ionica; this was the first organised activity aimed at protecting the language. In 1970, the group established a cultural association named La Ionica and the pamphlet became a magazine, which