Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
The Karolinska Institute is a research-led medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area of Sweden. It covers areas such as biochemistry, pharmacology, anatomy and medical microbiology, among others, it is recognised as Sweden's best university and one of the largest, most prestigious medical universities in the world. It is the highest ranked in all Scandinavia; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Medicine. The assembly consists of fifty professors from various medical disciplines at the university; the current rector of Karolinska Institute is Ole Petter Ottersen, who took office in August 2017. The Karolinska Institute was founded in 1810 on the island of Kungsholmen on the west side of Stockholm. A second campus was established more in Flemingsberg, south of Stockholm; the Karolinska Institute is ranked among the top medical universities internationally in a number of ranking tables. The Karolinska Institute is Sweden's third oldest medical school, after Uppsala University and Lund University.
It is one of Sweden's largest centres for training and research, accounting for 30% of the medical training and more than 40% of all academic medical and life science research conducted in Sweden. The Karolinska University Hospital, located in Solna and Huddinge, is associated with the university as a research and teaching hospital. Together they form an academic health science centre. While most of the medical programs are taught in Swedish, the bulk of the Ph. D. projects are conducted in English. The institute's name is a reference to the Caroleans; the Karolinska Institute was founded by King Karl XIII on 13 December 1810 as an "academy for the training of skilled army surgeons" after one in three soldiers wounded in the Finnish War against Russia died in field hospitals. Indeed, a report of the time came to the conclusion that "the medical skills of the army barber-surgeons are manifestly inadequate, so Sweden needs to train surgeons in order to better prepare the country for future wars."
Just one year in 1811, the Karolinska Institute was granted license to train not only surgeons but medical practitioners in general. As one of KI's first professors, Jöns Jacob Berzelius laid the foundations of the newly inaugurated institute's scientific orientation, which in 1816 is granted the name Carolinska Institutet; this name, didn't make an impact at the time and so was expanded to Carolinska Medico Chirurgiska institutet, which proved more popular when preceded by the epithet Kongliga, as introduced in 1822. This original institute was situated in the Royal Bakery on Riddarholmen and within a just a couple of years had grown to encompass four professorships in anatomy, natural history and pharmacy, theoretical medicine and practical medicine. At around the same time Anders Johan Hagströmer, a professor of anatomy and surgery from the Collegium Medicum, was appointed the institute's first inspector, a post equivalent to today's president. In the same year, the institute moved to the old Glasbruk quarter on Norr Mälarstrand, beside what is now the City Hall.
The move across the waters of Riddarfjärden was accomplished with the help of barges, one of, said to have capsized, consigning parts of Hagströmer's collection of preparations to the lake bed. Despite this his library survives intact and today forms part of the KI-Swedish Society of Medicine museum at the institute's Hagströmer Library. In 1861 the institute reached a significant milestone in being awarded the right to confer its own degrees. This, in turn, led to an increase in the size of the student body, necessitating the demolition of the old building on the Glasbruk plot and its replacement with a new, larger one; this new institute building was built in stages during the 1880s and into the first decade of the 20th century. Although it had gained the right to confer general degrees, KI wasn't licensed to confer medical degrees until 1874. Though the institute could run courses in medicine, the right to confer medical degrees was exclusively that of Uppsala University. Following on from this change in the institute's status the first doctoral thesis was defended at KI by Alfred Levertin, on the subject of "Om Torpa Källa".
Just shortly thereafter the Medical Students' Union was formed. The next decade was one of firsts. By 1880 the Karolinska Institute had started to accept women and so it was in 1884 that Karolina Widerström became the first woman to obtain a bachelor's degree in medicine from the institute. Anna Stecksén became the first woman to obtain a doctorate from the university. Just five years following the death of Alfred Nobel in 1895, the Karolinska Institute received the right to select the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Since this assignment has given the Karolinska Institute a broad contact network in the field of medical science. Indeed, over the years, five of the institute's own researchers have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. By 1930 the Swedish parliament had decided that a new teaching hospital was needed and
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
Institute of technology
An institute of technology is a type of college or university which specializes in engineering, applied science and sometimes natural sciences. The institutes of technology and polytechnics have been in existence since at least the 18th century, but became popular after World War II with the expansion of engineering and applied science education, associated with the new needs created by industrialization; the world's first institution of technology, the Berg-Schola, was founded by the Court Chamber of Vienna in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary, in 1735 in order to train specialists of precious metal and copper mining according to the requirements of the industrial revolution in Hungary. The oldest German Institute of Technology is the Braunschweig University of Technology, founded in 1745 as "Collegium Carolinum". Another exception is the École Polytechnique, which has educated French élites since its foundation in 1794. In some cases, polytechnics or institutes of technology are engineering schools or technical colleges.
In several countries, like Germany, the Netherlands and Turkey, institutes of technology are institutions of higher education and have been accredited to award academic degrees and doctorates. Famous examples are the Istanbul Technical University, ETH Zurich, İYTE, Delft University of Technology and RWTH Aachen, all considered universities. In countries like Iran, Malaysia, Singapore or the United Kingdom, there is a significant and confused distinction between polytechnics and universities. In the UK a binary system of higher education emerged consisting of polytechnics. Polytechnics offered university equivalent degrees in STEM subjects from bachelor's, master's and PhD that were validated and governed at the national level by the independent UK Council for National Academic Awards. In 1992 UK polytechnics were designated as universities which meant they could award their own degrees; the CNAA was disbanded. The UK's first polytechnic, the Royal Polytechnic Institution, was founded in 1838 in Regent Street, London.
In Ireland the term "institute of technology" is the more favored synonym of a "regional technical college" though the latter is the correct term. In a number of countries, although being today considered similar institutions of higher learning across many countries and institutes of technology used to have a quite different statute among each other, its teaching competences and organizational history. In many cases "polytechnic" were elite technological universities concentrating on applied science and engineering and may be a former designation for a vocational institution, before it has been granted the exclusive right to award academic degrees and can be called an "institute of technology". A number of polytechnics providing higher education is a result of a formal upgrading from their original and historical role as intermediate technical education schools. In some situations, former polytechnics or other non-university institutions have emerged through an administrative change of statutes, which included a name change with the introduction of new designations like "institute of technology", "polytechnic university", "university of applied sciences" or "university of technology" for marketing purposes.
Such emergence of so many upgraded polytechnics, former vocational education and technical schools converted into more university-like institutions has caused concern where the lack of specialized intermediate technical professionals lead to industrial skill shortages in some fields, being associated to an increase of the graduate unemployment rate. This is the case in those countries, where the education system is not controlled by the state and any institution can grant degrees. Evidence have shown a decline in the general quality of teaching and graduate's preparation for the workplace, due to the fast-paced conversion of that technical institutions to more advanced higher level institutions. Mentz and Van der Merwe argue that all the tools are in place to promote the debate on the place of technology in higher education in general and in universities of technology and they posit several questions for the debate. In the so-called Latin American docta the main higher institution advocates to the study of technology is the National Technological University which has brand ramifications through all the country geographic space in the way of Regional Faculties.
The Buenos Aires Institute of Technology is other important recognized institute of technology with renowned and prestige in the country. 1970s–1990sDuring the 1970s to early 1990s, the term was used to describe state owned and funded technical schools that offered both vocational and higher education. They were part of the College of Advanced Education system. In the 1990s most of these formed new ones of their own; these new universities took the title University of Technology, for marketing rather than legal purposes. AVCC report The most
Linnaeus University is a state university in the Småland region of Sweden. It has one in Växjö and one in Kalmar. Linnaeus University was established in 2010 by a merger of former Växjö University and Kalmar University, has been named in honour of the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus. Växjö University began as a local department of Lund University in 1967; the department became an independent university college in 1970, was granted full university status in 1999. Kalmar University was a university college, founded in 1977. Though not a university by the Swedish definition, it had been entitled to issue doctoral degrees in the natural sciences since 1999; the university's logo is a stylized tree. The origin is a drawing made by the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus taken from his 1725 publication Örtabok. While the tree is said to be a symbol for the month of May and to represent the power of growth, it symbolize the university's ambition to be a global university with the region as its base and the world as its arena.
Faculty of arts and humanities. Faculty of health and life sciences. Faculty of social sciences. Faculty of technology. School of business and economics. Board of teacher education. Department of Accounting and Logistics Department of Biology and Environmental Science Department of Building Technology Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences Department of Computer Science and Media Technology Department of Design Department of Economics and Statistics Department of Education and Teachers' Practice Department of Film and Literature Department of Forestry and Wood Technology Department of Health and Caring Sciences Department of Informatics Department of Languages Department of Marketing Department of Mathematics Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Media and Journalism Department of Medicine and Optometry Department of Music and Art Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship Department of Pedagogy and Learning Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering Department of Political Science Department of Psychology Department of Social Studies Department of Social Work Department of Sport Science Department of Swedish Kalmar Maritime Academy Institute for Further Education of Journalists Institute of Police Education Centre for Gender Studies Centre for School Development and Educational Leadership Communications Office Executive Office Finance Office IT Office Office of External Relations Office of Facilities Management and Services Office of Human Resources Office of Student Affairs University Library There are two campuses, one in Växjö and one in Kalmar.
Kalmar is a medium-sized town, with ideal settings for student life. The town is attractive and conveniently laid out, with a colorful history and a castle dating back to medieval times, close proximity to the sea, undulating farmlands and deep forests; the Department of Biology and Environmental Science in Kalmar has special competence in the area of life and the environment and is recognized for excellence in teaching and research across a range of natural sciences and related disciplines. The School offers Master’s programmes which equip the graduate for work in industry or future studies towards a PhD. Växjö, is a central community in south of Sweden, with a full range of cultural and musical life in its many museums, theaters and concert halls; the House of Emigrants commemorates the great emigration epoch from 1850 to 1930, when 1.3 million Swedes emigrated to America. The region is known for its high tech industry and paper manufacturing, home of the furniture manufacturer, IKEA; the surrounding pristine lakes and forests are an attraction for those who love wildlife and the outdoors.
Växjö has been one of the leading tennis cities in the world as Mats Wilander, Stefan Edberg, Magnus Larsson and Jonas Bjorkman have all trained and played here. Växjö is accessible from Copenhagen and Stockholm by plane and train; the campus is located just outside Växjö city center. It was modelled after the American Campus style, meaning that all teaching premises are within walking distance; the campus was built with the environment in mind. There are 3,700 student apartments and dorm rooms on the university campus housing 4,600-5,200 students. A part of the university campus is dedicated to the Videum Science Park; the park gives space to over 100 companies, thus being in close proximity with the university and encouraging innovation and research. Teaching premises and accommodation stand side by side on the campus. There are restaurants, cafés, bars, a sports centre and a variety of service facilities; the campus offers a relaxed environment despite the high level of activity. It is bordered by meadows, a nature conservation area, a lake with bird-watching towers and a castle.
New buildings have been erected with due concern for the environment, leaving room for old trees and moss-covered boulders among the new architecture on campus. Cars have only limited access to the site, but cycle paths lead directly to the town centre and out into the beautiful countryside all around. VIS stands for Växjö International Students, it is a non-profit organisation, a local section of ESN Sweden. The board and its community consist of students that use their own spare time to create activities for all exchange students, to give them a positive experience of Växjö; the Department of Biology and Environmental Science is part of the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences. Scientists working at the department are involved in research and teaching activities in Biology, Biomedical Science, Chemistry, Food Science and Environmental Science. Most of th